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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Mdr 14VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Máríudrápa 14’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 490.

Anonymous PoemsMáríudrápa
131415

reiknaz ‘are accounted’

reikna (verb): count, reckon

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lasta ‘of sins’

lǫstr (noun m.; °lastar, dat. lesti/lǫst; lestir, acc. lǫstu/lasta(Mar655XXXII 462Š)): fault, sin

kennings

ins hæsta læknis lasta,
‘of the most high healer of sins, ’
   = God

the most high healer of sins, → God
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læknis ‘healer’

læknir (noun m.; °lǽknis, dat. & acc. lǽkni (dat. lǽknir(JBpC(2003)— 146¹⁰)); lǽknar): doctor

[1] læknis: ‘lęknss’ B, BRydberg, ‘lękn(i)ss’(?) 399a‑bˣ, BFJ

kennings

ins hæsta læknis lasta,
‘of the most high healer of sins, ’
   = God

the most high healer of sins, → God
Close

lamið ‘beaten’

lemja (verb): beat, make lame

[2] lamið: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘lame[...]’ B

notes

[2, 4] eigi lamið með hamri … skynsemdar ‘not beaten by the hammer … of reason’: The significance of the cl. as a whole depends in part on whether B’s ‘hialpremmdar’ is emended and construed with skynsemdar (l. 4) or with læknis (l. 1). Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) follows Rydberg, and is followed in turn by Kock, in emending to hjálpremdrar f. gen. sg. to agree with skynsemdar, construing eigi lamit með hamri hjálpremdrar skynsemdar, which he paraphrases ikke hamret (opført) med den frelsekraftige fornufts hammer ‘not beaten (built up) with salvation-powerful reason’s hammer’. The sense of the helmingr is then presumably that Mary as the temple of Christ exists by divine fiat and does not need to be strengthened by means of arguments deriving from the expectation of salvation (which human beings require). Another possibility is to emend to hjálpremda* m. gen. sg., in apposition with ins hæsta, qualifying læknis lasta (l. 1). The helmingr can then be interpreted to mean that Mary is the ‘chief temple’ of Christ, and together they bring salvation to sinful mankind; Mary is a temple of grace and intercession, not built up (hammered, carrying on the image of a building) by reason. LP: hjalpremdr notes that one might expect this hap. leg. adj. to qualify læknis or þú rather than skynsemd.

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eigi ‘not’

3. eigi (adv.): not

notes

[2, 4] eigi lamið með hamri … skynsemdar ‘not beaten by the hammer … of reason’: The significance of the cl. as a whole depends in part on whether B’s ‘hialpremmdar’ is emended and construed with skynsemdar (l. 4) or with læknis (l. 1). Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) follows Rydberg, and is followed in turn by Kock, in emending to hjálpremdrar f. gen. sg. to agree with skynsemdar, construing eigi lamit með hamri hjálpremdrar skynsemdar, which he paraphrases ikke hamret (opført) med den frelsekraftige fornufts hammer ‘not beaten (built up) with salvation-powerful reason’s hammer’. The sense of the helmingr is then presumably that Mary as the temple of Christ exists by divine fiat and does not need to be strengthened by means of arguments deriving from the expectation of salvation (which human beings require). Another possibility is to emend to hjálpremda* m. gen. sg., in apposition with ins hæsta, qualifying læknis lasta (l. 1). The helmingr can then be interpreted to mean that Mary is the ‘chief temple’ of Christ, and together they bring salvation to sinful mankind; Mary is a temple of grace and intercession, not built up (hammered, carrying on the image of a building) by reason. LP: hjalpremdr notes that one might expect this hap. leg. adj. to qualify læknis or þú rather than skynsemd.

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með ‘by’

með (prep.): with

notes

[2, 4] eigi lamið með hamri … skynsemdar ‘not beaten by the hammer … of reason’: The significance of the cl. as a whole depends in part on whether B’s ‘hialpremmdar’ is emended and construed with skynsemdar (l. 4) or with læknis (l. 1). Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) follows Rydberg, and is followed in turn by Kock, in emending to hjálpremdrar f. gen. sg. to agree with skynsemdar, construing eigi lamit með hamri hjálpremdrar skynsemdar, which he paraphrases ikke hamret (opført) med den frelsekraftige fornufts hammer ‘not beaten (built up) with salvation-powerful reason’s hammer’. The sense of the helmingr is then presumably that Mary as the temple of Christ exists by divine fiat and does not need to be strengthened by means of arguments deriving from the expectation of salvation (which human beings require). Another possibility is to emend to hjálpremda* m. gen. sg., in apposition with ins hæsta, qualifying læknis lasta (l. 1). The helmingr can then be interpreted to mean that Mary is the ‘chief temple’ of Christ, and together they bring salvation to sinful mankind; Mary is a temple of grace and intercession, not built up (hammered, carrying on the image of a building) by reason. LP: hjalpremdr notes that one might expect this hap. leg. adj. to qualify læknis or þú rather than skynsemd.

