skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Anon Gyð 2VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Gyðingsvísur 2’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 518-19.

Anonymous PoemsGyðingsvísur
123

einn ‘a certain’

2. einn (pron.; °decl. cf. einn num.): one, alone

kennings

einn beitir bráðra sóta barðs,
‘a certain steerer of the swift steeds of the prow, ’
   = SEAFARER

the swift steeds of the prow, → SHIPS
a certain steerer of SHIPS → SEAFARER
Close

unn ‘wave’

2. unnr (noun f.): wave < unnleygr (noun m.)

[2] unnleyg*: ‘vnn[...]eygs’ B, BFJ, vnnleygs 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg

kennings

unnleyg*.
‘wave-flame. ’
   = GOLD

wave-flame. → GOLD
Close

leyg* ‘flame’

1. leygr (noun m.): flame < unnleygr (noun m.)

[2] unnleyg*: ‘vnn[...]eygs’ B, BFJ, vnnleygs 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg

kennings

unnleyg*.
‘wave-flame. ’
   = GOLD

wave-flame. → GOLD
Close

beitir ‘steerer’

beitir (noun m.): steerer

kennings

einn beitir bráðra sóta barðs,
‘a certain steerer of the swift steeds of the prow, ’
   = SEAFARER

the swift steeds of the prow, → SHIPS
a certain steerer of SHIPS → SEAFARER

notes

[3-4] beitir bráðra sóta barðs ‘steerer of the swift steeds of the prow’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B), followed by Kock in Skald, emends to bræddra barða, and presumably construes the man-kenning beitir bræddra sóta barða ‘steerer of the tarred steeds of the ship’. His emendation of B’s ‘bardz’ (l. 4) to barða, gen. sg. of m. barði ‘ship’ is unnecessary, however, since barðs may be interpreted as gen. sg. of n. barð ‘beak, prow’, which occurs frequently in ship-kennings (LP: barð – the inclusion of a reference to barðs sóti in the first, 1916 edn of LP suggests that at that time Finnur believed B to be correct here). Finnur’s correction of the adj. to bræddra in Skj B and LP: 2. bræða ‘to tar’, though drastic, is rather happier, though it is possible to make sense of B’s bráðra by taking it as the gen. pl. of bráðr ‘swift, eager, sudden’ agreeing with sóta.

Close

bráðra ‘of the swift’

bráðr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): quick(ly)

kennings

einn beitir bráðra sóta barðs,
‘a certain steerer of the swift steeds of the prow, ’
   = SEAFARER

the swift steeds of the prow, → SHIPS
a certain steerer of SHIPS → SEAFARER

notes

[3-4] beitir bráðra sóta barðs ‘steerer of the swift steeds of the prow’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B), followed by Kock in Skald, emends to bræddra barða, and presumably construes the man-kenning beitir bræddra sóta barða ‘steerer of the tarred steeds of the ship’. His emendation of B’s ‘bardz’ (l. 4) to barða, gen. sg. of m. barði ‘ship’ is unnecessary, however, since barðs may be interpreted as gen. sg. of n. barð ‘beak, prow’, which occurs frequently in ship-kennings (LP: barð – the inclusion of a reference to barðs sóti in the first, 1916 edn of LP suggests that at that time Finnur believed B to be correct here). Finnur’s correction of the adj. to bræddra in Skj B and LP: 2. bræða ‘to tar’, though drastic, is rather happier, though it is possible to make sense of B’s bráðra by taking it as the gen. pl. of bráðr ‘swift, eager, sudden’ agreeing with sóta.

Close

bráðra ‘of the swift’

bráðr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): quick(ly)

kennings

einn beitir bráðra sóta barðs,
‘a certain steerer of the swift steeds of the prow, ’
   = SEAFARER

the swift steeds of the prow, → SHIPS
a certain steerer of SHIPS → SEAFARER

notes

[3-4] beitir bráðra sóta barðs ‘steerer of the swift steeds of the prow’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B), followed by Kock in Skald, emends to bræddra barða, and presumably construes the man-kenning beitir bræddra sóta barða ‘steerer of the tarred steeds of the ship’. His emendation of B’s ‘bardz’ (l. 4) to barða, gen. sg. of m. barði ‘ship’ is unnecessary, however, since barðs may be interpreted as gen. sg. of n. barð ‘beak, prow’, which occurs frequently in ship-kennings (LP: barð – the inclusion of a reference to barðs sóti in the first, 1916 edn of LP suggests that at that time Finnur believed B to be correct here). Finnur’s correction of the adj. to bræddra in Skj B and LP: 2. bræða ‘to tar’, though drastic, is rather happier, though it is possible to make sense of B’s bráðra by taking it as the gen. pl. of bráðr ‘swift, eager, sudden’ agreeing with sóta.

