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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Líkn 32VII

George S. Tate (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Líknarbraut 32’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 262-4.

Anonymous PoemsLíknarbraut
313233

Heims ‘of the world’

heimr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): home, abode; world

kennings

friðarmerki heims,
‘peace-sign of the world, ’
   = CROSS

peace-sign of the world, → CROSS

notes

[2, 1] friðarmerki heims ‘peace-sign of the world [CROSS]’: NN §1394, objecting to Skj B’s construction hjálpsterkt merki heims friðar ‘help-strong sign of the world’s peace’ suggests the cpd friðarmerki, analogous to friðarmark and friðartákn (Fritzner); cf. signum pacis ‘sign of peace’ in a Cross hymn (AH 8, 30).

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hvössum ‘with sharp’

hvass (adj.; °-an; -ari, -astr): keen, sharp

[1] hvössum: ‘huo᷎[...]um’ B, ‘huọ᷎⸜e᷎⸝[...]um’ 399a‑bˣ

notes

[1, 4] nista ... hvössum saumi ‘pinned ... with sharp nail-stitching’: Restoration of <ss> suggested by Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1844, 45, accepted by all subsequent eds. Hvössum is also used in 36/3 with reference to the Cross as scales. Besides ‘seam, stitching’ (from sauma ‘to sew, make a seam’), saumr by extension also means ‘nail’ in ship-making, with reference to seam-like rows of nails along the ship’s ribs and gunwales. The sg. is used of ship’s nails in Bragi Rdr 5/4III; cf. Þul Skipa 6/4III. With reference to the Crucifixion saumr occurs elsewhere only at 27/4; its use here adumbrates the next st. in which the Cross is described as a ship. On nista see Note to 16/1.

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saumi ‘nail-stitching’

saumr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): nail, seam

notes

[1, 4] nista ... hvössum saumi ‘pinned ... with sharp nail-stitching’: Restoration of <ss> suggested by Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1844, 45, accepted by all subsequent eds. Hvössum is also used in 36/3 with reference to the Cross as scales. Besides ‘seam, stitching’ (from sauma ‘to sew, make a seam’), saumr by extension also means ‘nail’ in ship-making, with reference to seam-like rows of nails along the ship’s ribs and gunwales. The sg. is used of ship’s nails in Bragi Rdr 5/4III; cf. Þul Skipa 6/4III. With reference to the Crucifixion saumr occurs elsewhere only at 27/4; its use here adumbrates the next st. in which the Cross is described as a ship. On nista see Note to 16/1.

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friðar ‘peace’

friðr (noun m.): peace < friðarmark (noun n.)

kennings

friðarmerki heims,
‘peace-sign of the world, ’
   = CROSS

peace-sign of the world, → CROSS

notes

[2, 1] friðarmerki heims ‘peace-sign of the world [CROSS]’: NN §1394, objecting to Skj B’s construction hjálpsterkt merki heims friðar ‘help-strong sign of the world’s peace’ suggests the cpd friðarmerki, analogous to friðarmark and friðartákn (Fritzner); cf. signum pacis ‘sign of peace’ in a Cross hymn (AH 8, 30).

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merki ‘sign’

1. merki (noun n.; °-s: -): banner, sign < friðarmark (noun n.)

kennings

friðarmerki heims,
‘peace-sign of the world, ’
   = CROSS

peace-sign of the world, → CROSS

notes

[2, 1] friðarmerki heims ‘peace-sign of the world [CROSS]’: NN §1394, objecting to Skj B’s construction hjálpsterkt merki heims friðar ‘help-strong sign of the world’s peace’ suggests the cpd friðarmerki, analogous to friðarmark and friðartákn (Fritzner); cf. signum pacis ‘sign of peace’ in a Cross hymn (AH 8, 30).

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at ‘so that’

4. at (conj.): that

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nista ‘pinned’

2. nista (verb): pierce, nail

notes

[1, 4] nista ... hvössum saumi ‘pinned ... with sharp nail-stitching’: Restoration of <ss> suggested by Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1844, 45, accepted by all subsequent eds. Hvössum is also used in 36/3 with reference to the Cross as scales. Besides ‘seam, stitching’ (from sauma ‘to sew, make a seam’), saumr by extension also means ‘nail’ in ship-making, with reference to seam-like rows of nails along the ship’s ribs and gunwales. The sg. is used of ship’s nails in Bragi Rdr 5/4III; cf. Þul Skipa 6/4III. With reference to the Crucifixion saumr occurs elsewhere only at 27/4; its use here adumbrates the next st. in which the Cross is described as a ship. On nista see Note to 16/1.

