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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Óldr 14I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Óláfs drápa Tryggvasonar 14’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1046.

Anonymous PoemsÓláfs drápa Tryggvasonar
131415

lœgis ‘of the sea’

lœgir (noun m.): sea

kennings

Lœgis hyrstríðir
‘fire-opponent of the sea’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of the sea → GOLD
The opponent of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

lœgis ‘of the sea’

lœgir (noun m.): sea

kennings

Lœgis hyrstríðir
‘fire-opponent of the sea’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of the sea → GOLD
The opponent of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

lið ‘of the snake’

linnr (noun m.): snake < liðrœkjandi (noun m.)

kennings

frœknum hjalmraunar liðrœkjanda
‘snake-carer of helmet-trial’
   = WARRIOR

helmet-trial → BATTLE
the snake of the BATTLE → SWORD
the valiant carer of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 4] liðrœkjanda hjalmraunar ‘carer of the snake of helmet-trial [(lit. ‘snake-carer of helmet-trial’) BATTLE > SWORD > WARRIOR]’: Ms. ‘lid’ is taken here as the variant form of linnr m. ‘snake’ (see LP: 2. liðr m.). This is very common as the base-word to sword-kennings (Meissner 154). Other possibilities include líð n. ‘ale’ as in (b) below and lið n. ‘support’ or ‘troop’ as in (c) below. The interpretation of hjalmraunar is also problematic. (a) The parallels for hjalmraun ‘helmet-trial, ‑test’ as a battle-kenning are few and weak (Meissner 200), but the parallelism of structure and placement of the stanza’s three main kenningar (each an inverted kenning, a component of each of them forming the first elements of ll. 2, 3 and 6) seems deliberate, and favours the interpretation here. (b) Hjalmraun is more plausible as a sword-kenning, giving hjalmraunar líðrœkjandi ‘carer of the ale of helmet-trial [SWORD > BLOOD > WARRIOR]’, but warrior-kennings with ‘blood’ as determinant are extremely rare (Meissner 278). (c) The other solution is to emend hjalm to gen. sg. hjalms, yielding liðrœkjanda hjalms ‘user/carer of the support of the helmet [WARRIOR]’ (so LP: liðrœkjandi) and the adv. raunar ‘really’ attached to the second clause, but the construals along these lines in Skj B and NN §2453 are not persuasive.

Close

lið ‘of the snake’

linnr (noun m.): snake < liðrœkjandi (noun m.)

kennings

frœknum hjalmraunar liðrœkjanda
‘snake-carer of helmet-trial’
   = WARRIOR

helmet-trial → BATTLE
the snake of the BATTLE → SWORD
the valiant carer of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 4] liðrœkjanda hjalmraunar ‘carer of the snake of helmet-trial [(lit. ‘snake-carer of helmet-trial’) BATTLE > SWORD > WARRIOR]’: Ms. ‘lid’ is taken here as the variant form of linnr m. ‘snake’ (see LP: 2. liðr m.). This is very common as the base-word to sword-kennings (Meissner 154). Other possibilities include líð n. ‘ale’ as in (b) below and lið n. ‘support’ or ‘troop’ as in (c) below. The interpretation of hjalmraunar is also problematic. (a) The parallels for hjalmraun ‘helmet-trial, ‑test’ as a battle-kenning are few and weak (Meissner 200), but the parallelism of structure and placement of the stanza’s three main kenningar (each an inverted kenning, a component of each of them forming the first elements of ll. 2, 3 and 6) seems deliberate, and favours the interpretation here. (b) Hjalmraun is more plausible as a sword-kenning, giving hjalmraunar líðrœkjandi ‘carer of the ale of helmet-trial [SWORD > BLOOD > WARRIOR]’, but warrior-kennings with ‘blood’ as determinant are extremely rare (Meissner 278). (c) The other solution is to emend hjalm to gen. sg. hjalms, yielding liðrœkjanda hjalms ‘user/carer of the support of the helmet [WARRIOR]’ (so LP: liðrœkjandi) and the adv. raunar ‘really’ attached to the second clause, but the construals along these lines in Skj B and NN §2453 are not persuasive.

