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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Gyð 6VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Gyðingsvísur 6’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 522-3.

Anonymous PoemsGyðingsvísur
567

f…z ‘…’

(non-lexical)

[1] f…z: so 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, ‘[...]z’ B, ‘[...]’ BFJ

notes

[1] f…z: B is very badly worn, and only the last letter, either a <z> or an <ꝛ> is visible. The 399a-bˣ transcriber was able to make out only initial <f> and final <z>. The word must have been a finite strong verb, pret. sg. m.v., almost certainly 3rd pers., for which the defective man-kenning æskibjóðr ... valstafna ‘wishing-offerer of the ... of the falcon’s perches [ARMS > ?GOLD > GENEROUS MAN]’ provides the subject. Skj B adopts var ‘was’, while Skald opts for fellz ‘perished, deteriorated’ and changes ms. ‘ok’ to sem (see NN §3392).

Close

æski ‘The wishing’

óska (verb): desire < œskibjóðr (noun m.)

[2] æskibjóðr: so 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, BFJ, ‘[...]skibiódr’ B

kennings

Æskibjóðr … valstafna
‘The wishing-offerer of the … of the falcon’s perches ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the falcon’s perches → ARMS
the … of ARMS → GOLD
The wishing-offerer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

bjóðr ‘offerer’

2. bjóðr (noun m.): inviter < œskibjóðr (noun m.)

[2] æskibjóðr: so 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, BFJ, ‘[...]skibiódr’ B

kennings

Æskibjóðr … valstafna
‘The wishing-offerer of the … of the falcon’s perches ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the falcon’s perches → ARMS
the … of ARMS → GOLD
The wishing-offerer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

‘…’

(non-lexical)

[3] …: ‘[...]se[...]a’ B, BRydberg, BFJ, ‘[...]se[...]da’ 399a‑bˣ

Close

val ‘of the falcon’s’

2. valr (noun m.; °-s): falcon < valstafn (noun m.)

kennings

Æskibjóðr … valstafna
‘The wishing-offerer of the … of the falcon’s perches ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the falcon’s perches → ARMS
the … of ARMS → GOLD
The wishing-offerer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

val ‘of the falcon’s’

2. valr (noun m.; °-s): falcon < valstafn (noun m.)

kennings

Æskibjóðr … valstafna
‘The wishing-offerer of the … of the falcon’s perches ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the falcon’s perches → ARMS
the … of ARMS → GOLD
The wishing-offerer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

val ‘of the falcon’s’

2. valr (noun m.; °-s): falcon < valstafn (noun m.)

kennings

Æskibjóðr … valstafna
‘The wishing-offerer of the … of the falcon’s perches ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the falcon’s perches → ARMS
the … of ARMS → GOLD
The wishing-offerer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

stafna ‘perches’

stafn (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): prow < valstafn (noun m.)

kennings

Æskibjóðr … valstafna
‘The wishing-offerer of the … of the falcon’s perches ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the falcon’s perches → ARMS
the … of ARMS → GOLD
The wishing-offerer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

stafna ‘perches’

stafn (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): prow < valstafn (noun m.)

kennings

Æskibjóðr … valstafna
‘The wishing-offerer of the … of the falcon’s perches ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the falcon’s perches → ARMS
the … of ARMS → GOLD
The wishing-offerer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

stafna ‘perches’

stafn (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): prow < valstafn (noun m.)

kennings

Æskibjóðr … valstafna
‘The wishing-offerer of the … of the falcon’s perches ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the falcon’s perches → ARMS
the … of ARMS → GOLD
The wishing-offerer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

‘of the …’

(non-lexical)

[4] …: ‘[...]’ B, 399a‑bˣ, ‘(tom)’(?) BRydberg, kom BFJ

kennings

Æskibjóðr … valstafna
‘The wishing-offerer of the … of the falcon’s perches ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the falcon’s perches → ARMS
the … of ARMS → GOLD
The wishing-offerer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

‘of the …’

(non-lexical)

[4] …: ‘[...]’ B, 399a‑bˣ, ‘(tom)’(?) BRydberg, kom BFJ

kennings

Æskibjóðr … valstafna
‘The wishing-offerer of the … of the falcon’s perches ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the falcon’s perches → ARMS
the … of ARMS → GOLD
The wishing-offerer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

jafnan ‘always’

jafnan (adv.): always

Close

Allr ‘completely’

allr (adj.): all

Close

þóttiz ‘considerered’

2. þykkja (verb): seem, think

Close

Ullar ‘of Ullr’

Ullr (noun m.): Ullr

[5] Ullar: so 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, BFJ, ‘[...]llar’ B

kennings

Skýrr Ullar ielherðandi
‘storm-strengthener of Ullr’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of Ullr → BATTLE
The pure strengthener of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[5] Ullar: Named in Gylf (SnE 1982, 26) as sonr Sifjar, stjúpsonr Þórs ‘son of Sif, stepson of Þórr’. Although Ullr appears frequently in man-kennings, this is his only appearance in a battle-kenning (LP: Ullr). The kenning is not entirely satisfactory, since we would expect an additional component, possibly alluding to Ullr’s ship, Skjǫldr, in the determinant.