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Mátt ‘you can’

mega (verb): may, might

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af ‘on account of’

af (prep.): from

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dróttins ‘lord’

dróttinn (noun m.; °dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar): lord, master

kennings

blíðs dróttins dags reitar.
‘of the tender lord of day’s furrow.’
   = God

day’s furrow. → SKY/HEAVEN
the tender lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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dags ‘of day’s’

dagr (noun m.; °-s, dat. degi/dag/dagi(Thom¹ 332¹‡n.); -ar): day

kennings

blíðs dróttins dags reitar.
‘of the tender lord of day’s furrow.’
   = God

day’s furrow. → SKY/HEAVEN
the tender lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[6] dags reitar ‘of day’s furrow [SKY/HEAVEN]’: A somewhat unusual heaven-kenning; cf. dags land ‘day’s land’ Leið 24/8. Reitr (from ríta ‘to scratch, engrave, write’) ‘furrow’, by extension ‘cultivated land’, ‘a marked out space’. Alternatively the kenning can be read as ‘the space inscribed/marked out by the day’, or simply as ‘day’s land’. This is the first use of reitr as a base-word in a heaven-kenning (cf. Lil 11/4, 26/2). As ‘furrow’ or ‘cultivated land’ the noun accords well, however, with the agrarian imagery of the blómi ‘blossom’ (l. 8) watered (rained upon) by the dreyri ‘blood’ of Christ (cf. the use of such imagery as metaphor for inspiration in sts 4-5 and the recurrence of ár in the sense of ‘year’s abundance’; see Note to 5/5).

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dags ‘of day’s’

dagr (noun m.; °-s, dat. degi/dag/dagi(Thom¹ 332¹‡n.); -ar): day

kennings

blíðs dróttins dags reitar.
‘of the tender lord of day’s furrow.’
   = God

day’s furrow. → SKY/HEAVEN
the tender lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[6] dags reitar ‘of day’s furrow [SKY/HEAVEN]’: A somewhat unusual heaven-kenning; cf. dags land ‘day’s land’ Leið 24/8. Reitr (from ríta ‘to scratch, engrave, write’) ‘furrow’, by extension ‘cultivated land’, ‘a marked out space’. Alternatively the kenning can be read as ‘the space inscribed/marked out by the day’, or simply as ‘day’s land’. This is the first use of reitr as a base-word in a heaven-kenning (cf. Lil 11/4, 26/2). As ‘furrow’ or ‘cultivated land’ the noun accords well, however, with the agrarian imagery of the blómi ‘blossom’ (l. 8) watered (rained upon) by the dreyri ‘blood’ of Christ (cf. the use of such imagery as metaphor for inspiration in sts 4-5 and the recurrence of ár in the sense of ‘year’s abundance’; see Note to 5/5).

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reitar ‘furrow’

reitr (noun m.; °dat. -; -ar/-ir, acc. -a/-u): path, land

kennings

blíðs dróttins dags reitar.
‘of the tender lord of day’s furrow.’
   = God

day’s furrow. → SKY/HEAVEN
the tender lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[6] dags reitar ‘of day’s furrow [SKY/HEAVEN]’: A somewhat unusual heaven-kenning; cf. dags land ‘day’s land’ Leið 24/8. Reitr (from ríta ‘to scratch, engrave, write’) ‘furrow’, by extension ‘cultivated land’, ‘a marked out space’. Alternatively the kenning can be read as ‘the space inscribed/marked out by the day’, or simply as ‘day’s land’. This is the first use of reitr as a base-word in a heaven-kenning (cf. Lil 11/4, 26/2). As ‘furrow’ or ‘cultivated land’ the noun accords well, however, with the agrarian imagery of the blómi ‘blossom’ (l. 8) watered (rained upon) by the dreyri ‘blood’ of Christ (cf. the use of such imagery as metaphor for inspiration in sts 4-5 and the recurrence of ár in the sense of ‘year’s abundance’; see Note to 5/5).

