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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Mdr 16VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Máríudrápa 16’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 491-2.

Anonymous PoemsMáríudrápa
151617

Viðir ‘trees’

1. viðr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -i/-; -ir, acc. -u/-i): wood, tree

[1] Viðir: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘Vid[...]’ B

kennings

viðir flæðar Fenris
‘trees of the river of Fenrir ’
   = WARRIORS

the river of Fenrir → BLOOD
trees of the BLOOD → WARRIORS

notes

[1] viðir flæðar Fenris ‘trees of the river of Fenrir [BLOOD > WARRIORS]’: The interpretation of flæð Fenris ‘river of Fenrir’ as ‘blood’ is supported by the blood-kenning Fenris brunnr ‘Fenrir’s spring’ in two mss of Bjhit Lv 19/3-4V (see Skj AI, 304). Man-kennings on the ‘tree of blood’ model are not attested elsewhere in the corpus. Kock (NN §1641) follows Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) in interpolating bliks gen. sg. ‘of the gleam’ and deleting ms. ‘og’, creating the man-kenning, viðir bliks flæðar Fenris ‘trees of the gleam of the river of Fenrir [BLOOD > SWORD > WARRIORS]’. This, however, has no ms. justification.

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Fenris ‘of Fenrir’

Fenrir (noun m.): Fenrir

kennings

viðir flæðar Fenris
‘trees of the river of Fenrir ’
   = WARRIORS

the river of Fenrir → BLOOD
trees of the BLOOD → WARRIORS

notes

[1] viðir flæðar Fenris ‘trees of the river of Fenrir [BLOOD > WARRIORS]’: The interpretation of flæð Fenris ‘river of Fenrir’ as ‘blood’ is supported by the blood-kenning Fenris brunnr ‘Fenrir’s spring’ in two mss of Bjhit Lv 19/3-4V (see Skj AI, 304). Man-kennings on the ‘tree of blood’ model are not attested elsewhere in the corpus. Kock (NN §1641) follows Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) in interpolating bliks gen. sg. ‘of the gleam’ and deleting ms. ‘og’, creating the man-kenning, viðir bliks flæðar Fenris ‘trees of the gleam of the river of Fenrir [BLOOD > SWORD > WARRIORS]’. This, however, has no ms. justification.

Close

Fenris ‘of Fenrir’

Fenrir (noun m.): Fenrir

kennings

viðir flæðar Fenris
‘trees of the river of Fenrir ’
   = WARRIORS

the river of Fenrir → BLOOD
trees of the BLOOD → WARRIORS

notes

[1] viðir flæðar Fenris ‘trees of the river of Fenrir [BLOOD > WARRIORS]’: The interpretation of flæð Fenris ‘river of Fenrir’ as ‘blood’ is supported by the blood-kenning Fenris brunnr ‘Fenrir’s spring’ in two mss of Bjhit Lv 19/3-4V (see Skj AI, 304). Man-kennings on the ‘tree of blood’ model are not attested elsewhere in the corpus. Kock (NN §1641) follows Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) in interpolating bliks gen. sg. ‘of the gleam’ and deleting ms. ‘og’, creating the man-kenning, viðir bliks flæðar Fenris ‘trees of the gleam of the river of Fenrir [BLOOD > SWORD > WARRIORS]’. This, however, has no ms. justification.

Close

flæðar ‘of the river’

flœð (noun f.): flood, sea

kennings

viðir flæðar Fenris
‘trees of the river of Fenrir ’
   = WARRIORS

the river of Fenrir → BLOOD
trees of the BLOOD → WARRIORS

notes

[1] viðir flæðar Fenris ‘trees of the river of Fenrir [BLOOD > WARRIORS]’: The interpretation of flæð Fenris ‘river of Fenrir’ as ‘blood’ is supported by the blood-kenning Fenris brunnr ‘Fenrir’s spring’ in two mss of Bjhit Lv 19/3-4V (see Skj AI, 304). Man-kennings on the ‘tree of blood’ model are not attested elsewhere in the corpus. Kock (NN §1641) follows Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) in interpolating bliks gen. sg. ‘of the gleam’ and deleting ms. ‘og’, creating the man-kenning, viðir bliks flæðar Fenris ‘trees of the gleam of the river of Fenrir [BLOOD > SWORD > WARRIORS]’. This, however, has no ms. justification.

