Cookies on our website

We use cookies on this website, mainly to provide a secure browsing experience but also to collect statistics on how the website is used. You can find out more about the cookies we set, the information we store and how we use it on the cookies page.

Continue

skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Tindr Hákdr 2I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Tindr Hallkelsson, Hákonardrápa 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 341.

Tindr HallkelssonHákonardrápa
123

Gatat óhræðinn œðra
(oddgaldrs) ok Sigvaldi
(vítt frák veiti-Njóta*)
viðrnám Búi (kvômu),
áðr mótrǫðuls mœttu
magnendr Gymis vagna
— sǫng at sverða þingi
sárla — þrœnzkum jarli.

Óhræðinn Búi ok Sigvaldi gatat œðra viðrnám — frák {veiti-Njóta* {oddgaldrs}} kvômu vítt —, áðr {{{{Gymis vagna} mót}rǫðuls} magnendr} mœttu þrœnzkum jarli; sǫng sárla at {þingi sverða}.

The fearless Búi and Sigvaldi did not receive more distinguished opposition — I heard {the proffering Njótar <= Óðinn’s> {of the point-chant}} [BATTLE > WARRIORS] came from afar — before {the empowerers {of the clash {of the sun {of the wagons of Gymir <sea-giant>}}}} [(lit. ‘empowerers of the clash-sun of the wagons of Gymir’) SHIPS > SHIELD > BATTLE > WARRIORS] met the Trøndelag jarl [Hákon]; it sang grievously at {the assembly of swords} [BATTLE].

Mss: 510(62r) (Jvs)

Readings: [1] Gatat: gat 510    [2] ok: enn 510    [3] frák: sǫkk 510;    veiti‑: ‘næte’ 510;    Njóta*: njótar 510    [4] i: Búa 510;    kvômu: ‘kuanti’ 510    [5] mœttu: máttu 510    [6] magnendr: ‘magrendur’ 510;    Gymis: Grímnis 510

Editions: Skj AI, 145, Skj BI, 136, Skald I, 75, NN §§429, 2008H, 3097G; Fms 11, 138, Fms 12, 238-9, SHI 11, 118, 121-2, Jvs 1879, 82.

Context: As for st. 1 in Jvs.

