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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Tindr Hákdr 7I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Tindr Hallkelsson, Hákonardrápa 7’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 350.

Tindr HallkelssonHákonardrápa
678

þars ‘where’

þars (conj.): where

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odda ‘of barbs’

oddr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): point of weapon

kennings

ofþing odda
‘the mighty assemblies of barbs ’
   = BATTLES

the mighty assemblies of barbs → BATTLES
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ofþing ‘the mighty assemblies’

ofþing (noun n.): [mighty assemblies]

kennings

ofþing odda
‘the mighty assemblies of barbs ’
   = BATTLES

the mighty assemblies of barbs → BATTLES
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saman ‘together’

saman (adv.): together

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Hanga ‘of Hangi’

hangi (noun m.; °-a): hanged one

[3] Hanga: hugða 510

kennings

vals Hanga.
‘of the falcon of Hangi. ’
   = RAVEN

the falcon of Hangi. → RAVEN
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vals ‘of the falcon’

2. valr (noun m.; °-s): falcon

[3] vals: valt 510

kennings

vals Hanga.
‘of the falcon of Hangi. ’
   = RAVEN

the falcon of Hangi. → RAVEN
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hrafna ‘the ravens’

hrafn (noun m.; °hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar): raven

[4] hrafna: hranna 510

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byrgis ‘of the protector’

byrgi (noun n.; °-s; -, dat. byrgjum): refuge

kennings

nafni byrgis
‘the namesake of the protector ’
   = Hákon

the namesake of the protector → Hákon

notes

[4] nafni byrgis ‘the namesake of the protector [= Hákon]’: Although the referent is unmistakable, the working of the allusion remains obscure. The noun nafni ‘namesake’ can be used to denote a person who shares a given name with another well-known figure, as with the two kings Óláfr (Sigv Berv 6/8II). In one instance the clue is instead given by the gen. of a nickname accompanying nafni: Hildr Lv 1/1 nafni Nefju ‘[Hrólfr], namesake of [Hrólfr] Nefja’. A relevant Byrgi(r) (whether given name or nickname) has yet to be identified, but if byrgi(r) is a nickname or common noun it is likely to mean ‘protector, protection, defence’ (cf. borg f. and byrgi n., both ‘fortress, stronghold’, and byrgja ‘to enclose’). Meanwhile, the most likely namesake for Hákon jarl would be his C10th predecessor King Hákon góði, and since heiðinn dómr ‘heathendom’ is pointedly referred to in l. 7 (see Note below), it is possible that the allusion is to Hákon (indeed both Hákons) as a protector of the ancestral religion (cf. ‘Ruler biographies’ in Introduction to this volume). Finnur Jónsson (1886b, 342; Skj B) proposed emendation to fylkis ‘of the leader, ruler’; a nafni fylkis would in his analysis be a jarl, i.e. Hákon, but this diverges from the skaldic usage of nafni noted above.

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nafni ‘the namesake’

nafni (noun m.; °-a; -ar): namesake

kennings

nafni byrgis
‘the namesake of the protector ’
   = Hákon

the namesake of the protector → Hákon

notes

[4] nafni byrgis ‘the namesake of the protector [= Hákon]’: Although the referent is unmistakable, the working of the allusion remains obscure. The noun nafni ‘namesake’ can be used to denote a person who shares a given name with another well-known figure, as with the two kings Óláfr (Sigv Berv 6/8II). In one instance the clue is instead given by the gen. of a nickname accompanying nafni: Hildr Lv 1/1 nafni Nefju ‘[Hrólfr], namesake of [Hrólfr] Nefja’. A relevant Byrgi(r) (whether given name or nickname) has yet to be identified, but if byrgi(r) is a nickname or common noun it is likely to mean ‘protector, protection, defence’ (cf. borg f. and byrgi n., both ‘fortress, stronghold’, and byrgja ‘to enclose’). Meanwhile, the most likely namesake for Hákon jarl would be his C10th predecessor King Hákon góði, and since heiðinn dómr ‘heathendom’ is pointedly referred to in l. 7 (see Note below), it is possible that the allusion is to Hákon (indeed both Hákons) as a protector of the ancestral religion (cf. ‘Ruler biographies’ in Introduction to this volume). Finnur Jónsson (1886b, 342; Skj B) proposed emendation to fylkis ‘of the leader, ruler’; a nafni fylkis would in his analysis be a jarl, i.e. Hákon, but this diverges from the skaldic usage of nafni noted above.

