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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Vígf Lv 1I

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Vígfúss Víga-Glúmsson, Lausavísa 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 364.

Vígfúss Víga-GlúmssonLausavísa1

es ‘is’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[1] es (‘er’): om. 510

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en ‘but’

2. en (conj.): but, and

[1] en: so Flat, enn er FskBˣ, enn FskAˣ, 7, 510

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lauka ‘of leeks’

laukr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): leek, mast

kennings

feimu lauka
‘of the lady of leeks ’
   = WOMAN

the lady of leeks → WOMAN

notes

[1] lauka ‘of leeks’: Or ‘of herbs’. The exact sense of laukr m. is somewhat elusive, but can include leek, garlic, onion, herbs and plants generally (see Guðrún P. Helgadóttir 1981). It is a stock attribute of women, forming the determinant of kennings (see LP: 1. laukr) and appearing in another context contrasting war and womanising, or at least home comforts, in Anon Sveinfl, with its image of a girl plying a man with ale and laukar.

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liggr ‘lies around’

liggja (verb): lie

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feimu ‘of the lady’

feima (noun f.): lass

kennings

feimu lauka
‘of the lady of leeks ’
   = WOMAN

the lady of leeks → WOMAN

notes

[2] feimu ‘of the lady’: This is a heiti for ‘woman’ in Þul Kvenna I 1/4III, and hence its coupling with a determinant lauka ‘of leeks, herbs’ may be superfluous, but it could be that feima was, rightly or wrongly, being thought of as a goddess- or valkyrie-name, which would be a standard type of base-word in a woman-kenning. It also occurs as the name of a low-born woman in 25/6 and of a troll-woman in Gríms saga loðinkinna: see Feima Lv 1/1VIII (GrL 2) and Note. Konráð Gíslason and Eiríkur Jónsson (Nj 1875-8, II, 109) suggested ‘modest woman’ (cf. ModIcel. adj. feiminn ‘shy, bashful’).

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þrængr ‘’

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þryngr ‘press’

þrøngva (verb): press, throng

[3] þryngr: ‘þrængr’ FskAˣ, ‘þraungr’ Flat, 510

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Viðris ‘of Viðrir’

Viðrir (noun m.): Viðrir

kennings

veðri vandar Viðris.
‘the storm of the rod of Viðrir. ’
   = BATTLE

the rod of Viðrir. → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
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Viðris ‘of Viðrir’

Viðrir (noun m.): Viðrir

kennings

veðri vandar Viðris.
‘the storm of the rod of Viðrir. ’
   = BATTLE

the rod of Viðrir. → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
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veðri ‘the storm’

2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm

[3] veðri: varðar 510

kennings

veðri vandar Viðris.
‘the storm of the rod of Viðrir. ’
   = BATTLE

the rod of Viðrir. → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
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vandar ‘of the rod’

vǫndr (noun m.; °vandar, dat. vendi/vǫnd; vendir, acc. vǫndu/vendi): rod, want, mast

[4] vandar: vǫndr 510

kennings

veðri vandar Viðris.
‘the storm of the rod of Viðrir. ’
   = BATTLE

the rod of Viðrir. → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
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vandar ‘of the rod’

vǫndr (noun m.; °vandar, dat. vendi/vǫnd; vendir, acc. vǫndu/vendi): rod, want, mast

[4] vandar: vǫndr 510

kennings

veðri vandar Viðris.
‘the storm of the rod of Viðrir. ’
   = BATTLE

the rod of Viðrir. → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
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góðr ‘Good’

góðr (adj.): good

[4] góðr: ‘goð’ 7

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hlyss ‘’

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Hlýs ‘cosy’

hlý (noun n.; °-s): [cosy]

[5] Hlýs: ‘loð’ 7, ‘hlyss’ Flat

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kvet ‘’

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kveðk ‘I declare’