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reitar ‘furrow’

reitr (noun m.; °dat. -; -ar/-ir, acc. -a/-u): path, land

kennings

blíðs dróttins dags reitar.
‘of the tender lord of day’s furrow.’
   = God

day’s furrow. → SKY/HEAVEN
the tender lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[6] dags reitar ‘of day’s furrow [SKY/HEAVEN]’: A somewhat unusual heaven-kenning; cf. dags land ‘day’s land’ Leið 24/8. Reitr (from ríta ‘to scratch, engrave, write’) ‘furrow’, by extension ‘cultivated land’, ‘a marked out space’. Alternatively the kenning can be read as ‘the space inscribed/marked out by the day’, or simply as ‘day’s land’. This is the first use of reitr as a base-word in a heaven-kenning (cf. Lil 11/4, 26/2). As ‘furrow’ or ‘cultivated land’ the noun accords well, however, with the agrarian imagery of the blómi ‘blossom’ (l. 8) watered (rained upon) by the dreyri ‘blood’ of Christ (cf. the use of such imagery as metaphor for inspiration in sts 4-5 and the recurrence of ár in the sense of ‘year’s abundance’; see Note to 5/5).

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blíðs ‘of the tender’

blíðr (adj.; °n. sg. nom. & acc. blítt/blíðt; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): gentle, happy

kennings

blíðs dróttins dags reitar.
‘of the tender lord of day’s furrow.’
   = God

day’s furrow. → SKY/HEAVEN
the tender lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

blómi ‘the blossom’

blómi (noun m.; °-a; -ar): flower

notes

[8] blómi helgra dóma ‘the blossom of relics’: In the phrase helgir dómar, dómar has the sense ‘relics’; see Mark Eirdr 10/2II in which Eiríkr sótti Haralds ... helga dóma út frá Rómi ‘sought Haraldr’s relics from Rome’. As in this example, blóm or blómi ‘blossom, flower; flowering’ can be abstract, meaning simply ‘premier exemplar’. The Cross itself as blossom or flower is unusual, though Jón Arason uses the image later in a poem about the Cross at Réttarholt (1548): Má það einginn maðr skýra | mektar blóm hvert krossinn er ‘No man can describe what a flower of might the Cross is’ (Jón Sigurðsson and Guðbrandr Vigfússon 1858-78, II, 574). Floral imagery is, however, common in poems on the Cross or the Passion, in which the redness of Christ’s blood (or Christ himself) is likened to a flower, often a rose: e.g. Fortunatus’ Pange lingua, st. 8 Crux fidelis, inter omnes arbor una nobilis – / nulla talem silva profert flore fronde germine ‘Faithful Cross, tree alone notable among others – no forest produces such a one in flower, foliage, or seed’ (Bulst 1956, 128; Szövérffy 1976, 15 takes germine to mean ‘roots’ or ‘effects’); from another hymn O Crux, ave, frutex gratus / coeli flore fecundatus / Rubens agni sanguine ‘Hail, Cross, pleasing stalk, made fruitful with the flower of heaven, reddening with the blood of the Lamb’ (AH 9, 28). It is, however, typically Christ, rather than the Cross itself, that is the flower, based upon S. of S. II.1 flos campi ‘flower of the field’ and Isa. XI.1 where Mary (virgo) is interpreted as the ‘rod [virga] of Jesse’ and Christ as the flower that springs from the rod. Cf. (of Christ) the late medieval poems Blómarós 165/3, 187/2, 207/3 and Máríublóm 16/3, 18/1, 23/1 (ÍM I.2, 90 ff.; I.2, 176-7). Bonaventure (C13th) entitles ch. 17 of his tract Vitis mystica the ‘Rosa passionis’, in which he likens the Passion to a rose made red by the blood of Christ (Bonaventure 1882-1902, VIII, 182-3). The phrase blómi af dreyra ok bitrum dauða dróttins ‘blossom from the Lord’s blood and bitter death’ (ll. 8, 5, 7) is in this tradition. In the end, however, blómi helgra dóma (l. 8) may simply mean ‘the flower [i.e. the greatest] of holy relics’.

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helgra ‘of relics’

heilagr (adj.; °helgan; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): holy, sacred

