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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Óldr 15I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Óláfs drápa Tryggvasonar 15’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1047.

Anonymous PoemsÓláfs drápa Tryggvasonar
141516

Ǫll ‘The whole’

allr (adj.): all

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elg ‘of the elk’

elgr (noun m.; °-s; -ir/-ar): elk < elgbjóðr (noun m.)

kennings

stafna elgbjóð,
‘elk-offerer of stems’
   = SEAFARER

the elk of stems, → SHIP
the offerer of the SHIP → SEAFARER
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elg ‘of the elk’

elgr (noun m.; °-s; -ir/-ar): elk < elgbjóðr (noun m.)

kennings

stafna elgbjóð,
‘elk-offerer of stems’
   = SEAFARER

the elk of stems, → SHIP
the offerer of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

bjóð ‘the offerer’

2. bjóðr (noun m.): inviter < elgbjóðr (noun m.)

kennings

stafna elgbjóð,
‘elk-offerer of stems’
   = SEAFARER

the elk of stems, → SHIP
the offerer of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

stafna ‘of stems’

stafn (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): prow

kennings

stafna elgbjóð,
‘elk-offerer of stems’
   = SEAFARER

the elk of stems, → SHIP
the offerer of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

stafna ‘of stems’

stafn (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): prow

kennings

stafna elgbjóð,
‘elk-offerer of stems’
   = SEAFARER

the elk of stems, → SHIP
the offerer of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

vítt ‘widely’

víðr (adj.): far

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góða ‘a good faith’

góðr (adj.): good

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gumnar ‘Men’

gumi (noun m.; °-a; gumar/gumnar): man

notes

[5] gumnar ‘men’: This is abbreviated in the ms. with a superscript nasal bar over the first vowel. This is ambiguous, and previous eds have taken the word as gunnar, which could be gen. sg. of gunnr f. ‘battle’ or the valkyrie-name Gunnr, an additional determinant for the kenning. Thus LP: gríma 1 explains gríma gunnar ‘mask of battle’ as ‘helmet’, whose fár ‘harm’ is battle or sword. However, gríma f. often means ‘helmet’ alone (Meissner 164), and the same abbreviation stands for <m> in gumnum in st. 11/1.

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grímu ‘of the helmet’

gríma (noun f.; °-u): night, darkness; mask

kennings

heiðnir sannmiðjungar fárs grímu,
‘heathen true giants of the harm of the helmet ’
   = WARRIORS

the harm of the helmet → SWORD
heathen true giants of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

grímu ‘of the helmet’

gríma (noun f.; °-u): night, darkness; mask

kennings

heiðnir sannmiðjungar fárs grímu,
‘heathen true giants of the harm of the helmet ’
   = WARRIORS

the harm of the helmet → SWORD
heathen true giants of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

fárs ‘of the harm’

2. fár (noun n.; °-s): harm, danger

kennings

heiðnir sannmiðjungar fárs grímu,
‘heathen true giants of the harm of the helmet ’
   = WARRIORS

the harm of the helmet → SWORD
heathen true giants of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

fárs ‘of the harm’

2. fár (noun n.; °-s): harm, danger

kennings

heiðnir sannmiðjungar fárs grímu,
‘heathen true giants of the harm of the helmet ’
   = WARRIORS

the harm of the helmet → SWORD
heathen true giants of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

sann ‘true’

2. sannr (adj.; °-an; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): true < sannmiðjungr (noun m.)

kennings

heiðnir sannmiðjungar fárs grímu,
‘heathen true giants of the harm of the helmet ’
   = WARRIORS

the harm of the helmet → SWORD
heathen true giants of the SWORD → WARRIORS

notes

[7, 8] heiðnir sannmiðjungar ‘heathen true giants’: The (slightly corrupt) ms. form of the adj. corresponds to heiðinn (m. nom./acc. sg.) ‘heathen’. It is emended here to pl., as in all previous eds, to agree with pl. sannmiðjungar ‘true giants’. The allusion to giants in a reference to heathens illustrates Snorri Sturluson’s remark that man-kennings with giant-names as base-word are normally insulting (SnE 1998, I, 40); cf. also Note to Anon Liðs 6/7-8.

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miðjungar ‘giants’

Miðjungr (noun m.; °; -ar): Miðjungr, giants < sannmiðjungr (noun m.)

kennings

heiðnir sannmiðjungar fárs grímu,
‘heathen true giants of the harm of the helmet ’
   = WARRIORS

the harm of the helmet → SWORD
heathen true giants of the SWORD → WARRIORS

notes

[7, 8] heiðnir sannmiðjungar ‘heathen true giants’: The (slightly corrupt) ms. form of the adj. corresponds to heiðinn (m. nom./acc. sg.) ‘heathen’. It is emended here to pl., as in all previous eds, to agree with pl. sannmiðjungar ‘true giants’. The allusion to giants in a reference to heathens illustrates Snorri Sturluson’s remark that man-kennings with giant-names as base-word are normally insulting (SnE 1998, I, 40); cf. also Note to Anon Liðs 6/7-8.

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svinna ‘clever’

2. svinnr (adj.): wise

notes

[7] svinna ‘clever’: Skj B and Skald emend to svinnan, the strong form of the m. acc. sg. adj., but this is unnecessary as the adj. may be weak after the demonstrative pron., here þann ‘that’; see NS §49; LP: 1.

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heiðnir ‘heathen’

heiðinn (adj.): heathen

[8] heiðnir: ‘heidn̄’ Bb

kennings

heiðnir sannmiðjungar fárs grímu,
‘heathen true giants of the harm of the helmet ’
   = WARRIORS

the harm of the helmet → SWORD
heathen true giants of the SWORD → WARRIORS

notes

[7, 8] heiðnir sannmiðjungar ‘heathen true giants’: The (slightly corrupt) ms. form of the adj. corresponds to heiðinn (m. nom./acc. sg.) ‘heathen’. It is emended here to pl., as in all previous eds, to agree with pl. sannmiðjungar ‘true giants’. The allusion to giants in a reference to heathens illustrates Snorri Sturluson’s remark that man-kennings with giant-names as base-word are normally insulting (SnE 1998, I, 40); cf. also Note to Anon Liðs 6/7-8.

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[1]: The line echoes Hfr ErfÓl 13/1.

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