Close

rœkjanda ‘carer’

rœkjandi (noun m.): carer, cultivator, promoter < liðrœkjandi (noun m.)

kennings

frœknum hjalmraunar liðrœkjanda
‘snake-carer of helmet-trial’
   = WARRIOR

helmet-trial → BATTLE
the snake of the BATTLE → SWORD
the valiant carer of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 4] liðrœkjanda hjalmraunar ‘carer of the snake of helmet-trial [(lit. ‘snake-carer of helmet-trial’) BATTLE > SWORD > WARRIOR]’: Ms. ‘lid’ is taken here as the variant form of linnr m. ‘snake’ (see LP: 2. liðr m.). This is very common as the base-word to sword-kennings (Meissner 154). Other possibilities include líð n. ‘ale’ as in (b) below and lið n. ‘support’ or ‘troop’ as in (c) below. The interpretation of hjalmraunar is also problematic. (a) The parallels for hjalmraun ‘helmet-trial, ‑test’ as a battle-kenning are few and weak (Meissner 200), but the parallelism of structure and placement of the stanza’s three main kenningar (each an inverted kenning, a component of each of them forming the first elements of ll. 2, 3 and 6) seems deliberate, and favours the interpretation here. (b) Hjalmraun is more plausible as a sword-kenning, giving hjalmraunar líðrœkjandi ‘carer of the ale of helmet-trial [SWORD > BLOOD > WARRIOR]’, but warrior-kennings with ‘blood’ as determinant are extremely rare (Meissner 278). (c) The other solution is to emend hjalm to gen. sg. hjalms, yielding liðrœkjanda hjalms ‘user/carer of the support of the helmet [WARRIOR]’ (so LP: liðrœkjandi) and the adv. raunar ‘really’ attached to the second clause, but the construals along these lines in Skj B and NN §2453 are not persuasive.

Close

frœknum ‘the valiant’

frœkn (adj.): brave, bold

kennings

frœknum hjalmraunar liðrœkjanda
‘snake-carer of helmet-trial’
   = WARRIOR

helmet-trial → BATTLE
the snake of the BATTLE → SWORD
the valiant carer of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

hyr ‘of the fire’

hyrr (noun m.): fire < hyrstríðir (noun m.)

kennings

Lœgis hyrstríðir
‘fire-opponent of the sea’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of the sea → GOLD
The opponent of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

hyr ‘of the fire’

hyrr (noun m.): fire < hyrstríðir (noun m.)

kennings

Lœgis hyrstríðir
‘fire-opponent of the sea’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of the sea → GOLD
The opponent of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

stríðir ‘The opponent’

stríðir (noun m.): opponent, fighter < hyrstríðir (noun m.)

kennings

Lœgis hyrstríðir
‘fire-opponent of the sea’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of the sea → GOLD
The opponent of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

braut ‘destroyed’

brjóta (verb; °brýtr; braut, brutu; brotinn): to break, destroy

notes

[3] braut ‘destroyed’: On the placing of the verb, see Introduction.

Close

hjalm ‘of helmet’

1. hjalmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): helmet < hjalmraun (noun f.): [helmet-trial]

kennings

frœknum hjalmraunar liðrœkjanda
‘snake-carer of helmet-trial’
   = WARRIOR

helmet-trial → BATTLE
the snake of the BATTLE → SWORD
the valiant carer of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 4] liðrœkjanda hjalmraunar ‘carer of the snake of helmet-trial [(lit. ‘snake-carer of helmet-trial’) BATTLE > SWORD > WARRIOR]’: Ms. ‘lid’ is taken here as the variant form of linnr m. ‘snake’ (see LP: 2. liðr m.). This is very common as the base-word to sword-kennings (Meissner 154). Other possibilities include líð n. ‘ale’ as in (b) below and lið n. ‘support’ or ‘troop’ as in (c) below. The interpretation of hjalmraunar is also problematic. (a) The parallels for hjalmraun ‘helmet-trial, ‑test’ as a battle-kenning are few and weak (Meissner 200), but the parallelism of structure and placement of the stanza’s three main kenningar (each an inverted kenning, a component of each of them forming the first elements of ll. 2, 3 and 6) seems deliberate, and favours the interpretation here. (b) Hjalmraun is more plausible as a sword-kenning, giving hjalmraunar líðrœkjandi ‘carer of the ale of helmet-trial [SWORD > BLOOD > WARRIOR]’, but warrior-kennings with ‘blood’ as determinant are extremely rare (Meissner 278). (c) The other solution is to emend hjalm to gen. sg. hjalms, yielding liðrœkjanda hjalms ‘user/carer of the support of the helmet [WARRIOR]’ (so LP: liðrœkjandi) and the adv. raunar ‘really’ attached to the second clause, but the construals along these lines in Skj B and NN §2453 are not persuasive.