Close

Ullar ‘of Ullr’

Ullr (noun m.): Ullr

[5] Ullar: so 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, BFJ, ‘[...]llar’ B

kennings

Skýrr Ullar ielherðandi
‘storm-strengthener of Ullr’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of Ullr → BATTLE
The pure strengthener of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[5] Ullar: Named in Gylf (SnE 1982, 26) as sonr Sifjar, stjúpsonr Þórs ‘son of Sif, stepson of Þórr’. Although Ullr appears frequently in man-kennings, this is his only appearance in a battle-kenning (LP: Ullr). The kenning is not entirely satisfactory, since we would expect an additional component, possibly alluding to Ullr’s ship, Skjǫldr, in the determinant.

Close

iel ‘of the storm’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm < élherðandi (noun m.)

kennings

Skýrr Ullar ielherðandi
‘storm-strengthener of Ullr’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of Ullr → BATTLE
The pure strengthener of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

iel ‘of the storm’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm < élherðandi (noun m.)

kennings

Skýrr Ullar ielherðandi
‘storm-strengthener of Ullr’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of Ullr → BATTLE
The pure strengthener of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

herðandi ‘strengthener’

1. herðandi (noun m.): strengthener < élherðandi (noun m.)

kennings

Skýrr Ullar ielherðandi
‘storm-strengthener of Ullr’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of Ullr → BATTLE
The pure strengthener of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

verða ‘that he would be’

1. verða (verb): become, be

Close

skýrr ‘The pure’

skýrr (adj.): clear

kennings

Skýrr Ullar ielherðandi
‘storm-strengthener of Ullr’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of Ullr → BATTLE
The pure strengthener of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

skreyti ‘the decorous’

skreyti (noun n.): [decorous] < skreytiárr (noun m.)

[7] skreytiárum: ‘[...]arum’ B, 399a‑bˣ, BFJ, ‘[...]y[...]iarum’ BRydberg

kennings

skreytiárum mars skorðu.
‘the decorous envoys of the horse of the boat-prop.’
   = SEAFARERS

the horse of the boat-prop. → SHIP
the decorous envoys of the SHIP → SEAFARERS

notes

[7] skreytiárum (dat. pl.) ‘decorous envoys’: This edn follows all previous eds in adopting Sveinbjörn Egilsson’s suggested reconstruction, made in a marginal note to the 444ˣ transcript.

Close

árum ‘envoys’

1. árr (noun m.; °dat. ár; ǽrir/árar, acc. áru): messenger < skreytiárr (noun m.)

[7] skreytiárum: ‘[...]arum’ B, 399a‑bˣ, BFJ, ‘[...]y[...]iarum’ BRydberg

kennings

skreytiárum mars skorðu.
‘the decorous envoys of the horse of the boat-prop.’
   = SEAFARERS

the horse of the boat-prop. → SHIP
the decorous envoys of the SHIP → SEAFARERS

notes

[7] skreytiárum (dat. pl.) ‘decorous envoys’: This edn follows all previous eds in adopting Sveinbjörn Egilsson’s suggested reconstruction, made in a marginal note to the 444ˣ transcript.

Close

skorðu ‘of the boat-prop’

1. skorða (noun f.; °-u; -ur): prop

[8] skorðu: ‘skorda’ B, 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, skorðu BFJ

kennings

skreytiárum mars skorðu.
‘the decorous envoys of the horse of the boat-prop.’
   = SEAFARERS

the horse of the boat-prop. → SHIP
the decorous envoys of the SHIP → SEAFARERS

notes

[8] skorðu (f. gen. sg.) ‘boat-prop’: It is necessary to emend ms. ‘skorda’ (f. nom. sg.) for grammatical reasons.

Close

skorðu ‘of the boat-prop’

1. skorða (noun f.; °-u; -ur): prop

[8] skorðu: ‘skorda’ B, 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, skorðu BFJ

kennings

skreytiárum mars skorðu.
‘the decorous envoys of the horse of the boat-prop.’
   = SEAFARERS

the horse of the boat-prop. → SHIP
the decorous envoys of the SHIP → SEAFARERS

notes

[8] skorðu (f. gen. sg.) ‘boat-prop’: It is necessary to emend ms. ‘skorda’ (f. nom. sg.) for grammatical reasons.

Close

mars ‘of the horse’

2. marr (noun m.): horse

kennings

skreytiárum mars skorðu.
‘the decorous envoys of the horse of the boat-prop.’
   = SEAFARERS

the horse of the boat-prop. → SHIP
the decorous envoys of the SHIP → SEAFARERS
Close

mars ‘of the horse’

2. marr (noun m.): horse

kennings

skreytiárum mars skorðu.
‘the decorous envoys of the horse of the boat-prop.’
   = SEAFARERS

the horse of the boat-prop. → SHIP
the decorous envoys of the SHIP → SEAFARERS
Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[1-4]: The ms. is dark and very badly damaged, and it has been necessary to rely extensively on previous transcribers’ readings. This edn considers 399a-bˣ (the earliest surviving transcript) as an accurate account of B, but has reconstructed only where its readings suggest that the reconstruction is plausible. This makes for a less complete, but less conjectural, text than previous eds. The general sense of ll. 1-4 seems to be that the previously generous man found that people’s estimate of him declined as his money ran out.

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