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Anon Mdr 17VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Máríudrápa 17’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 492-4.

Anonymous PoemsMáríudrápa
161718

megni ‘the power’

meginn (adj.; °megnan; compar. megnari, superl. megnastr): strength

[1] megni: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...]egne’ B

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miskunnar ‘of mercy’

miskunn (noun f.; °-ar; gen. -a): forgiveness, mercy, grace

[2] miskunnar: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...]skunnar’ B

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full ‘over’

2. fullr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): full, complete < (unknown) (unclassified)2. fullr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): full, complete < (unknown) (unclassified)

[2] fullrunnin: ‘fullr[...]nn[...]’ B, fullrunnum 399a‑bˣ, ‘fullr(u)nni(n)’(?) BRydberg

notes

[2] fullrunnin ‘overflowing’: The 399a-bˣ copyist read fullrunnum with certainty. This participial adj. may be construed with megni miskunnar to give the prose arrangement fagnaðu mær af fullrunnum megni miskunnar ‘rejoice maiden from the overflowing power of mercy’. However, Rydberg read fullrunnin and this may be taken as f. nom. sg., agreeing with mær ‘maiden’. Fullrunnin af megni miskunnar ‘overflowing with the power of mercy’ is likely to be a calque on the familiar Marian epithet gratia plena ‘full of grace’, which originates in the Ave Maria, Gabriel’s words at the Annunciation (Luke I.28). Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) reconstructs miskunnar full brunni, translating glæd dig kraftig, mø, fuld af nådens kilde ‘rejoice strongly, maiden, full from the spring of mercy’. Kock (NN §1642) accepts Finnur’s reconstruction, but dismisses his translation, on the grounds that det är fagna, icke fullr, sem brukar konstrueras med dativ ‘it is fagna, not fullr, which should be construed with the dat.’. Fullr, he asserts (correctly), invariably governs the gen. Kock translates: gläd dig, jungfru, innerligen / över nådens fulla brunn ‘rejoice fervently, maiden, over mercy’s full spring’. Brunnr miskunnar ‘spring of mercy’ seems to be understood as an implicit Christ-kenning in Kock’s interpretation.

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runnin ‘flowing’

2. renna (verb): run (strong) < (unknown) (unclassified)

[2] fullrunnin: ‘fullr[...]nn[...]’ B, fullrunnum 399a‑bˣ, ‘fullr(u)nni(n)’(?) BRydberg

notes

[2] fullrunnin ‘overflowing’: The 399a-bˣ copyist read fullrunnum with certainty. This participial adj. may be construed with megni miskunnar to give the prose arrangement fagnaðu mær af fullrunnum megni miskunnar ‘rejoice maiden from the overflowing power of mercy’. However, Rydberg read fullrunnin and this may be taken as f. nom. sg., agreeing with mær ‘maiden’. Fullrunnin af megni miskunnar ‘overflowing with the power of mercy’ is likely to be a calque on the familiar Marian epithet gratia plena ‘full of grace’, which originates in the Ave Maria, Gabriel’s words at the Annunciation (Luke I.28). Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) reconstructs miskunnar full brunni, translating glæd dig kraftig, mø, fuld af nådens kilde ‘rejoice strongly, maiden, full from the spring of mercy’. Kock (NN §1642) accepts Finnur’s reconstruction, but dismisses his translation, on the grounds that det är fagna, icke fullr, sem brukar konstrueras med dativ ‘it is fagna, not fullr, which should be construed with the dat.’. Fullr, he asserts (correctly), invariably governs the gen. Kock translates: gläd dig, jungfru, innerligen / över nådens fulla brunn ‘rejoice fervently, maiden, over mercy’s full spring’. Brunnr miskunnar ‘spring of mercy’ seems to be understood as an implicit Christ-kenning in Kock’s interpretation.

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orð ‘the word’

orð (noun n.; °-s; -): word

[3] orð: ‘[...]’ B, öll 399a‑bˣ, oss BRydberg, BFJ

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orði ‘the word’

orð (noun n.; °-s; -): word

[3] orði: so 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, ‘[...]e’ B, ‘[...]’ BFJ

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o ‘the word’

orð (noun n.; °-s; -): word

[4] o: ‘[...]’ B, BRydberg, BFJ, ‘oṛð̣’ 399a‑bˣ

kennings

o guðs.
‘the word of God. ’
   = Christ

the word of God. → Christ
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guðs ‘of God’

1. guð (noun m.; °***guðrs, guðis, gus): (Christian) God

kennings

o guðs.
‘the word of God. ’
   = Christ

the word of God. → Christ
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bart* ‘bore’

3. bera (verb; °berr; bar, báru; borinn): bear, carry

[4] bart*: ‘barth’ B, 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, bænir BFJ

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forðum ‘once’

forðum (adv.): formerly, once

[4] forðum: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...]’ B, ‘frodan’ BRydberg, ‘frodv’ BFJ

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jörð ‘earth’

jǫrð (noun f.; °jarðar, dat. -u; jarðir/jarðar(DN I (1367) 304Š)): ground, earth

[5] jörð: so 399a‑bˣ, orð B, ‘(i)o᷎rd’(?) BRydberg, ‘[...]o᷎rd’ BFJ

notes

[5] jörð … orðin: Although B is defective, both the Lat. word tellus ‘earth’ and the verse context indicate that the second word of l. 5 must be jörð. Parallel ll. in subsequent sts (i.e. 19/1. 19/5, 20/1), as well as the first l. of this st., suggest that a vocative is required. Both Rydberg and Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) adopt 399a-bˣ’s reading and it is also adopted here. Vowel-alliteration may be preserved if the scribal ‘vorden’ (p.p. of verða ‘to become’) is normalised to orðin (ANG §§235.1, 490.2 and 3; CVC: verða).

