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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Líkn 6VII

George S. Tate (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Líknarbraut 6’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 236.

Anonymous PoemsLíknarbraut
567

Þann ‘Such’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

notes

[1] þann ‘such [fruit]’: The demonstrative pron. refers back to ávöxt ‘fruit’ (5/5). Snorri Sturluson calls such a concatenation of sts langlokum ‘with late conclusions’ or ‘with long enclosings’ (SnE 1999, 10-11, 124 and cf. SnSt Ht 14-15III).

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margr ‘many’

2. margr (adj.; °-an): many

kennings

margr rýrir randa röðuls
‘many a destroyer of shields’ sun ’
   = WARRIOR

shields’ sun → SWORDS
many a destroyer of SWORDS → WARRIOR
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randa ‘of shields’’

rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim

kennings

margr rýrir randa röðuls
‘many a destroyer of shields’ sun ’
   = WARRIOR

shields’ sun → SWORDS
many a destroyer of SWORDS → WARRIOR

notes

[4] randa ... röðuls ‘of rims’ sun [SWORD]’: Randa is either gen. pl. of rönd ‘rim’ or gen. sg. of randi ‘shield’. LP (1860), LP: röðull, and Meissner, 151 construe as a sword-kenning. Since both sword- and shield-kennings can employ ‘sun’ or ‘moon’ as base-words, confusion is possible. Thus Finnur Jónsson takes Fróða bógar bjúgröðull ‘bowed sun of Fróði’s arm’ (Þmáhl Mav 7/5-8V) as a sword-kenning in Skj B (translation) but as a shield-kenning in LP. Meissner’s key for deciding on ‘sword’ is that there can be no doubt if, as here, ‘shield’ is the determinant (Meissner, 151). Rydberg 1907, 48 emends without comment to pl. röðla.

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randa ‘of shields’’

rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim

kennings

margr rýrir randa röðuls
‘many a destroyer of shields’ sun ’
   = WARRIOR

shields’ sun → SWORDS
many a destroyer of SWORDS → WARRIOR

notes

[4] randa ... röðuls ‘of rims’ sun [SWORD]’: Randa is either gen. pl. of rönd ‘rim’ or gen. sg. of randi ‘shield’. LP (1860), LP: röðull, and Meissner, 151 construe as a sword-kenning. Since both sword- and shield-kennings can employ ‘sun’ or ‘moon’ as base-words, confusion is possible. Thus Finnur Jónsson takes Fróða bógar bjúgröðull ‘bowed sun of Fróði’s arm’ (Þmáhl Mav 7/5-8V) as a sword-kenning in Skj B (translation) but as a shield-kenning in LP. Meissner’s key for deciding on ‘sword’ is that there can be no doubt if, as here, ‘shield’ is the determinant (Meissner, 151). Rydberg 1907, 48 emends without comment to pl. röðla.

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rýrir ‘a destroyer’

rýrir (noun m.): diminsher, destroyer

kennings

margr rýrir randa röðuls
‘many a destroyer of shields’ sun ’
   = WARRIOR

shields’ sun → SWORDS
many a destroyer of SWORDS → WARRIOR
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röðuls ‘sun’

rǫðull (noun m.; °dat. rǫðli): heavenly body

kennings

margr rýrir randa röðuls
‘many a destroyer of shields’ sun ’
   = WARRIOR

shields’ sun → SWORDS
many a destroyer of SWORDS → WARRIOR

notes

[4] randa ... röðuls ‘of rims’ sun [SWORD]’: Randa is either gen. pl. of rönd ‘rim’ or gen. sg. of randi ‘shield’. LP (1860), LP: röðull, and Meissner, 151 construe as a sword-kenning. Since both sword- and shield-kennings can employ ‘sun’ or ‘moon’ as base-words, confusion is possible. Thus Finnur Jónsson takes Fróða bógar bjúgröðull ‘bowed sun of Fróði’s arm’ (Þmáhl Mav 7/5-8V) as a sword-kenning in Skj B (translation) but as a shield-kenning in LP. Meissner’s key for deciding on ‘sword’ is that there can be no doubt if, as here, ‘shield’ is the determinant (Meissner, 151). Rydberg 1907, 48 emends without comment to pl. röðla.