Close

sóta ‘steeds’

sóti (noun m.; °-a): steed, Sóti

kennings

einn beitir bráðra sóta barðs,
‘a certain steerer of the swift steeds of the prow, ’
   = SEAFARER

the swift steeds of the prow, → SHIPS
a certain steerer of SHIPS → SEAFARER

notes

[3-4] beitir bráðra sóta barðs ‘steerer of the swift steeds of the prow’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B), followed by Kock in Skald, emends to bræddra barða, and presumably construes the man-kenning beitir bræddra sóta barða ‘steerer of the tarred steeds of the ship’. His emendation of B’s ‘bardz’ (l. 4) to barða, gen. sg. of m. barði ‘ship’ is unnecessary, however, since barðs may be interpreted as gen. sg. of n. barð ‘beak, prow’, which occurs frequently in ship-kennings (LP: barð – the inclusion of a reference to barðs sóti in the first, 1916 edn of LP suggests that at that time Finnur believed B to be correct here). Finnur’s correction of the adj. to bræddra in Skj B and LP: 2. bræða ‘to tar’, though drastic, is rather happier, though it is possible to make sense of B’s bráðra by taking it as the gen. pl. of bráðr ‘swift, eager, sudden’ agreeing with sóta.

Close

sóta ‘steeds’

sóti (noun m.; °-a): steed, Sóti

kennings

einn beitir bráðra sóta barðs,
‘a certain steerer of the swift steeds of the prow, ’
   = SEAFARER

the swift steeds of the prow, → SHIPS
a certain steerer of SHIPS → SEAFARER

notes

[3-4] beitir bráðra sóta barðs ‘steerer of the swift steeds of the prow’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B), followed by Kock in Skald, emends to bræddra barða, and presumably construes the man-kenning beitir bræddra sóta barða ‘steerer of the tarred steeds of the ship’. His emendation of B’s ‘bardz’ (l. 4) to barða, gen. sg. of m. barði ‘ship’ is unnecessary, however, since barðs may be interpreted as gen. sg. of n. barð ‘beak, prow’, which occurs frequently in ship-kennings (LP: barð – the inclusion of a reference to barðs sóti in the first, 1916 edn of LP suggests that at that time Finnur believed B to be correct here). Finnur’s correction of the adj. to bræddra in Skj B and LP: 2. bræða ‘to tar’, though drastic, is rather happier, though it is possible to make sense of B’s bráðra by taking it as the gen. pl. of bráðr ‘swift, eager, sudden’ agreeing with sóta.

Close

barðs ‘of the prow’

barð (noun n.): prow, stern (of a ship)

kennings

einn beitir bráðra sóta barðs,
‘a certain steerer of the swift steeds of the prow, ’
   = SEAFARER

the swift steeds of the prow, → SHIPS
a certain steerer of SHIPS → SEAFARER

notes

[3-4] beitir bráðra sóta barðs ‘steerer of the swift steeds of the prow’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B), followed by Kock in Skald, emends to bræddra barða, and presumably construes the man-kenning beitir bræddra sóta barða ‘steerer of the tarred steeds of the ship’. His emendation of B’s ‘bardz’ (l. 4) to barða, gen. sg. of m. barði ‘ship’ is unnecessary, however, since barðs may be interpreted as gen. sg. of n. barð ‘beak, prow’, which occurs frequently in ship-kennings (LP: barð – the inclusion of a reference to barðs sóti in the first, 1916 edn of LP suggests that at that time Finnur believed B to be correct here). Finnur’s correction of the adj. to bræddra in Skj B and LP: 2. bræða ‘to tar’, though drastic, is rather happier, though it is possible to make sense of B’s bráðra by taking it as the gen. pl. of bráðr ‘swift, eager, sudden’ agreeing with sóta.