Close

hjalm ‘of helmet’

1. hjalmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): helmet < hjalmraun (noun f.): [helmet-trial]

kennings

frœknum hjalmraunar liðrœkjanda
‘snake-carer of helmet-trial’
   = WARRIOR

helmet-trial → BATTLE
the snake of the BATTLE → SWORD
the valiant carer of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 4] liðrœkjanda hjalmraunar ‘carer of the snake of helmet-trial [(lit. ‘snake-carer of helmet-trial’) BATTLE > SWORD > WARRIOR]’: Ms. ‘lid’ is taken here as the variant form of linnr m. ‘snake’ (see LP: 2. liðr m.). This is very common as the base-word to sword-kennings (Meissner 154). Other possibilities include líð n. ‘ale’ as in (b) below and lið n. ‘support’ or ‘troop’ as in (c) below. The interpretation of hjalmraunar is also problematic. (a) The parallels for hjalmraun ‘helmet-trial, ‑test’ as a battle-kenning are few and weak (Meissner 200), but the parallelism of structure and placement of the stanza’s three main kenningar (each an inverted kenning, a component of each of them forming the first elements of ll. 2, 3 and 6) seems deliberate, and favours the interpretation here. (b) Hjalmraun is more plausible as a sword-kenning, giving hjalmraunar líðrœkjandi ‘carer of the ale of helmet-trial [SWORD > BLOOD > WARRIOR]’, but warrior-kennings with ‘blood’ as determinant are extremely rare (Meissner 278). (c) The other solution is to emend hjalm to gen. sg. hjalms, yielding liðrœkjanda hjalms ‘user/carer of the support of the helmet [WARRIOR]’ (so LP: liðrœkjandi) and the adv. raunar ‘really’ attached to the second clause, but the construals along these lines in Skj B and NN §2453 are not persuasive.

Close

hjalm ‘of helmet’

1. hjalmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): helmet < hjalmraun (noun f.): [helmet-trial]

kennings

frœknum hjalmraunar liðrœkjanda
‘snake-carer of helmet-trial’
   = WARRIOR

helmet-trial → BATTLE
the snake of the BATTLE → SWORD
the valiant carer of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 4] liðrœkjanda hjalmraunar ‘carer of the snake of helmet-trial [(lit. ‘snake-carer of helmet-trial’) BATTLE > SWORD > WARRIOR]’: Ms. ‘lid’ is taken here as the variant form of linnr m. ‘snake’ (see LP: 2. liðr m.). This is very common as the base-word to sword-kennings (Meissner 154). Other possibilities include líð n. ‘ale’ as in (b) below and lið n. ‘support’ or ‘troop’ as in (c) below. The interpretation of hjalmraunar is also problematic. (a) The parallels for hjalmraun ‘helmet-trial, ‑test’ as a battle-kenning are few and weak (Meissner 200), but the parallelism of structure and placement of the stanza’s three main kenningar (each an inverted kenning, a component of each of them forming the first elements of ll. 2, 3 and 6) seems deliberate, and favours the interpretation here. (b) Hjalmraun is more plausible as a sword-kenning, giving hjalmraunar líðrœkjandi ‘carer of the ale of helmet-trial [SWORD > BLOOD > WARRIOR]’, but warrior-kennings with ‘blood’ as determinant are extremely rare (Meissner 278). (c) The other solution is to emend hjalm to gen. sg. hjalms, yielding liðrœkjanda hjalms ‘user/carer of the support of the helmet [WARRIOR]’ (so LP: liðrœkjandi) and the adv. raunar ‘really’ attached to the second clause, but the construals along these lines in Skj B and NN §2453 are not persuasive.

Close

raunar ‘trial’

raun (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): ordeal, proof, experience < hjalmraun (noun f.): [helmet-trial]

