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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Mv I 11VII

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Máríuvísur I 11’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 687.

Anonymous PoemsMáríuvísur I
101112

hrygðiz ‘became sorrowful’

hryggja (verb): distress

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iðraz ‘repents’

iðra (verb): repent

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þorði ‘dare’

þora (verb): dare

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að ‘to’

5. at (nota): to (with infinitive)

[4] að sæta: ‘a[...]æta’ 721FJ, ‘a[...]æ[...]a’ 721, ‘a. ..e.a’ 1032ˣ

notes

[4] að sæta ‘to seek’: Finnur could still read the ‘t’ in sæta ‘seek’ (which is also confirmed by the internal rhyme -æt- : -æt-), and he notes that the top of a long letter can be discerned after the first <a>. For sæta ‘seek, cause, start’, see Fritzner: sæta 3.

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sæta ‘seek’

2. sæta (verb): mean, signify

[4] að sæta: ‘a[...]æta’ 721FJ, ‘a[...]æ[...]a’ 721, ‘a. ..e.a’ 1032ˣ

notes

[4] að sæta ‘to seek’: Finnur could still read the ‘t’ in sæta ‘seek’ (which is also confirmed by the internal rhyme -æt- : -æt-), and he notes that the top of a long letter can be discerned after the first <a>. For sæta ‘seek, cause, start’, see Fritzner: sæta 3.

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Gjörði ‘with grief’

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öllum ‘every’

allr (adj.): all

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það ‘that’

þat (conj.): that

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tíðum ‘frequently’

1. tíð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time

[7] tíðum: ‑tíðin 721

notes

[7] tíðum (adv.) ‘frequently’: The ms. reading -tíðin (f. nom. sg.) ‘the time’ makes little sense (manntíðin ‘the man-time’). Skj B gives no translation (Finnur merely notes that the l. is incomprehensible). Kock emends to manntíðni (NN §1683) or mantíðni (NN §2865; so also Wrightson) which he translates as omtyckthet hos människorna ‘the reputation among men’ and en kvinnas omtyckthet ‘the reputation of a woman’ respectively. According to that interpretation, the cl. reads as follows: ‘that harms the reputation among men’ or ‘that harms the reputation of a woman’. However, a noun tíðni (f. dat. sg.?) ‘esteem’ is unattested. While it is certainly true that one would lose esteem by admitting to murder, it is more reasonable to assume that a person will be harmed by readily confessing to an accusation. In this case, the admission of the woman leads to the subsequent charges of murder and the punishment of being burned alive. For the use of the acc. case with meina ‘harm’, see NS §102 d, Anm.

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meinar ‘harms’

1. meina (verb): harm

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morð ‘murder’

1. morð (noun n.; °-s; -): killing, battle

notes

[8] ór vígi er morð orðið ‘manslaughter has turned into murder’: Lit. ‘from manslaughter murder has come about’. This means that the killing had now been proven to be murder, i.e. a slaying that had been done in secret and concealed. In ON society murder was considered one of the most heinous crimes that a person could commit. For the legal distinction between víg ‘manslaughter’ and morð ‘murder’ see Grg Ia, 150-4; Dennis et. al. 1980-2000, I, 146-8. According to ON law, murder was punished with full outlawry, not by being burned alive.

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er ‘has’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

notes

[8] ór vígi er morð orðið ‘manslaughter has turned into murder’: Lit. ‘from manslaughter murder has come about’. This means that the killing had now been proven to be murder, i.e. a slaying that had been done in secret and concealed. In ON society murder was considered one of the most heinous crimes that a person could commit. For the legal distinction between víg ‘manslaughter’ and morð ‘murder’ see Grg Ia, 150-4; Dennis et. al. 1980-2000, I, 146-8. According to ON law, murder was punished with full outlawry, not by being burned alive.

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ór ‘’

3. ór (prep.): out of

notes

[8] ór vígi er morð orðið ‘manslaughter has turned into murder’: Lit. ‘from manslaughter murder has come about’. This means that the killing had now been proven to be murder, i.e. a slaying that had been done in secret and concealed. In ON society murder was considered one of the most heinous crimes that a person could commit. For the legal distinction between víg ‘manslaughter’ and morð ‘murder’ see Grg Ia, 150-4; Dennis et. al. 1980-2000, I, 146-8. According to ON law, murder was punished with full outlawry, not by being burned alive.

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vígi ‘manslaughter’

vígi (noun n.; °-s; -): manslaughter, killing

notes

[8] ór vígi er morð orðið ‘manslaughter has turned into murder’: Lit. ‘from manslaughter murder has come about’. This means that the killing had now been proven to be murder, i.e. a slaying that had been done in secret and concealed. In ON society murder was considered one of the most heinous crimes that a person could commit. For the legal distinction between víg ‘manslaughter’ and morð ‘murder’ see Grg Ia, 150-4; Dennis et. al. 1980-2000, I, 146-8. According to ON law, murder was punished with full outlawry, not by being burned alive.

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orðið ‘’

1. verða (verb): become, be

notes

[8] ór vígi er morð orðið ‘manslaughter has turned into murder’: Lit. ‘from manslaughter murder has come about’. This means that the killing had now been proven to be murder, i.e. a slaying that had been done in secret and concealed. In ON society murder was considered one of the most heinous crimes that a person could commit. For the legal distinction between víg ‘manslaughter’ and morð ‘murder’ see Grg Ia, 150-4; Dennis et. al. 1980-2000, I, 146-8. According to ON law, murder was punished with full outlawry, not by being burned alive.

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