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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Mgr 30VII

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Drápa af Máríugrát 30’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 780-1.

Anonymous PoemsDrápa af Máríugrát
293031

mildingr ‘the ruler’

mildingr (noun m.; °-s): ruler, generous one

kennings

mildingr hauðrs mána
‘the ruler of the land of the moon ’
   = God

the land of the moon → SKY/HEAVEN
the ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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mána ‘of the moon’

máni (noun m.; °-a): moon

kennings

mildingr hauðrs mána
‘the ruler of the land of the moon ’
   = God

the land of the moon → SKY/HEAVEN
the ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

mána ‘of the moon’

máni (noun m.; °-a): moon

kennings

mildingr hauðrs mána
‘the ruler of the land of the moon ’
   = God

the land of the moon → SKY/HEAVEN
the ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

hauðrs ‘of the land’

hauðr (noun n.): earth, ground

kennings

mildingr hauðrs mána
‘the ruler of the land of the moon ’
   = God

the land of the moon → SKY/HEAVEN
the ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

hauðrs ‘of the land’

hauðr (noun n.): earth, ground

kennings

mildingr hauðrs mána
‘the ruler of the land of the moon ’
   = God

the land of the moon → SKY/HEAVEN
the ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

dauða ‘death’

dauði (noun m.; °-a; -ar): death

[2] dauða: so 1032ˣ, 920ˣ, ‘dauð[...]’ 713

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kvað ‘said’

2. kveðja (verb): say, greet

[3] kvað: so 1032ˣ, 920ˣ, ‘k[...]’ 713

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herra ‘lord’

1. herra (noun m.; °herra; herrar): lord

kennings

inn hæsti herra hlýrna;
‘the highest lord of the sun and moon; ’
   = God

the highest lord of the sun and moon; → God
Close

inn ‘the’

2. inn (art.): the

kennings

inn hæsti herra hlýrna;
‘the highest lord of the sun and moon; ’
   = God

the highest lord of the sun and moon; → God
Close

hæsti ‘highest’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high

kennings

inn hæsti herra hlýrna;
‘the highest lord of the sun and moon; ’
   = God

the highest lord of the sun and moon; → God
Close

hlýrna ‘of the sun and moon’

hlýrnir (noun m.): heaven, heavenly body

kennings

inn hæsti herra hlýrna;
‘the highest lord of the sun and moon; ’
   = God

the highest lord of the sun and moon; → God

notes

[4] hlýrna ‘of the sun and moon’: See Note to 2/1. For the uneven rhyme (-ýrn- : -yrn-), see 21/2.

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aldri ‘never’

aldri (adv.): never

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fyrnaz ‘be forgotten’

fyrna (verb): forget

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Geira ‘of spears’

geirr (noun m.): spear

kennings

Lundar geira,
‘The trees of spears, ’
   = WARRIORS

The trees of spears, → WARRIORS
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lundar ‘The trees’

1. lundr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -i/-; -ar): grove, tree

kennings

Lundar geira,
‘The trees of spears, ’
   = WARRIORS

The trees of spears, → WARRIORS
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galli ‘with gall’

2. gall (noun n.): gall

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gumna ‘of men’

gumi (noun m.; °-a; gumar/gumnar): man

notes

[6] þjóðir gumna ‘the crowds of men’: Skj B and Skald emend to þjóða gumna ‘of the people of men’, which is taken as an attributive to skapara ‘Creator’.

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þjóðir ‘the crowds’

þjóð (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir): people

notes

[6] þjóðir gumna ‘the crowds of men’: Skj B and Skald emend to þjóða gumna ‘of the people of men’, which is taken as an attributive to skapara ‘Creator’.

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súrt ‘the sour’

2. súrr (adj.): [sour]

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hafða ‘had’

hafa (verb): have

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riett ‘right’

3. réttr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): right, straight, direct

[8] riett: so 1032ˣ, 920ˣ, ‘rie[...]’ 713

notes

[8] riett (adv.) ‘right’: For this meaning of the adv., see Fritzner: rétt 3.

Close

sem ‘as if’

sem (conj.): as, which

notes

[8] sem krafði edik ‘as if he had asked for vinegar’: For the addition of the def. art. for metrical reasons, see Note to 1/6 and NN §1664A. Edik ‘vinegar’ is a loanword from MLG edik ‘vinegar’ (from Lat. acetum ‘vinegar’). See AEW, ONP: edik. Earlier eds translate the cl. as ‘who asked for vinegar’. That translation makes little sense, because all gospels record that Jesus did not ask for the vinegar; rather, it was given to him as part of the torture when he said he was thirsty (see Matt. XXVII.48; Mark XV.36; John XIX.29; see also Sperber 1911, 75). Unless we assume that the poet did not know what vinegar was and thought it was drinkable, the verb krafði ‘asked for’ must be taken as subj. Although krefði would be expected, the <a> is established by the aðalhending with hafða, and perhaps also necessitated by it. Cf. Mar (1871, xvii): Oc her næst mællti minn sæti son Jesus: þyrstir mic. En ivdar gafo hanum edik við galli blandit ‘And after this my sweet son Jesus said: “I thirst.” But the Jews gave him vinegar mixed with gall’.

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edik ‘for vinegar’

edik (noun n.; °dat. -i/-([$1650$] 58²‡)): [for vinegar]

[8] edik: edik 713

notes

[8] sem krafði edik ‘as if he had asked for vinegar’: For the addition of the def. art. for metrical reasons, see Note to 1/6 and NN §1664A. Edik ‘vinegar’ is a loanword from MLG edik ‘vinegar’ (from Lat. acetum ‘vinegar’). See AEW, ONP: edik. Earlier eds translate the cl. as ‘who asked for vinegar’. That translation makes little sense, because all gospels record that Jesus did not ask for the vinegar; rather, it was given to him as part of the torture when he said he was thirsty (see Matt. XXVII.48; Mark XV.36; John XIX.29; see also Sperber 1911, 75). Unless we assume that the poet did not know what vinegar was and thought it was drinkable, the verb krafði ‘asked for’ must be taken as subj. Although krefði would be expected, the <a> is established by the aðalhending with hafða, and perhaps also necessitated by it. Cf. Mar (1871, xvii): Oc her næst mællti minn sæti son Jesus: þyrstir mic. En ivdar gafo hanum edik við galli blandit ‘And after this my sweet son Jesus said: “I thirst.” But the Jews gave him vinegar mixed with gall’.

Close

krafði ‘had asked’

krefja (verb): request

notes

[8] sem krafði edik ‘as if he had asked for vinegar’: For the addition of the def. art. for metrical reasons, see Note to 1/6 and NN §1664A. Edik ‘vinegar’ is a loanword from MLG edik ‘vinegar’ (from Lat. acetum ‘vinegar’). See AEW, ONP: edik. Earlier eds translate the cl. as ‘who asked for vinegar’. That translation makes little sense, because all gospels record that Jesus did not ask for the vinegar; rather, it was given to him as part of the torture when he said he was thirsty (see Matt. XXVII.48; Mark XV.36; John XIX.29; see also Sperber 1911, 75). Unless we assume that the poet did not know what vinegar was and thought it was drinkable, the verb krafði ‘asked for’ must be taken as subj. Although krefði would be expected, the <a> is established by the aðalhending with hafða, and perhaps also necessitated by it. Cf. Mar (1871, xvii): Oc her næst mællti minn sæti son Jesus: þyrstir mic. En ivdar gafo hanum edik við galli blandit ‘And after this my sweet son Jesus said: “I thirst.” But the Jews gave him vinegar mixed with gall’.

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