[8] helgra: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘he[...]’ B

notes

[8] blómi helgra dóma ‘the blossom of relics’: In the phrase helgir dómar, dómar has the sense ‘relics’; see Mark Eirdr 10/2II in which Eiríkr sótti Haralds ... helga dóma út frá Rómi ‘sought Haraldr’s relics from Rome’. As in this example, blóm or blómi ‘blossom, flower; flowering’ can be abstract, meaning simply ‘premier exemplar’. The Cross itself as blossom or flower is unusual, though Jón Arason uses the image later in a poem about the Cross at Réttarholt (1548): Má það einginn maðr skýra | mektar blóm hvert krossinn er ‘No man can describe what a flower of might the Cross is’ (Jón Sigurðsson and Guðbrandr Vigfússon 1858-78, II, 574). Floral imagery is, however, common in poems on the Cross or the Passion, in which the redness of Christ’s blood (or Christ himself) is likened to a flower, often a rose: e.g. Fortunatus’ Pange lingua, st. 8 Crux fidelis, inter omnes arbor una nobilis – / nulla talem silva profert flore fronde germine ‘Faithful Cross, tree alone notable among others – no forest produces such a one in flower, foliage, or seed’ (Bulst 1956, 128; Szövérffy 1976, 15 takes germine to mean ‘roots’ or ‘effects’); from another hymn O Crux, ave, frutex gratus / coeli flore fecundatus / Rubens agni sanguine ‘Hail, Cross, pleasing stalk, made fruitful with the flower of heaven, reddening with the blood of the Lamb’ (AH 9, 28). It is, however, typically Christ, rather than the Cross itself, that is the flower, based upon S. of S. II.1 flos campi ‘flower of the field’ and Isa. XI.1 where Mary (virgo) is interpreted as the ‘rod [virga] of Jesse’ and Christ as the flower that springs from the rod. Cf. (of Christ) the late medieval poems Blómarós 165/3, 187/2, 207/3 and Máríublóm 16/3, 18/1, 23/1 (ÍM I.2, 90 ff.; I.2, 176-7). Bonaventure (C13th) entitles ch. 17 of his tract Vitis mystica the ‘Rosa passionis’, in which he likens the Passion to a rose made red by the blood of Christ (Bonaventure 1882-1902, VIII, 182-3). The phrase blómi af dreyra ok bitrum dauða dróttins ‘blossom from the Lord’s blood and bitter death’ (ll. 8, 5, 7) is in this tradition. In the end, however, blómi helgra dóma (l. 8) may simply mean ‘the flower [i.e. the greatest] of holy relics’.

Close

dóma ‘’

dómr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): judgement; court; -dom, -ness (suffix)

notes

[8] blómi helgra dóma ‘the blossom of relics’: In the phrase helgir dómar, dómar has the sense ‘relics’; see Mark Eirdr 10/2II in which Eiríkr sótti Haralds ... helga dóma út frá Rómi ‘sought Haraldr’s relics from Rome’. As in this example, blóm or blómi ‘blossom, flower; flowering’ can be abstract, meaning simply ‘premier exemplar’. The Cross itself as blossom or flower is unusual, though Jón Arason uses the image later in a poem about the Cross at Réttarholt (1548): Má það einginn maðr skýra | mektar blóm hvert krossinn er ‘No man can describe what a flower of might the Cross is’ (Jón Sigurðsson and Guðbrandr Vigfússon 1858-78, II, 574). Floral imagery is, however, common in poems on the Cross or the Passion, in which the redness of Christ’s blood (or Christ himself) is likened to a flower, often a rose: e.g. Fortunatus’ Pange lingua, st. 8 Crux fidelis, inter omnes arbor una nobilis – / nulla talem silva profert flore fronde germine ‘Faithful Cross, tree alone notable among others – no forest produces such a one in flower, foliage, or seed’ (Bulst 1956, 128; Szövérffy 1976, 15 takes germine to mean ‘roots’ or ‘effects’); from another hymn O Crux, ave, frutex gratus / coeli flore fecundatus / Rubens agni sanguine ‘Hail, Cross, pleasing stalk, made fruitful with the flower of heaven, reddening with the blood of the Lamb’ (AH 9, 28). It is, however, typically Christ, rather than the Cross itself, that is the flower, based upon S. of S. II.1 flos campi ‘flower of the field’ and Isa. XI.1 where Mary (virgo) is interpreted as the ‘rod [virga] of Jesse’ and Christ as the flower that springs from the rod. Cf. (of Christ) the late medieval poems Blómarós 165/3, 187/2, 207/3 and Máríublóm 16/3, 18/1, 23/1 (ÍM I.2, 90 ff.; I.2, 176-7). Bonaventure (C13th) entitles ch. 17 of his tract Vitis mystica the ‘Rosa passionis’, in which he likens the Passion to a rose made red by the blood of Christ (Bonaventure 1882-1902, VIII, 182-3). The phrase blómi af dreyra ok bitrum dauða dróttins ‘blossom from the Lord’s blood and bitter death’ (ll. 8, 5, 7) is in this tradition. In the end, however, blómi helgra dóma (l. 8) may simply mean ‘the flower [i.e. the greatest] of holy relics’.

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