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röðuls ‘sun’

rǫðull (noun m.; °dat. rǫðli): heavenly body

kennings

margr rýrir randa röðuls
‘many a destroyer of shields’ sun ’
   = WARRIOR

shields’ sun → SWORDS
many a destroyer of SWORDS → WARRIOR

notes

[4] randa ... röðuls ‘of rims’ sun [SWORD]’: Randa is either gen. pl. of rönd ‘rim’ or gen. sg. of randi ‘shield’. LP (1860), LP: röðull, and Meissner, 151 construe as a sword-kenning. Since both sword- and shield-kennings can employ ‘sun’ or ‘moon’ as base-words, confusion is possible. Thus Finnur Jónsson takes Fróða bógar bjúgröðull ‘bowed sun of Fróði’s arm’ (Þmáhl Mav 7/5-8V) as a sword-kenning in Skj B (translation) but as a shield-kenning in LP. Meissner’s key for deciding on ‘sword’ is that there can be no doubt if, as here, ‘shield’ is the determinant (Meissner, 151). Rydberg 1907, 48 emends without comment to pl. röðla.

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fram ‘’

fram (adv.): out, forth, forwards, away < framkvæma (verb)

[4] framkvæmdan: framkvæmd B, 399a‑bˣ

notes

[4] framkvæmdan: As it stands, the l. is unmetrical and must have had an unstressed syllable after -kvæmd. For this reason, Skj B emends to framkvæmdan ‘obtained, produced’ (cf. LP: framkvæmðr, adj. only occurrence). Skald follows Sveinbjörn Egilsson, giving framkvæmð ‘furtherance (båtnad)’, and adds an enclitic of before ǫðlaz (cf. NN §1387); this is unmetrical.

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kvæmdan ‘produced’

[4] framkvæmdan: framkvæmd B, 399a‑bˣ

notes

[4] framkvæmdan: As it stands, the l. is unmetrical and must have had an unstressed syllable after -kvæmd. For this reason, Skj B emends to framkvæmdan ‘obtained, produced’ (cf. LP: framkvæmðr, adj. only occurrence). Skald follows Sveinbjörn Egilsson, giving framkvæmð ‘furtherance (båtnad)’, and adds an enclitic of before ǫðlaz (cf. NN §1387); this is unmetrical.

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öðlaz ‘gain benefit from’

ǫðla (verb): gain

[4] öðlaz: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘o᷎dl[...]z’ B

notes

[4] öðlaz: Restoration of ‘a’ based upon 399a-bˣ.

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S… ‘[a perversion?]’

(non-lexical)

[5] S…: ‘s[...]’ B, 399a‑bˣ

notes

[5] s...: Lacuna in B; a minim follows ‘s’, with perhaps the tip of a second (suggesting possible ‘u’). Judging from the space, the missing word is probably monosyllabic but could be disyllabic, in which case the suffixed pron. of látattu ‘let not’ would be dropped. (A suffixed 2nd pers. pron. is otherwise only metrically necessary in 5/1.) Sveinbjörn Egilsson conjectures svík, a nominal form of svíkja ‘to betray’; cf. Rydberg sveik (or sút ‘sorrow, affliction’). Skj B does not try to supply the missing letters, but speculates that the damaged word might mean ‘punishment’. Skald (cf. NN §1388) posits svarf (from svarfa [sverfa?] ‘to bring something out of its proper position’, i.e., here, a wrenching or twisting of the law). This proposal seems reasonable; hence ‘perversion’. As Kock (Skald) observes, the st. juxtaposes the good effects of inspired poetry (in the first helmingr) with the possible evil effects (in the second) if the poet’s prayer for divine help goes unanswered.

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af ‘from’

af (prep.): from

notes

[6] af því ‘from it, on its account’: Lacks a noun antecedent; kvæði ‘poem’ is understood.

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því ‘it’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

notes

[6] af því ‘from it, on its account’: Lacks a noun antecedent; kvæði ‘poem’ is understood.

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at ‘to’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[7] at grandi: ‘at gra[...]e’ B, ‘at granḍẹ’ corrected from ‘af granḍẹ’ 399a‑bˣ

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grandi ‘the injury’

grand (noun n.): injury

[7] at grandi: ‘at gra[...]e’ B, ‘at granḍẹ’ corrected from ‘af granḍẹ’ 399a‑bˣ

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þinna ‘of your’

þinn (pron.; °f. þín, n. þitt): your

[8] þinna: ‘þ[...]a’ B, ‘þịṇṇạ’ 399a‑bˣ

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