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Morð ‘of killing’

1. morð (noun n.; °-s; -): killing, battle < morðský (noun n.)1. morð (noun n.; °-s; -): killing, battle

kennings

hríð morðskýja*.
‘the storm of killing-clouds ’
   = BATTLE

killing-clouds → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE

notes

[5, 7, 8] at háða hríð morðskýja* ‘after the storm of killing-clouds [SHIELDS > BATTLE] [was] waged’: Háða is f. acc. sg. p. p. from heyja ‘to perform, hold, wage’, hence lit. ‘after the waged battle’. For the construction of at + acc., cf. LP: 1. at B.

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Morð ‘of killing’

1. morð (noun n.; °-s; -): killing, battle < morðský (noun n.)1. morð (noun n.; °-s; -): killing, battle

kennings

hríð morðskýja*.
‘the storm of killing-clouds ’
   = BATTLE

killing-clouds → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE

notes

[5, 7, 8] at háða hríð morðskýja* ‘after the storm of killing-clouds [SHIELDS > BATTLE] [was] waged’: Háða is f. acc. sg. p. p. from heyja ‘to perform, hold, wage’, hence lit. ‘after the waged battle’. For the construction of at + acc., cf. LP: 1. at B.

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skýar ‘’

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skýja* ‘clouds’

ský (noun n.; °-s; -): cloud < morðský (noun n.)

[5] ‑skýja*: ‘skyar’ 510

kennings

hríð morðskýja*.
‘the storm of killing-clouds ’
   = BATTLE

killing-clouds → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE

notes

[5, 7, 8] at háða hríð morðskýja* ‘after the storm of killing-clouds [SHIELDS > BATTLE] [was] waged’: Háða is f. acc. sg. p. p. from heyja ‘to perform, hold, wage’, hence lit. ‘after the waged battle’. For the construction of at + acc., cf. LP: 1. at B.

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skýja* ‘clouds’

ský (noun n.; °-s; -): cloud < morðský (noun n.)

[5] ‑skýja*: ‘skyar’ 510

kennings

hríð morðskýja*.
‘the storm of killing-clouds ’
   = BATTLE

killing-clouds → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE

notes

[5, 7, 8] at háða hríð morðskýja* ‘after the storm of killing-clouds [SHIELDS > BATTLE] [was] waged’: Háða is f. acc. sg. p. p. from heyja ‘to perform, hold, wage’, hence lit. ‘after the waged battle’. For the construction of at + acc., cf. LP: 1. at B.

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mávi ‘for the seagull’

már (noun m.): gull

[5] mávi: mǫnnum 510

kennings

mávi Mistar
‘for the seagull of Mist ’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

for the seagull of Mist → RAVEN/EAGLE
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Mistar ‘of Mist’

Mist (noun f.): Mist

kennings

mávi Mistar
‘for the seagull of Mist ’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

for the seagull of Mist → RAVEN/EAGLE
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gótt ‘good’

góðr (adj.): good

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heiðins ‘of heathen’

heiðinn (adj.): heathen

kennings

markar heiðins dóms
‘of the forest of heathendom ’
   = NORWAY

the forest of heathendom → NORWAY

notes

[7, 8] markar heiðins dóms ‘of the forest of heathendom [NORWAY]’: The basis of the kenning appears to be that the part of Norway controlled by Hákon jarl represented the strongest bastion of heathendom, in contradistinction to Denmark and the districts in Norway controlled by Denmark, where Christianity was assuming dominance (Fms 12; LP (1860): mörk 2; cf. Finnur Jónsson 1886b, 342). This attestation of heiðinn dómr, which is among the first in ON, seems to acknowledge paganism as a religion distinct from kristindómr ‘Christianity’, a loan from OE which is unrecorded before the early C11th (Abrams 1998, 111-12, 124).

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dóms ‘dom’

dómr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): judgement; court; -dom, -ness (suffix)

kennings

markar heiðins dóms
‘of the forest of heathendom ’
   = NORWAY

the forest of heathendom → NORWAY

notes

[7, 8] markar heiðins dóms ‘of the forest of heathendom [NORWAY]’: The basis of the kenning appears to be that the part of Norway controlled by Hákon jarl represented the strongest bastion of heathendom, in contradistinction to Denmark and the districts in Norway controlled by Denmark, where Christianity was assuming dominance (Fms 12; LP (1860): mörk 2; cf. Finnur Jónsson 1886b, 342). This attestation of heiðinn dómr, which is among the first in ON, seems to acknowledge paganism as a religion distinct from kristindómr ‘Christianity’, a loan from OE which is unrecorded before the early C11th (Abrams 1998, 111-12, 124).

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at ‘after’

3. at (prep.): at, to

notes

[5, 7, 8] at háða hríð morðskýja* ‘after the storm of killing-clouds [SHIELDS > BATTLE] [was] waged’: Háða is f. acc. sg. p. p. from heyja ‘to perform, hold, wage’, hence lit. ‘after the waged battle’. For the construction of at + acc., cf. LP: 1. at B.