Close

barðs ‘of the prow’

barð (noun n.): prow, stern (of a ship)

kennings

einn beitir bráðra sóta barðs,
‘a certain steerer of the swift steeds of the prow, ’
   = SEAFARER

the swift steeds of the prow, → SHIPS
a certain steerer of SHIPS → SEAFARER

notes

[3-4] beitir bráðra sóta barðs ‘steerer of the swift steeds of the prow’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B), followed by Kock in Skald, emends to bræddra barða, and presumably construes the man-kenning beitir bræddra sóta barða ‘steerer of the tarred steeds of the ship’. His emendation of B’s ‘bardz’ (l. 4) to barða, gen. sg. of m. barði ‘ship’ is unnecessary, however, since barðs may be interpreted as gen. sg. of n. barð ‘beak, prow’, which occurs frequently in ship-kennings (LP: barð – the inclusion of a reference to barðs sóti in the first, 1916 edn of LP suggests that at that time Finnur believed B to be correct here). Finnur’s correction of the adj. to bræddra in Skj B and LP: 2. bræða ‘to tar’, though drastic, is rather happier, though it is possible to make sense of B’s bráðra by taking it as the gen. pl. of bráðr ‘swift, eager, sudden’ agreeing with sóta.

Close

Miklagarði ‘Constantinople’

Miklagarðr (noun m.): [Constantinople]

[4] Miklagarði: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘micla[...]di’ B, ‘micla[...]ardi’ BRydberg, BFJ

notes

[4] Miklagarði (dat.): Constantinople or Byzantium, modern Istanbul.

Close

Fúr ‘of the fire’

fúrr (noun m.): fire < fúrbrigðir (noun m.)

[5] Fúrbrigðir: ‘f(a)rbrigdir’(?) BRydberg, ‘fyrbrigdir’ BFJ

kennings

Fjölmætr Hlies fúrbrigðir
‘fire-spreader of Hlér’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of Hlér → GOLD
The very distinguished spreader of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[5, 7] Hlies fúrbrigðir ‘Hlér’s fire-spreader [GOLD > GENEROUS MAN]’: B is badly torn, and most of the first word of l. 7 (fol. 14v, l. 14) is lost. Initial <h> is confirmed by the alliterative pattern. Rydberg reads the last two letters ‘e᷎s’, interpreting hræs gen. sg. of n. hræ ‘carrion, scraps’. A diacritic of some kind is visible, but it might just as well be an accent as a hook. Similarly, fúrbrigðir suffers from manuscript cracking and wearing, but the second letter is <u>, not, as Rydberg reads it, <a> or <y> (so BFJ). Brigðir is an acceptable base-word in a man-kenning with determinant meaning ‘gold’ or something similar. This edn follows Skj B in adopting Sveinbjörn Egilsson’s suggested reconstruction (made in a note to 444ˣ) of the first word of l. 7 to Hlies (earlier Hlés), gen. sg. of Hlér m. which is given as an alternative name for Ægir, a sea-god, in the opening l. of Skm (SnE 1998, I, 1). ‘Hlér’s fire’ thus becomes a gold-kenning on a familiar ‘fire of the sea-god’ pattern (Meissner, 225). Rydberg’s prose arrangement reconstructs the man-kenning fárbrigðir hræs ‘drawer of the enemy of the corpse, drawer of the sword’.

Close

Fúr ‘of the fire’

fúrr (noun m.): fire < fúrbrigðir (noun m.)

[5] Fúrbrigðir: ‘f(a)rbrigdir’(?) BRydberg, ‘fyrbrigdir’ BFJ

kennings

Fjölmætr Hlies fúrbrigðir
‘fire-spreader of Hlér’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of Hlér → GOLD
The very distinguished spreader of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[5, 7] Hlies fúrbrigðir ‘Hlér’s fire-spreader [GOLD > GENEROUS MAN]’: B is badly torn, and most of the first word of l. 7 (fol. 14v, l. 14) is lost. Initial <h> is confirmed by the alliterative pattern. Rydberg reads the last two letters ‘e᷎s’, interpreting hræs gen. sg. of n. hræ ‘carrion, scraps’. A diacritic of some kind is visible, but it might just as well be an accent as a hook. Similarly, fúrbrigðir suffers from manuscript cracking and wearing, but the second letter is <u>, not, as Rydberg reads it, <a> or <y> (so BFJ). Brigðir is an acceptable base-word in a man-kenning with determinant meaning ‘gold’ or something similar. This edn follows Skj B in adopting Sveinbjörn Egilsson’s suggested reconstruction (made in a note to 444ˣ) of the first word of l. 7 to Hlies (earlier Hlés), gen. sg. of Hlér m. which is given as an alternative name for Ægir, a sea-god, in the opening l. of Skm (SnE 1998, I, 1). ‘Hlér’s fire’ thus becomes a gold-kenning on a familiar ‘fire of the sea-god’ pattern (Meissner, 225). Rydberg’s prose arrangement reconstructs the man-kenning fárbrigðir hræs ‘drawer of the enemy of the corpse, drawer of the sword’.