kennings

frœknum hjalmraunar liðrœkjanda
‘snake-carer of helmet-trial’
   = WARRIOR

helmet-trial → BATTLE
the snake of the BATTLE → SWORD
the valiant carer of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 4] liðrœkjanda hjalmraunar ‘carer of the snake of helmet-trial [(lit. ‘snake-carer of helmet-trial’) BATTLE > SWORD > WARRIOR]’: Ms. ‘lid’ is taken here as the variant form of linnr m. ‘snake’ (see LP: 2. liðr m.). This is very common as the base-word to sword-kennings (Meissner 154). Other possibilities include líð n. ‘ale’ as in (b) below and lið n. ‘support’ or ‘troop’ as in (c) below. The interpretation of hjalmraunar is also problematic. (a) The parallels for hjalmraun ‘helmet-trial, ‑test’ as a battle-kenning are few and weak (Meissner 200), but the parallelism of structure and placement of the stanza’s three main kenningar (each an inverted kenning, a component of each of them forming the first elements of ll. 2, 3 and 6) seems deliberate, and favours the interpretation here. (b) Hjalmraun is more plausible as a sword-kenning, giving hjalmraunar líðrœkjandi ‘carer of the ale of helmet-trial [SWORD > BLOOD > WARRIOR]’, but warrior-kennings with ‘blood’ as determinant are extremely rare (Meissner 278). (c) The other solution is to emend hjalm to gen. sg. hjalms, yielding liðrœkjanda hjalms ‘user/carer of the support of the helmet [WARRIOR]’ (so LP: liðrœkjandi) and the adv. raunar ‘really’ attached to the second clause, but the construals along these lines in Skj B and NN §2453 are not persuasive.

Close

raunar ‘trial’

raun (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): ordeal, proof, experience < hjalmraun (noun f.): [helmet-trial]

kennings

frœknum hjalmraunar liðrœkjanda
‘snake-carer of helmet-trial’
   = WARRIOR

helmet-trial → BATTLE
the snake of the BATTLE → SWORD
the valiant carer of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 4] liðrœkjanda hjalmraunar ‘carer of the snake of helmet-trial [(lit. ‘snake-carer of helmet-trial’) BATTLE > SWORD > WARRIOR]’: Ms. ‘lid’ is taken here as the variant form of linnr m. ‘snake’ (see LP: 2. liðr m.). This is very common as the base-word to sword-kennings (Meissner 154). Other possibilities include líð n. ‘ale’ as in (b) below and lið n. ‘support’ or ‘troop’ as in (c) below. The interpretation of hjalmraunar is also problematic. (a) The parallels for hjalmraun ‘helmet-trial, ‑test’ as a battle-kenning are few and weak (Meissner 200), but the parallelism of structure and placement of the stanza’s three main kenningar (each an inverted kenning, a component of each of them forming the first elements of ll. 2, 3 and 6) seems deliberate, and favours the interpretation here. (b) Hjalmraun is more plausible as a sword-kenning, giving hjalmraunar líðrœkjandi ‘carer of the ale of helmet-trial [SWORD > BLOOD > WARRIOR]’, but warrior-kennings with ‘blood’ as determinant are extremely rare (Meissner 278). (c) The other solution is to emend hjalm to gen. sg. hjalms, yielding liðrœkjanda hjalms ‘user/carer of the support of the helmet [WARRIOR]’ (so LP: liðrœkjandi) and the adv. raunar ‘really’ attached to the second clause, but the construals along these lines in Skj B and NN §2453 are not persuasive.

Close

raunar ‘trial’

raun (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): ordeal, proof, experience < hjalmraun (noun f.): [helmet-trial]

kennings

frœknum hjalmraunar liðrœkjanda
‘snake-carer of helmet-trial’
   = WARRIOR

helmet-trial → BATTLE
the snake of the BATTLE → SWORD
the valiant carer of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 4] liðrœkjanda hjalmraunar ‘carer of the snake of helmet-trial [(lit. ‘snake-carer of helmet-trial’) BATTLE > SWORD > WARRIOR]’: Ms. ‘lid’ is taken here as the variant form of linnr m. ‘snake’ (see LP: 2. liðr m.). This is very common as the base-word to sword-kennings (Meissner 154). Other possibilities include líð n. ‘ale’ as in (b) below and lið n. ‘support’ or ‘troop’ as in (c) below. The interpretation of hjalmraunar is also problematic. (a) The parallels for hjalmraun ‘helmet-trial, ‑test’ as a battle-kenning are few and weak (Meissner 200), but the parallelism of structure and placement of the stanza’s three main kenningar (each an inverted kenning, a component of each of them forming the first elements of ll. 2, 3 and 6) seems deliberate, and favours the interpretation here. (b) Hjalmraun is more plausible as a sword-kenning, giving hjalmraunar líðrœkjandi ‘carer of the ale of helmet-trial [SWORD > BLOOD > WARRIOR]’, but warrior-kennings with ‘blood’ as determinant are extremely rare (Meissner 278). (c) The other solution is to emend hjalm to gen. sg. hjalms, yielding liðrœkjanda hjalms ‘user/carer of the support of the helmet [WARRIOR]’ (so LP: liðrœkjandi) and the adv. raunar ‘really’ attached to the second clause, but the construals along these lines in Skj B and NN §2453 are not persuasive.