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orðin ‘grown’

1. verða (verb): become, be

notes

[5] jörð … orðin: Although B is defective, both the Lat. word tellus ‘earth’ and the verse context indicate that the second word of l. 5 must be jörð. Parallel ll. in subsequent sts (i.e. 19/1. 19/5, 20/1), as well as the first l. of this st., suggest that a vocative is required. Both Rydberg and Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) adopt 399a-bˣ’s reading and it is also adopted here. Vowel-alliteration may be preserved if the scribal ‘vorden’ (p.p. of verða ‘to become’) is normalised to orðin (ANG §§235.1, 490.2 and 3; CVC: verða).

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alfr ‘fully’

alfr (noun m.; °; -ar): elf < alfrjávaðr (adj.)

[6] alfrjávuð*: ‘alfriafuðan’ B

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jávuð* ‘ripe’

(unknown) < alfrjávaðr (adj.)

[6] alfrjávuð*: ‘alfriafuðan’ B

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fekkt ‘you received’

2. fá (verb; °fǽr; fekk, fengu; fenginn): get, receive

[6] fekkt: ‘[...]ck’ B, ‘feck’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘fickt’ BRydberg, ‘[...]’ BFJ

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hávan ‘the high’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high

kennings

hávan ávöxt lífs
‘the high fruit of life ’
   = Christ

the high fruit of life → Christ
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lífs ‘of life’

líf (noun n.; °-s; -): life

kennings

hávan ávöxt lífs
‘the high fruit of life ’
   = Christ

the high fruit of life → Christ
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ávöxt ‘fruit’

ávǫxtr (noun m.; °·vaxtar (auoxtar DN IV (1342) 223¹), dat. ·vexti; acc. ·vǫxtu): fruit; offspring

kennings

hávan ávöxt lífs
‘the high fruit of life ’
   = Christ

the high fruit of life → Christ
Close

leyfðan ‘the praised’

leyfa (verb): permit; praise

kennings

leyfðan blóma leyndardóma.
‘the praised flower of mysteries.’
   = Christ

the praised flower of mysteries. → Christ
Close

leyndar ‘of mysteries’

leynd (noun f.; °-ar; dat. -um): [mysteries] < leyndardómr (noun m.)

[8] leyndardóma: ‘l[...]d[...]mma’ B, ‘ley[...]do[...]a’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘l[...]d(om)a’(?) BRydberg, ‘l[...]’ BFJ

kennings

leyfðan blóma leyndardóma.
‘the praised flower of mysteries.’
   = Christ

the praised flower of mysteries. → Christ

notes

[8] leyndardóma ‘of mysteries’: Emendation suggested by Jón Sigurðsson in a marginal note to 444ˣ and adopted by all eds.

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dóma ‘’

dómr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): judgement; court; -dom, -ness (suffix) < leyndardómr (noun m.)

[8] leyndardóma: ‘l[...]d[...]mma’ B, ‘ley[...]do[...]a’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘l[...]d(om)a’(?) BRydberg, ‘l[...]’ BFJ

kennings

leyfðan blóma leyndardóma.
‘the praised flower of mysteries.’
   = Christ

the praised flower of mysteries. → Christ

notes

[8] leyndardóma ‘of mysteries’: Emendation suggested by Jón Sigurðsson in a marginal note to 444ˣ and adopted by all eds.

Close

blóma ‘flower’

blómi (noun m.; °-a; -ar): flower

[8] blóma: ‘blom[...]’ B, BRydberg, BFJ, ‘blome’ 399a‑bˣ

kennings

leyfðan blóma leyndardóma.
‘the praised flower of mysteries.’
   = Christ

the praised flower of mysteries. → Christ
Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Here begins the poet’s rendition of the antiphon Gaude virgo gratiosa ‘Rejoice, virgin full of grace’ (AH 9, 54, no. 66; Schottmann 1973, 519) which extends to st. 19. Lines 1-2 render the first l. of the Lat. hymn. B is illegible in many places, so the readings of previous transcribers, notably the 399a-bˣ transcriber and Rydberg, have been drawn on to reconstruct the text. — [3-4]: These ll. are difficult and the ms. readings uncertain in several places. However, they should correspond to the 2nd l. of the Lat. hymn, verbum verbo concepisti ‘you conceived the word from the word’. This can be achieved with a small number of emendations, viz., orð (l. 3) and orð again (l. 4), while accepting 399a-bˣ’s readings orði (l. 3) and forðum (l. 4). B’s ‘barth’ (l. 4) is understood as the 2nd pers. sg. pret. of bera ‘to bear’. Finnur Jónsson offers no interpretation of ll. 3-4, and reproduces only those words which are clearly legible in B. Kock (Skald) conjectures dýr gazt oss af ærnu | óð guðs ok bæn fróða ‘glorious, you have provided us amply with song and wise prayer to God’, which makes sense, but bears little relation to what of the text is preserved. It is clear from sts 19 and 20, which are concerned with the Resurrection and Ascension of Christ and the Coronation of the Virgin, that st. 17 is the first part of an evocation of the five joys of Mary. This st. should therefore deal with the Annunciation and the Nativity. — [5-8]: Compare ll. 3-4 of the hymn Gaude virgo gratiosa: Gaude, tellus fructuosa, / fructum vitae protulisti ‘Rejoice, fruitful earth, you bore the fruit of life’.

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