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hamri ‘the hammer’

1. hamarr (noun m.; °-s, dat. hamri; hamrar): hammer, cliff

notes

[2, 4] eigi lamið með hamri … skynsemdar ‘not beaten by the hammer … of reason’: The significance of the cl. as a whole depends in part on whether B’s ‘hialpremmdar’ is emended and construed with skynsemdar (l. 4) or with læknis (l. 1). Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) follows Rydberg, and is followed in turn by Kock, in emending to hjálpremdrar f. gen. sg. to agree with skynsemdar, construing eigi lamit með hamri hjálpremdrar skynsemdar, which he paraphrases ikke hamret (opført) med den frelsekraftige fornufts hammer ‘not beaten (built up) with salvation-powerful reason’s hammer’. The sense of the helmingr is then presumably that Mary as the temple of Christ exists by divine fiat and does not need to be strengthened by means of arguments deriving from the expectation of salvation (which human beings require). Another possibility is to emend to hjálpremda* m. gen. sg., in apposition with ins hæsta, qualifying læknis lasta (l. 1). The helmingr can then be interpreted to mean that Mary is the ‘chief temple’ of Christ, and together they bring salvation to sinful mankind; Mary is a temple of grace and intercession, not built up (hammered, carrying on the image of a building) by reason. LP: hjalpremdr notes that one might expect this hap. leg. adj. to qualify læknis or þú rather than skynsemd.

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höfuð ‘chief’

hǫfuð (noun n.; °-s; -): head < hǫfuðmusteri (noun n.)

[3] höfuðmusteri ins: ‘ho᷎fut must[...]’ B, ‘ho᷎fut must[...]s’ 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, BFJ

notes

[3] höfuðmusteri ins hæsta: Only ‘ho᷎fut must…’ is now legible in B. The 444ˣ transcriber, Rydberg and Finnur Jónsson were able to make out a final <s>, but all eds have relied on Jón Sigurðsson’s suggested reconstruction to hǫfuðmusteri ens hæsta. Jón’s reconstruction is likely to be influenced by the occurrence of the identical l. at Has 60/3. See Note on hæstr höfuðkastali in 1/7-8.

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musteri ‘temple’

musteri (noun n.; °-s; -): church, temple < hǫfuðmusteri (noun n.)

[3] höfuðmusteri ins: ‘ho᷎fut must[...]’ B, ‘ho᷎fut must[...]s’ 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, BFJ

notes

[3] höfuðmusteri ins hæsta: Only ‘ho᷎fut must…’ is now legible in B. The 444ˣ transcriber, Rydberg and Finnur Jónsson were able to make out a final <s>, but all eds have relied on Jón Sigurðsson’s suggested reconstruction to hǫfuðmusteri ens hæsta. Jón’s reconstruction is likely to be influenced by the occurrence of the identical l. at Has 60/3. See Note on hæstr höfuðkastali in 1/7-8.

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ins ‘of the’

2. inn (art.): the

[3] höfuðmusteri ins: ‘ho᷎fut must[...]’ B, ‘ho᷎fut must[...]s’ 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, BFJ

kennings

ins hæsta læknis lasta,
‘of the most high healer of sins, ’
   = God

the most high healer of sins, → God

notes

[3] höfuðmusteri ins hæsta: Only ‘ho᷎fut must…’ is now legible in B. The 444ˣ transcriber, Rydberg and Finnur Jónsson were able to make out a final <s>, but all eds have relied on Jón Sigurðsson’s suggested reconstruction to hǫfuðmusteri ens hæsta. Jón’s reconstruction is likely to be influenced by the occurrence of the identical l. at Has 60/3. See Note on hæstr höfuðkastali in 1/7-8.