Close

launa ‘to repay’

launa (verb): reward

Close

Hrings ‘of the disk’

1. hringr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ar): ring; sword

kennings

bauga hrings þrymdraugum
‘din-logs of the disk of shield-rings’
   = WARRIORS

the disk of shield-rings → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
for logs of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

Hrings ‘of the disk’

1. hringr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ar): ring; sword

kennings

bauga hrings þrymdraugum
‘din-logs of the disk of shield-rings’
   = WARRIORS

the disk of shield-rings → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
for logs of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

Hrings ‘of the disk’

1. hringr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ar): ring; sword

kennings

bauga hrings þrymdraugum
‘din-logs of the disk of shield-rings’
   = WARRIORS

the disk of shield-rings → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
for logs of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

hefr ‘has’

hafa (verb): have

notes

[5, 8] hefr of orðit ‘has become’: As in most eds, ms. orðinn is here emended to orðit, since hafa takes the n. form of the p. p. Hefr forms a perfect tense conveying the continuing effects of Óláfr’s career; cf. Note to st. 9/5. Of is the expletive particle.

Close

þarfastr ‘the most useful’

þarfr (adj.): necessary, useful

Close

þrym ‘of the din’

þrymr (noun m.; °-s): din < þrymdraugr (noun m.)

kennings

bauga hrings þrymdraugum
‘din-logs of the disk of shield-rings’
   = WARRIORS

the disk of shield-rings → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
for logs of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

þrym ‘of the din’

þrymr (noun m.; °-s): din < þrymdraugr (noun m.)

kennings

bauga hrings þrymdraugum
‘din-logs of the disk of shield-rings’
   = WARRIORS

the disk of shield-rings → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
for logs of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

draugum ‘for logs’

1. draugr (noun m.; °; -ar): tree < þrymdraugr (noun m.)

kennings

bauga hrings þrymdraugum
‘din-logs of the disk of shield-rings’
   = WARRIORS

the disk of shield-rings → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
for logs of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[6] -draugum ‘for logs’: Or ‘ghosts, undead, revenants’, cf. Note to ÞHjalt Lv 1/5.

Close

bauga ‘of shield-rings’

baugr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): ring

kennings

bauga hrings þrymdraugum
‘din-logs of the disk of shield-rings’
   = WARRIORS

the disk of shield-rings → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
for logs of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

bauga ‘of shield-rings’

baugr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): ring

kennings

bauga hrings þrymdraugum
‘din-logs of the disk of shield-rings’
   = WARRIORS

the disk of shield-rings → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
for logs of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

bauga ‘of shield-rings’

baugr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): ring

kennings

bauga hrings þrymdraugum
‘din-logs of the disk of shield-rings’
   = WARRIORS

the disk of shield-rings → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
for logs of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

nýtr ‘benefit from’

njóta (verb): enjoy, use

Close

hodda ‘of hoards’

1. hodd (noun f.): gold, treasure

kennings

þverris hodda.
‘the diminisher of hoards.’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the diminisher of hoards. → GENEROUS MAN
Close

þverris ‘the diminisher’

þverrir (noun m.): dminisher

kennings

þverris hodda.
‘the diminisher of hoards.’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the diminisher of hoards. → GENEROUS MAN
Close

hingat ‘up here’

hingat (adv.): (to) here

Close

norðr ‘in the north’

2. norðr (adv.): north

Close

orðit ‘become’

1. verða (verb): become, be

[8] orðit: orðinn Bb

notes

[5, 8] hefr of orðit ‘has become’: As in most eds, ms. orðinn is here emended to orðit, since hafa takes the n. form of the p. p. Hefr forms a perfect tense conveying the continuing effects of Óláfr’s career; cf. Note to st. 9/5. Of is the expletive particle.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[5, 6] hrings bauga ‘of the disk of shield-rings [SHIELD]’: The context seems to require a kenning referring to a weapon, which then forms a battle-kenning with þrym ‘din’. Both baugr m. and hringr m. mean ‘ring’, as well as having various specific applications. Hringr is here taken as the base-word of a shield-kenning, alluding to the circular shape of the shield (‘disk’), and bauga is taken as the determinant, referring to decoration on the shield (‘shield-rings’); see Meissner 167, and LP: baugr 3, though LP: 2. hringr takes a different line. The main alternative involves taking baugr as base-word in a shield kenning, but the difficulty of this is pointed out in Meissner 171

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