Close

háða ‘waged’

2. heyja (verb): fight, wage (battle)

notes

[5, 7, 8] at háða hríð morðskýja* ‘after the storm of killing-clouds [SHIELDS > BATTLE] [was] waged’: Háða is f. acc. sg. p. p. from heyja ‘to perform, hold, wage’, hence lit. ‘after the waged battle’. For the construction of at + acc., cf. LP: 1. at B.

Close

hríð ‘the storm’

hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm

[8] hríð: ǫld 510

kennings

hríð morðskýja*.
‘the storm of killing-clouds ’
   = BATTLE

killing-clouds → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE

notes

[5, 7, 8] at háða hríð morðskýja* ‘after the storm of killing-clouds [SHIELDS > BATTLE] [was] waged’: Háða is f. acc. sg. p. p. from heyja ‘to perform, hold, wage’, hence lit. ‘after the waged battle’. For the construction of at + acc., cf. LP: 1. at B. — [8] hríð ‘the storm’: This emendation of ms. ǫld is indicated by both metre and sense, and is generally accepted. Kock (NN §434) suggests taking hríð as the ókend heiti for ‘battle’, combining Mistar morðskýja ‘of the Mist <valkyrie> of killing-clouds’ in ll. 5, 6 to give sköldrustad valkyria ‘shield-equipped valkyrie’, and taking this as a determinant for mávi ‘seagull’, but this analysis is counter to skaldic usage, despite the further putative examples given in NN §2987H.

Close

hríð ‘the storm’

hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm

[8] hríð: ǫld 510

kennings

hríð morðskýja*.
‘the storm of killing-clouds ’
   = BATTLE

killing-clouds → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE

notes

[5, 7, 8] at háða hríð morðskýja* ‘after the storm of killing-clouds [SHIELDS > BATTLE] [was] waged’: Háða is f. acc. sg. p. p. from heyja ‘to perform, hold, wage’, hence lit. ‘after the waged battle’. For the construction of at + acc., cf. LP: 1. at B. — [8] hríð ‘the storm’: This emendation of ms. ǫld is indicated by both metre and sense, and is generally accepted. Kock (NN §434) suggests taking hríð as the ókend heiti for ‘battle’, combining Mistar morðskýja ‘of the Mist <valkyrie> of killing-clouds’ in ll. 5, 6 to give sköldrustad valkyria ‘shield-equipped valkyrie’, and taking this as a determinant for mávi ‘seagull’, but this analysis is counter to skaldic usage, despite the further putative examples given in NN §2987H.

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v ‘by’

2. við (prep.): with, against

[8] v: vann 510

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markar ‘of the forest’

2. mǫrk (noun f.; °merkr; merkr): forest

kennings

markar heiðins dóms
‘of the forest of heathendom ’
   = NORWAY

the forest of heathendom → NORWAY

notes

[7, 8] markar heiðins dóms ‘of the forest of heathendom [NORWAY]’: The basis of the kenning appears to be that the part of Norway controlled by Hákon jarl represented the strongest bastion of heathendom, in contradistinction to Denmark and the districts in Norway controlled by Denmark, where Christianity was assuming dominance (Fms 12; LP (1860): mörk 2; cf. Finnur Jónsson 1886b, 342). This attestation of heiðinn dómr, which is among the first in ON, seems to acknowledge paganism as a religion distinct from kristindómr ‘Christianity’, a loan from OE which is unrecorded before the early C11th (Abrams 1998, 111-12, 124).

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

As for st. 4.

[1-4]: Some emendations in the helmingr are unavoidable, and the following are adopted: Hanga ‘of Hangi <= Óðinn>’ for hugða and vals ‘of the falcon’ for valt in l. 3; and hrafna ‘ravens’ for hranna in l. 4. These were originally proposed by Sveinbjörn Egilsson in Fms 12 and/or SHI 12. — [5-8]: (a) The solution of Finnur Jónsson (partly based on conjectures by Sveinbjörn Egilsson) is adopted in this edn. Finnur (1886b, 343) emended ms. mǫnnum ‘to men’ to mávi (dat. sg.) ‘for the sea-gull’ in l. 5. For ms. vann in l. 8 he initially proposed fyr ‘before’ (1886b, 343) but later við ‘by’ (Skj B). He adopted Sveinbjörn Egilsson’s explanation of the phrase mǫrk heiðins dóms ‘forest-land of heathendom’ in ll. 7-8 and his emendation to hríð ‘storm’ in l. 8 (see Notes below).

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