Notes: [1-4]: The helmingr apparently refers back to unopposed raiding on the part of the Danish and Wendish forces in Norway prior to Hákon’s stand against them. Ohlmarks (1958, 412) therefore suggests that the verbs should be understood as pluperfect (‘had received’, ‘had come’). It is reported in Hkr (ÍF 26, 277) that the Jómsvíkingar headed from Agðir (Agder) to Rogaland, and raided Hákon’s territory as they headed north up the coast. — [1] gatat ‘did not receive’: Finnur Jónsson (1886b, 324-5; Skj B), followed by Reichardt (1928, 105-6 n. 75) and Kock (Skald), emends ms. gat to gatat ‘did not receive’, on the grounds that the negative is necessary for sense and that gat is too light a syllable for this position. The metrical reason does not hold, since the line can be analysed as a Type C-line, but a negative is certainly required. On the sg. form gat(at), see Note to ll. 2, 4. — [1] œðra ‘more distinguished’: (a) This edn retains the ms. reading ‘ædra’, reading it as the comp. adj. qualifying viðrnám ‘opposition’. (b) Finnur Jónsson (1886b, 324; Skj B; also Reichardt 1928, 105-6 n. 75) emends it to gen. sg. æðru (as already in the paper ms. AM 288 4o), to give óhræðinn æðru, literally ‘unafraid of fear’, which Finnur (Skj B) explains as der ikke lod sig overvælde af frygt ‘who did not allow himself to be overwhelmed by fear’. However, the emendation is not necessary and the phrase óhræðinn æðru tautological. (c) A further solution proposed by Sveinbjörn Egilsson (Fms 12; SHI 11; LP (1860): oddgaldr) and Kock (NN §429) yields an unsatisfactory kenning in l. 3 (Reichardt 1928, 105-6 n. 75). — [2, 4] i ok Sigvaldi ‘Búi and Sigvaldi’: Emendation is all but unavoidable here, and is adopted by most eds. The two names form a cpd subject, with the sg. verb gatat ‘did not receive’ agreeing with the strict grammatical subject óhræðinn Búi ‘the fearless Búi’ and the phrase ok Sigvaldi ‘and Sigvaldi’ placed in anticipation of that subject (cf. Finnur Jónsson 1886b, 325; NS §70a). Sigvaldi jarl Strút-Haraldsson and Búi digri ‘the Stout’ Vésetason are also named in Þskúm Lv 1/3, 4, and are prominent in later medieval tradition as leaders of the semi-legendary Jómsvíkingar (cf. ÞGísl Búdr and Bjbp Jóms). — [3] frák ‘I heard’: Ms. ‘sauck’ (normalised sǫkk) is difficult to accommodate in the helmingr (the suggestion in Fms 12 is unconvincing). This edn emends to frák and construes this with the past inf. kvômu ‘come, to have come’, itself an emendation (see Note to l. 4). Hykk ‘I believe’ is adopted by previous eds, following Finnur Jónsson (1886b, 325; Skj B), but is slightly more distant from the ms. reading. — [3] veiti- ‘proffering’: Emended from ms. ‘næte’, which is excluded for reasons of alliteration and sense. Finnur Jónsson (1886b, 325; Skj B; LP: vætti-Njótr) prefers vætti- ‘awaiting, preparing for’, but this form gives inferior sense: the raiders are actively proffering warfare, not waiting. Kock (NN §429) emends to vægi, from vægir, a heiti for ‘sword’ (Þul Sverða 4/1III). — [3] Njóta* ‘Njótar <= Óðinns>’: Finnur Jónsson (1886b, 325) wavers between this emended acc. pl. form and the ms. reading Njótar, a nom. pl. form which would entail construal of kvômu as a finite verb (3rd pers. pl. pret. indic.) ‘came’ rather than a past inf. ‘to have come’. Kock (NN §3097G) advocates retention of Njótar. — [4] kvômu ‘came’: Ms. ‘kuantí’ is emended by all eds to kvômu, which is here the past inf., lit. ‘to have come’. — [6] vagna Gymis ‘of the wagons of Gymir <sea-giant> [SHIPS]’: The emendation of ms. grimnis (normalised Grímnis) to Gymis/gymis is due to Finnur Jónsson (1886b, 326) and has been accepted by subsequent eds. Gymir as a sea-heiti appears to be both a common noun and a proper name (LP: 1. gymir), and either is possible here. Gymir is also named in Þjóð Yt 18/11: see Note, and for the personification of the sea, cf. Refr Ferðv 2III and McKinnell (2005, 66). — [8] þrœnzkum jarli ‘the Trøndelag jarl [Hákon]’: Þrœnzkr is the adj. denoting those from Þrándheimr, the region of Trøndelag, which was the power-base of Hákon jarl Sigurðarson and his dynasty, the jarls of Hlaðir (Lade). — [8] sárla : jarli: Aðalhendingar with unequal quantities are a sporadic licence in skaldic poetry.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. Fms = Sveinbjörn Egilsson et al., eds. 1825-37. Fornmanna sögur eptir gömlum handritum útgefnar að tilhlutun hins norræna fornfræða fèlags. 12 vols. Copenhagen: Popp.
  4. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  5. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  6. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  7. LP (1860) = Sveinbjörn Egilsson, ed. 1860. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis. Copenhagen: Societas Regia antiquariorum septentrionalium.
  8. NS = Nygaard, Marius. 1906. Norrøn syntax. Kristiania (Oslo): Aschehoug. Rpt. 1966.
  9. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  10. SHI = Sveinbjörn Egilsson, ed. 1828-46. Scripta historica islandorum de rebus gestis veterum borealium, latine reddita et apparatu critico instructa, curante Societate regia antiquariorum septentrionalium. 12 vols. Copenhagen: Popp etc. and London: John & Arthur Arch.
  11. Reichardt, Konstantin. 1928. Studien zu den Skalden des 9. und 10. Jahrhunderts. Palaestra 159. Leipzig: Mayer & Müller.
  12. Jvs 1879 = Petersens, Carl af, ed. 1879. Jómsvíkinga saga (efter Cod. AM. 510, 4:to) samt Jómsvíkinga drápa. Lund: Gleerup.
  13. Ohlmarks, Åke. 1958. Tors skalder och Vite-Krists. Trosskiftestidens isländska furstelovskalder, 980-1013. Stockholm: Geber.
  14. McKinnell, John. 2005. Meeting the Other in Norse Myth and Legend. Cambridge: Brewer.
  15. Finnur Jónsson. 1886b. ‘Bidrag til en rigtigere forståelse af Tindr Hallkelssons vers’. ÅNOH, 309-68.
  16. Internal references
  17. (forthcoming), ‘ Unattributed, Heimskringla’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. . <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=4> (accessed 23 September 2021)
  18. (forthcoming), ‘ Unattributed, Jómsvíkinga saga’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. . <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=51> (accessed 23 September 2021)
  19. Emily Lethbridge 2012, ‘ Bjarni byskup Kolbeinsson, Jómsvíkingadrápa’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 954. <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=1122> (accessed 23 September 2021)
  20. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Sverða heiti 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 796.
  21. Emily Lethbridge and Diana Whaley 2012, ‘ Þorkell Gíslason, Búadrápa’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 941. <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=1412> (accessed 23 September 2021)
  22. Edith Marold (ed.) 2017, ‘Hofgarða-Refr Gestsson, Ferðavísur 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 245.
  23. Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal 18’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 40.
  24. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorleifr skúma Þorkelsson, Lausavísa 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 360.
Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.