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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Valg Har 5II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Valgarðr á Velli, Poem about Haraldr harðráði 5’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 304-5.

Valgarðr á VelliPoem about Haraldr harðráði
456

Skauzt und farm inn frízta
— frami veitisk þér — beiti;
farðir goll ór Gǫrðum
grunlaust, Haraldr, austan.
Stýrðir hvatt í hǫrðu,
hugdyggr jǫfurr, glyggvi,
— sátt, þás sædrif létti,
Sigtún — en skip hnigðu.

Skauzt beiti und inn frízta farm; frami veitisk þér; Haraldr, farðir grunlaust goll austan ór Gǫrðum. Hugdyggr jǫfurr, stýrðir hvatt í hǫrðu glyggvi, en skip hnigðu; sátt Sigtún, þás sædrif létti.

You pushed a ship under the most splendid cargo; success is granted you; Haraldr, without a doubt you brought gold west from Russia. Loyal-minded prince, you steered vigorously in the hard storm, and the ships pitched; you sighted Sigtuna when the sea-spray eased.

Mss: (531v), 39(21ra), F(43vb), E(13r), J2ˣ(263v) (Hkr); FskAˣ(243) (Fsk); Mork(3r) (Mork); H(28v), Hr(21ra) (H-Hr)

Readings: [1] farm inn: farmi F;    frízta: fríztum F, fríða Hr    [2] frami: fram FskAˣ, ‘[…]’ Mork;    veitisk þér: veitir þat 39, veitir þér F, E, ‘[…]’ Mork    [3] farðir: so 39, F, E, FskAˣ, Mork, ‘furðir’ Kˣ, fœrðir J2ˣ, H, Hr    [4] grun‑: ‘gróm‑’ E    [5] Stýrðir: ‘sty’ Hr;    hǫrðu: hǫrðum FskAˣ    [6] hug‑: so FskAˣ, Mork, H, Hr, hvar‑ Kˣ, 39, F, E, J2ˣ;    glyggvi: glyggi H    [7] sátt: ‘[…]’ Mork;    þás (‘þa er’): er F, þar er E, FskAˣ, ‘[…]’ Mork;    sædrif: ‘[…]if’ Mork    [8] hnigðu: hnigði Mork

Editions: Skj AI, 391, Skj BI, 361, Skald I, 180-1, NN §§806, 875, 1144; ÍF 28, 91 (HSig ch. 17), F 1871, 202, E 1916, 44; ÍF 29, 238 (ch. 51); Mork 1867, 16, Mork 1928-32, 87-8, Andersson and Gade 2000, 150, 473 (MH); Fms 6, 172 (HSig ch. 17).

Context: Haraldr set out from Russia to Sweden with three ships (Mork: ‘one ship’) and put to shore in Sigtuna, Sweden (c. 1044).

Notes: [All]: For Haraldr’s voyage from Russia to Sweden, see also ÞjóðA Sex 9. — [1, 2] skauzt beiti und inn frízta farm ‘you pushed a ship under the most splendid cargo’: Because the prep. und ‘under’ takes the acc. here, motion is implied, and ‘you pushed a ship under the most splendid cargo’ must refer to Haraldr loading up his ship. — [3] goll ‘gold’: Haraldr had accumulated a vast fortune while in the employment of the Greeks, and he had secretly sent it back to Russia for safekeeping. It is possible that he had also been guilty of embezzling money collected on his tax-gathering expeditions, which could have led to his imprisonment in 1042 shortly before the insurrections began in Constantinople (see Sigfús Blöndal 1978, 86-7). — [3] ór Gǫrðum ‘from Russia’: See Note to Hharð Gamv 1/7. — [4] grunlaust ‘without a doubt’: Lit. ‘suspicion- or doubt-lessly’. Skj B connects this with frami veitisk þér ‘success is granted you without suspicion’ (l. 2), which does not make much sense and creates a convoluted w. o. (see NN §806). The translation of grunlaust is problematic, and the present edn follows NN §1144. — [6] hugdyggr ‘loyal-minded’: Hvardyggr ‘most loyal’ lit. ‘everywhere loyal’ is an equally plausible reading, but appears to be a Hkr innovation. — [8] hnigðu (3rd pers. pl. pret. indic.) ‘pitched’: Hníga is otherwise attested only as a strong verb (class 1). In hnigðu the quantity of the vowel is secured by internal rhyme (-ig- : -ig-), and the verb must be a weak formation to the third grade of ablaut of the strong verb (see ANG §482, Anm. 3). Kock’s attempt to connect it with hnika ‘drive, thrust against’ (NN §875) is untenable from a grammatical point of view (the pret. would be hnikuðu; see Arn Hryn 2).

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. Fms = Sveinbjörn Egilsson et al., eds. 1825-37. Fornmanna sögur eptir gömlum handritum útgefnar að tilhlutun hins norræna fornfræða fèlags. 12 vols. Copenhagen: Popp.
  4. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  5. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  6. Andersson, Theodore M. and Kari Ellen Gade, trans. 2000. Morkinskinna: The Earliest Icelandic Chronicle of the Norwegian Kings (1030-1157). Islandica 51. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
  7. ANG = Noreen, Adolf. 1923. Altnordische Grammatik I: Altisländische und altnorwegische Grammatik (Laut- und Flexionslehre) unter Berücksichtigung des Urnordischen. 4th edn. Halle: Niemeyer. 1st edn. 1884. 5th unrev. edn. 1970. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
  8. Mork 1928-32 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1928-32. Morkinskinna. SUGNL 53. Copenhagen: Jørgensen.
  9. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  10. F 1871 = Unger, C. R., ed. 1871. Fríssbók: Codex Frisianus. En samling af norske konge-sagaer. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  11. E 1916 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1916. Eirspennill: AM 47 fol. Nóregs konunga sǫgur: Magnús góði – Hákon gamli. Kristiania (Oslo): Den norske historiske kildeskriftskommission.
  12. ÍF 29 = Ágrip af Nóregskonunga sǫgum; Fagrskinna—Nóregs konungatal. Ed. Bjarni Einarsson. 1985.
  13. Mork 1867 = Unger, C. R., ed. 1867. Morkinskinna: Pergamentsbog fra første halvdel af det trettende aarhundrede. Indeholdende en af de ældste optegnelser af norske kongesagaer. Oslo: Bentzen.
  14. Sigfús Blöndal. 1978. The Varangians of Byzantium: An Aspect of Byzantine Military History. Trans. and rev. Benedikt S. Benedikz. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. First published 1954 as Væringja saga. Reykjavík: Ísafoldarprentsmiðja.
  15. Internal references
  16. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Heimskringla (Hkr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  17. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Morkinskinna (Mork)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  18. Not published: do not cite (HSigII)
  19. Not published: do not cite (MHII)
  20. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Arnórr jarlaskáld Þórðarson, Hrynhenda, Magnússdrápa 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 184-5.
  21. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Haraldr harðráði Sigurðarson, Gamanvísur 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 36.
  22. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Sexstefja 9’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 121-2.
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