Close

brigðir ‘spreader’

brigðir (noun m.): spreader, breaker < fúrbrigðir (noun m.)

[5] Fúrbrigðir: ‘f(a)rbrigdir’(?) BRydberg, ‘fyrbrigdir’ BFJ

kennings

Fjölmætr Hlies fúrbrigðir
‘fire-spreader of Hlér’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of Hlér → GOLD
The very distinguished spreader of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[5, 7] Hlies fúrbrigðir ‘Hlér’s fire-spreader [GOLD > GENEROUS MAN]’: B is badly torn, and most of the first word of l. 7 (fol. 14v, l. 14) is lost. Initial <h> is confirmed by the alliterative pattern. Rydberg reads the last two letters ‘e᷎s’, interpreting hræs gen. sg. of n. hræ ‘carrion, scraps’. A diacritic of some kind is visible, but it might just as well be an accent as a hook. Similarly, fúrbrigðir suffers from manuscript cracking and wearing, but the second letter is <u>, not, as Rydberg reads it, <a> or <y> (so BFJ). Brigðir is an acceptable base-word in a man-kenning with determinant meaning ‘gold’ or something similar. This edn follows Skj B in adopting Sveinbjörn Egilsson’s suggested reconstruction (made in a note to 444ˣ) of the first word of l. 7 to Hlies (earlier Hlés), gen. sg. of Hlér m. which is given as an alternative name for Ægir, a sea-god, in the opening l. of Skm (SnE 1998, I, 1). ‘Hlér’s fire’ thus becomes a gold-kenning on a familiar ‘fire of the sea-god’ pattern (Meissner, 225). Rydberg’s prose arrangement reconstructs the man-kenning fárbrigðir hræs ‘drawer of the enemy of the corpse, drawer of the sword’.

Close

frægðar ‘fame’

frægð (noun f.): fame

Close

fjöl ‘The very’

2. fjǫl (noun n.): very < fjǫlmætr (adj.)

kennings

Fjölmætr Hlies fúrbrigðir
‘fire-spreader of Hlér’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of Hlér → GOLD
The very distinguished spreader of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

mætr ‘distinguished’

mætr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr): honoured, respected < fjǫlmætr (adj.)

kennings

Fjölmætr Hlies fúrbrigðir
‘fire-spreader of Hlér’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of Hlér → GOLD
The very distinguished spreader of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

Hlies ‘of Hlér’

Hlér (noun m.): Hlér

[7] Hlies: ‘[...]es’ all

kennings

Fjölmætr Hlies fúrbrigðir
‘fire-spreader of Hlér’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of Hlér → GOLD
The very distinguished spreader of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[5, 7] Hlies fúrbrigðir ‘Hlér’s fire-spreader [GOLD > GENEROUS MAN]’: B is badly torn, and most of the first word of l. 7 (fol. 14v, l. 14) is lost. Initial <h> is confirmed by the alliterative pattern. Rydberg reads the last two letters ‘e᷎s’, interpreting hræs gen. sg. of n. hræ ‘carrion, scraps’. A diacritic of some kind is visible, but it might just as well be an accent as a hook. Similarly, fúrbrigðir suffers from manuscript cracking and wearing, but the second letter is <u>, not, as Rydberg reads it, <a> or <y> (so BFJ). Brigðir is an acceptable base-word in a man-kenning with determinant meaning ‘gold’ or something similar. This edn follows Skj B in adopting Sveinbjörn Egilsson’s suggested reconstruction (made in a note to 444ˣ) of the first word of l. 7 to Hlies (earlier Hlés), gen. sg. of Hlér m. which is given as an alternative name for Ægir, a sea-god, in the opening l. of Skm (SnE 1998, I, 1). ‘Hlér’s fire’ thus becomes a gold-kenning on a familiar ‘fire of the sea-god’ pattern (Meissner, 225). Rydberg’s prose arrangement reconstructs the man-kenning fárbrigðir hræs ‘drawer of the enemy of the corpse, drawer of the sword’.