2. kveðja (verb): say, greet

[5] kveðk (‘queð ek’): so 7, kveðr FskBˣ, ‘qvæð’ FskAˣ, ‘kuet ek’ Flat, kveðju 510

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hlæsa ‘’

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hœlis ‘refuge’

hœli (noun n.): [refuge, boasting]

[5] hœlis: hæla FskBˣ, 7, 510, ‘hlæsa’ FskAˣ, ‘hel a‑’ Flat

notes

[5] hœlis ‘refuge’: The reading hæla or hœla has strongest ms. support, but the verb hœla ‘boast, praise’ would not easily fit the syntax, so that it seems necessary to emend to hœlis, gen. sg. of hœli n. ‘refuge, shelter’, as object of neyta ‘enjoy’, unless one assumes a weak m. variant hœli, which would have gen. sg. hœla. Kock (Skald; NN §2509, following a suggestion of Meissner) instead reads hœlibósa as a cpd, ‘bragging womaniser’, and takes neyta as intransitive.

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bœlas ‘’

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bósa ‘the womaniser’

bósi (noun m.): [womaniser]

[5] bósa: ‘bꝍlas’ FskAˣ, ‘bossa’ Flat, 510

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væntir ‘expects’

væna (verb): hope

[6] væntir sér: so FskAˣ, Flat, 510, ok vættir FskBˣ, vættir sér 7

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sér ‘something’

sik (pron.; °gen. sín, dat. sér): (refl. pron.)

[6] væntir sér: so FskAˣ, Flat, 510, ok vættir FskBˣ, vættir sér 7

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vis ‘’

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vífs ‘of the woman’

víf (noun n.): woman, wife

[7] vífs: ‘vis’ 510

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und ‘under’

3. und (prep.): under, underneath

[7] und: undum Flat

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vér ‘we [I]’

vér (pron.; °gen. vár, dat./acc. oss): we, us, our

notes

[8] vér skreytum spjǫr ‘we [I] polish [my] spear’: Since spjǫr is n., the form could be sg. or pl., and vér could either refer to the skald alone or have its literal sense ‘we’.

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skreytum ‘polish’

skreyta (verb): adorn

[8] skreytum: skeytum FskAˣ

notes

[8] vér skreytum spjǫr ‘we [I] polish [my] spear’: Since spjǫr is n., the form could be sg. or pl., and vér could either refer to the skald alone or have its literal sense ‘we’.

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spjǫr ‘[my] spear’

spjǫr (noun n.): spear

notes

[8] vér skreytum spjǫr ‘we [I] polish [my] spear’: Since spjǫr is n., the form could be sg. or pl., and vér could either refer to the skald alone or have its literal sense ‘we’.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The stanza follows Þskúm Lv within the prelude to the battle of Hjǫrungavágr (Liavågen). In Fsk, which places the scene on board Hákon jarl’s ship and attributes Þskúm Lv 1 to Vígfúss Víga-Glúmsson, it is merely introduced, Þá kvað hann ok þetta ‘Then he also spoke this’. Jvs, on the other hand, places the scene on Eiríkr jarl’s ship, and there is a change of poet, Vigfúss uttering the stanza as he sharpens his spear in readiness for battle.

For the sea-battle at Hjǫrungavágr (c. 985) and other skaldic poetry associated with it, see the entry on Hákon jarl Sigurðarson in ‘Ruler biographies’ in Introduction to this volume. — [7] vífs und vǫrmum bœgi ‘under the warm arm of the woman’: Cf. Tindr Hákdr 1/2, which also mentions a woman’s arms when contrasting martial deeds with lying with a woman, and Stefnir Lv 2/7-8, which boasts of preferring the rigours of seafaring to warm embraces. The line lacks hending, which led Kock (Skald; NN §2509) to suggest replacing bœgi ‘arm’ by its synonym armi, and transposing the first two words, to give vǫrmum vífs und armi. He defended the resulting placement of the adj. against an objection from Kuhn in NN §2902I.

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