Close

flæðar ‘of the river’

flœð (noun f.): flood, sea

kennings

viðir flæðar Fenris
‘trees of the river of Fenrir ’
   = WARRIORS

the river of Fenrir → BLOOD
trees of the BLOOD → WARRIORS

notes

[1] viðir flæðar Fenris ‘trees of the river of Fenrir [BLOOD > WARRIORS]’: The interpretation of flæð Fenris ‘river of Fenrir’ as ‘blood’ is supported by the blood-kenning Fenris brunnr ‘Fenrir’s spring’ in two mss of Bjhit Lv 19/3-4V (see Skj AI, 304). Man-kennings on the ‘tree of blood’ model are not attested elsewhere in the corpus. Kock (NN §1641) follows Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) in interpolating bliks gen. sg. ‘of the gleam’ and deleting ms. ‘og’, creating the man-kenning, viðir bliks flæðar Fenris ‘trees of the gleam of the river of Fenrir [BLOOD > SWORD > WARRIORS]’. This, however, has no ms. justification.

Close

hyggju ‘’

1. hyggja (noun f.; °-u; -ur): thought, mind

[3] hyggju: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘h[...]giu’ B

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fylling ‘fulfilment’

fylling (noun f.): [fulfilment]

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fulla ‘the absolute’

2. fullr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): full, complete

[5] fulla: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘f[...]lla’ B

Close

friðar ‘peace’

friðr (noun m.): peace

Close

af ‘of’

af (prep.): from

[6] af: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...]f’ B

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sýndir ‘you revealed’

sýna (verb): show, seem

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geisla ‘of sun-beams’

geisli (noun m.): beam of light

kennings

grundar geisla,
‘of the land of sun-beams, ’
   = SKY/HEAVEN

the land of sun-beams, → SKY/HEAVEN

notes

[7] geisla ‘of sun-beams’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B), followed by Kock (Skald), emends to geisli nom. taking geisli grundar ‘sunbeam of the earth’ as an epithet for Mary. He translates du, jordens stråle, viste den fuldkomne freds fylde ‘you, earth’s sunbeam, showed the fulfilment of absolute peace’. Finnur’s emendation is unnecessary, since, as Schottmann points out (1973, 43 n. 29), grund geisla ‘land of sunbeams’ makes for a perfectly acceptable heaven-kenning, which also occurs in Líkn 30/7-8 and EGils Guðv 10/3IV.

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grundar ‘of the land’

grund (noun f.): earth, land

kennings

grundar geisla,
‘of the land of sun-beams, ’
   = SKY/HEAVEN

the land of sun-beams, → SKY/HEAVEN
Close

guð ‘God’

1. guð (noun m.; °***guðrs, guðis, gus): (Christian) God

[8] guð og: ‘[...]d [...]’ B, ‘[...] ok’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...]d ok’ BRydberg, BFJ

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og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[8] guð og: ‘[...]d [...]’ B, ‘[...] ok’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...]d ok’ BRydberg, BFJ

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[1-4]: The interpretation of these ll, as they stand in B, is problematic, and eds have resorted to various emendations to make sense of them. In this edn, ll. 3-4 have been regarded as corrupt to the point of being unemendable and incomprehensible. It is possible, however, that ll. 1-4 refer to the Annunciation. — [2-4]: The first word of l. 2, abbreviated in B, has been read as fyrri adj. ‘former, earlier’ (so Skj B, Skald and here) or as the prep. fyrir (so Rydberg), construed with mier (l. 3). Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) offers the following paraphrase of ll. 1-2: man spörger om tidligere tegn ‘people enquire about earlier signs’ but does not attempt an interpretation of ll. 3-4. Kock (NN §1641), partly anticipated by Rydberg emends l. 3 to meir á hyggju hári and paraphrases: Bärare av guldets strålglans / söka tidigare tecken / och omfatta sedan högvist / sättet for försoningen ‘Carriers of gold’s radiance seek earlier signs and thus embrace, with high certainty, the manner of the agreement’.

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