Close

Hlies ‘of Hlér’

Hlér (noun m.): Hlér

[7] Hlies: ‘[...]es’ all

kennings

Fjölmætr Hlies fúrbrigðir
‘fire-spreader of Hlér’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of Hlér → GOLD
The very distinguished spreader of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[5, 7] Hlies fúrbrigðir ‘Hlér’s fire-spreader [GOLD > GENEROUS MAN]’: B is badly torn, and most of the first word of l. 7 (fol. 14v, l. 14) is lost. Initial <h> is confirmed by the alliterative pattern. Rydberg reads the last two letters ‘e᷎s’, interpreting hræs gen. sg. of n. hræ ‘carrion, scraps’. A diacritic of some kind is visible, but it might just as well be an accent as a hook. Similarly, fúrbrigðir suffers from manuscript cracking and wearing, but the second letter is <u>, not, as Rydberg reads it, <a> or <y> (so BFJ). Brigðir is an acceptable base-word in a man-kenning with determinant meaning ‘gold’ or something similar. This edn follows Skj B in adopting Sveinbjörn Egilsson’s suggested reconstruction (made in a note to 444ˣ) of the first word of l. 7 to Hlies (earlier Hlés), gen. sg. of Hlér m. which is given as an alternative name for Ægir, a sea-god, in the opening l. of Skm (SnE 1998, I, 1). ‘Hlér’s fire’ thus becomes a gold-kenning on a familiar ‘fire of the sea-god’ pattern (Meissner, 225). Rydberg’s prose arrangement reconstructs the man-kenning fárbrigðir hræs ‘drawer of the enemy of the corpse, drawer of the sword’.

Close

hirði ‘the guardian’

hirð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-ar(FskB— 53‡)): retinue < hirðiáss (noun m.)

kennings

hirðiásu hafleygjar.
‘the guardian-gods of the wave-flame.’
   = GENEROUS MEN

the wave-flame. → GOLD
the guardian-gods of the GOLD → GENEROUS MEN
Close

ásu ‘gods’

2. Áss (noun m.; °áss, dat. ási/ás; ásar): god < hirðiáss (noun m.)

kennings

hirðiásu hafleygjar.
‘the guardian-gods of the wave-flame.’
   = GENEROUS MEN

the wave-flame. → GOLD
the guardian-gods of the GOLD → GENEROUS MEN
Close

haf ‘of the wave’

haf (noun n.; °-s; *-): sea < hafleygr (noun m.): ocean-flame

[8] hafleygjar: ‘[...]fle[...]iar’ all

kennings

hirðiásu hafleygjar.
‘the guardian-gods of the wave-flame.’
   = GENEROUS MEN

the wave-flame. → GOLD
the guardian-gods of the GOLD → GENEROUS MEN

notes

[8] hafleygjar ‘of the wave-flame [GOLD]’: Sveinbjörn Egilsson (note to 444ˣ) suggests reconstruction to hafleygjar, and this has been adopted by all subsequent eds.

Close

haf ‘of the wave’

haf (noun n.; °-s; *-): sea < hafleygr (noun m.): ocean-flame

[8] hafleygjar: ‘[...]fle[...]iar’ all

kennings

hirðiásu hafleygjar.
‘the guardian-gods of the wave-flame.’
   = GENEROUS MEN

the wave-flame. → GOLD
the guardian-gods of the GOLD → GENEROUS MEN

notes

[8] hafleygjar ‘of the wave-flame [GOLD]’: Sveinbjörn Egilsson (note to 444ˣ) suggests reconstruction to hafleygjar, and this has been adopted by all subsequent eds.

Close

leygjar ‘flame’

1. leygr (noun m.): flame < hafleygr (noun m.): ocean-flame

[8] hafleygjar: ‘[...]fle[...]iar’ all

kennings

hirðiásu hafleygjar.
‘the guardian-gods of the wave-flame.’
   = GENEROUS MEN

the wave-flame. → GOLD
the guardian-gods of the GOLD → GENEROUS MEN

notes

[8] hafleygjar ‘of the wave-flame [GOLD]’: Sveinbjörn Egilsson (note to 444ˣ) suggests reconstruction to hafleygjar, and this has been adopted by all subsequent eds.

Close

leygjar ‘flame’

1. leygr (noun m.): flame < hafleygr (noun m.): ocean-flame

[8] hafleygjar: ‘[...]fle[...]iar’ all

kennings

hirðiásu hafleygjar.
‘the guardian-gods of the wave-flame.’
   = GENEROUS MEN

the wave-flame. → GOLD
the guardian-gods of the GOLD → GENEROUS MEN

notes

[8] hafleygjar ‘of the wave-flame [GOLD]’: Sveinbjörn Egilsson (note to 444ˣ) suggests reconstruction to hafleygjar, and this has been adopted by all subsequent eds.

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.