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hæsta ‘most high’

hœgri (adj. comp.): higher, highest

kennings

ins hæsta læknis lasta,
‘of the most high healer of sins, ’
   = God

the most high healer of sins, → God

notes

[3] höfuðmusteri ins hæsta: Only ‘ho᷎fut must…’ is now legible in B. The 444ˣ transcriber, Rydberg and Finnur Jónsson were able to make out a final <s>, but all eds have relied on Jón Sigurðsson’s suggested reconstruction to hǫfuðmusteri ens hæsta. Jón’s reconstruction is likely to be influenced by the occurrence of the identical l. at Has 60/3. See Note on hæstr höfuðkastali in 1/7-8.

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hjálp ‘of salvation’

hjǫlp (noun f.; °hjalpar; hjalpir/hjalpar): help, salvation < hjalpremðr (adj.)

[4] hjálpremdrar: ‘hialpremmdar’ B

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remdrar ‘strengthened’

2. remma (verb): strengthen < hjalpremðr (adj.)

[4] hjálpremdrar: ‘hialpremmdar’ B

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skyn ‘reason’

1. skyn (noun f.; °-jar; -jar): [reason] < skynsemð (noun f.): reason

notes

[2, 4] eigi lamið með hamri … skynsemdar ‘not beaten by the hammer … of reason’: The significance of the cl. as a whole depends in part on whether B’s ‘hialpremmdar’ is emended and construed with skynsemdar (l. 4) or with læknis (l. 1). Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) follows Rydberg, and is followed in turn by Kock, in emending to hjálpremdrar f. gen. sg. to agree with skynsemdar, construing eigi lamit með hamri hjálpremdrar skynsemdar, which he paraphrases ikke hamret (opført) med den frelsekraftige fornufts hammer ‘not beaten (built up) with salvation-powerful reason’s hammer’. The sense of the helmingr is then presumably that Mary as the temple of Christ exists by divine fiat and does not need to be strengthened by means of arguments deriving from the expectation of salvation (which human beings require). Another possibility is to emend to hjálpremda* m. gen. sg., in apposition with ins hæsta, qualifying læknis lasta (l. 1). The helmingr can then be interpreted to mean that Mary is the ‘chief temple’ of Christ, and together they bring salvation to sinful mankind; Mary is a temple of grace and intercession, not built up (hammered, carrying on the image of a building) by reason. LP: hjalpremdr notes that one might expect this hap. leg. adj. to qualify læknis or þú rather than skynsemd.

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semdar ‘’

-semð (noun f.): (?) < skynsemð (noun f.): reason

notes

[2, 4] eigi lamið með hamri … skynsemdar ‘not beaten by the hammer … of reason’: The significance of the cl. as a whole depends in part on whether B’s ‘hialpremmdar’ is emended and construed with skynsemdar (l. 4) or with læknis (l. 1). Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) follows Rydberg, and is followed in turn by Kock, in emending to hjálpremdrar f. gen. sg. to agree with skynsemdar, construing eigi lamit með hamri hjálpremdrar skynsemdar, which he paraphrases ikke hamret (opført) med den frelsekraftige fornufts hammer ‘not beaten (built up) with salvation-powerful reason’s hammer’. The sense of the helmingr is then presumably that Mary as the temple of Christ exists by divine fiat and does not need to be strengthened by means of arguments deriving from the expectation of salvation (which human beings require). Another possibility is to emend to hjálpremda* m. gen. sg., in apposition with ins hæsta, qualifying læknis lasta (l. 1). The helmingr can then be interpreted to mean that Mary is the ‘chief temple’ of Christ, and together they bring salvation to sinful mankind; Mary is a temple of grace and intercession, not built up (hammered, carrying on the image of a building) by reason. LP: hjalpremdr notes that one might expect this hap. leg. adj. to qualify læknis or þú rather than skynsemd.

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Þar ‘There’

þar (adv.): there

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þjóðar ‘of people’

þjóð (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir): people

kennings

þýðr stýrir þjóðar
‘the kind governor of people ’
   = God

the kind governor of people → God
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stýrir ‘governor’

stýrir (noun m.): ruler, controller

[5] stýrir: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘st[...]r’ B

kennings

þýðr stýrir þjóðar
‘the kind governor of people ’
   = God

the kind governor of people → God
Close

þýðr ‘the kind’

þýðr (adj.): kind

kennings

þýðr stýrir þjóðar
‘the kind governor of people ’
   = God

the kind governor of people → God
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guð ‘God’

1. guð (noun m.; °***guðrs, guðis, gus): (Christian) God < guðdómr (noun m.): God’s dominion

[7] guðm: ‘gudd[...]’ B, guðdó(m)(?) 399a‑bˣ

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samdi ‘arranged’

2. semja (verb): befit

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