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Þloft Tøgdr 8I

Matthew Townend (ed.) 2012, ‘Þórarinn loftunga, Tøgdrápa 8’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 862.

Þórarinn loftungaTøgdrápa
78

goll ‘a gold’

gull (noun n.): gold < gullskati (noun m.): munificent man

kennings

gollskata;
‘a gold-man; ’
   = GENEROUS RULER = Knútr

a gold-man; → GENEROUS RULER = Knútr

notes

[1] gollskata ‘a gold-man [GENEROUS RULER = Knútr]’: This is a bland and slightly unusual kenning, but it resembles other kennings denoting men as givers, throwers or destroyers of gold, and is cited alongside them by Snorri (see Context above). Kock (NN §787) suggests OE influence and compares OE goldwine ‘gold-friend’.

Close

skata ‘man’

skati (noun m.; °-a; -nar): chieftan, prince < gullskati (noun m.): munificent man

kennings

gollskata;
‘a gold-man; ’
   = GENEROUS RULER = Knútr

a gold-man; → GENEROUS RULER = Knútr

notes

[1] gollskata ‘a gold-man [GENEROUS RULER = Knútr]’: This is a bland and slightly unusual kenning, but it resembles other kennings denoting men as givers, throwers or destroyers of gold, and is cited alongside them by Snorri (see Context above). Kock (NN §787) suggests OE influence and compares OE goldwine ‘gold-friend’.

Close

gǫrs ‘is made’

1. gǫrr (adj.): ample, perfect

[2] gǫrs (‘gꜹr er’): gǫr W, ‘g[…]’ C

Close

leygs ‘of the flame’

1. leygr (noun m.): flame

[2] leygs: logs A, leiks C

kennings

bǫr leygs gráps gǫtu gunnvita.
‘the tree of the flame of the hail-storm of the path of the battle-beacon. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-beacon. → SWORD
the path of the SWORD → SHIELD
the hail-storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

leygs ‘of the flame’

1. leygr (noun m.): flame

[2] leygs: logs A, leiks C

kennings

bǫr leygs gráps gǫtu gunnvita.
‘the tree of the flame of the hail-storm of the path of the battle-beacon. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-beacon. → SWORD
the path of the SWORD → SHIELD
the hail-storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

bǫr ‘the tree’

bǫrr (noun m.): tree

kennings

bǫr leygs gráps gǫtu gunnvita.
‘the tree of the flame of the hail-storm of the path of the battle-beacon. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-beacon. → SWORD
the path of the SWORD → SHIELD
the hail-storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

gǫtu ‘of the path’

gata (noun f.): path, road

kennings

bǫr leygs gráps gǫtu gunnvita.
‘the tree of the flame of the hail-storm of the path of the battle-beacon. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-beacon. → SWORD
the path of the SWORD → SHIELD
the hail-storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

gǫtu ‘of the path’

gata (noun f.): path, road

kennings

bǫr leygs gráps gǫtu gunnvita.
‘the tree of the flame of the hail-storm of the path of the battle-beacon. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-beacon. → SWORD
the path of the SWORD → SHIELD
the hail-storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

gǫtu ‘of the path’

gata (noun f.): path, road

kennings

bǫr leygs gráps gǫtu gunnvita.
‘the tree of the flame of the hail-storm of the path of the battle-beacon. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-beacon. → SWORD
the path of the SWORD → SHIELD
the hail-storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

gǫtu ‘of the path’

gata (noun f.): path, road

kennings

bǫr leygs gráps gǫtu gunnvita.
‘the tree of the flame of the hail-storm of the path of the battle-beacon. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-beacon. → SWORD
the path of the SWORD → SHIELD
the hail-storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

gunn ‘of the battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunnviti (noun m.): [battle-beacon]

kennings

bǫr leygs gráps gǫtu gunnvita.
‘the tree of the flame of the hail-storm of the path of the battle-beacon. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-beacon. → SWORD
the path of the SWORD → SHIELD
the hail-storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

gunn ‘of the battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunnviti (noun m.): [battle-beacon]

kennings

bǫr leygs gráps gǫtu gunnvita.
‘the tree of the flame of the hail-storm of the path of the battle-beacon. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-beacon. → SWORD
the path of the SWORD → SHIELD
the hail-storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

gunn ‘of the battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunnviti (noun m.): [battle-beacon]

kennings

bǫr leygs gráps gǫtu gunnvita.
‘the tree of the flame of the hail-storm of the path of the battle-beacon. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-beacon. → SWORD
the path of the SWORD → SHIELD
the hail-storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

gunn ‘of the battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunnviti (noun m.): [battle-beacon]

kennings

bǫr leygs gráps gǫtu gunnvita.
‘the tree of the flame of the hail-storm of the path of the battle-beacon. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-beacon. → SWORD
the path of the SWORD → SHIELD
the hail-storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

gunn ‘of the battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunnviti (noun m.): [battle-beacon]

kennings

bǫr leygs gráps gǫtu gunnvita.
‘the tree of the flame of the hail-storm of the path of the battle-beacon. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-beacon. → SWORD
the path of the SWORD → SHIELD
the hail-storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

vita ‘beacon’

viti (noun m.; °-a; -ar): beacon, marker < gunnviti (noun m.): [battle-beacon]

kennings

bǫr leygs gráps gǫtu gunnvita.
‘the tree of the flame of the hail-storm of the path of the battle-beacon. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-beacon. → SWORD
the path of the SWORD → SHIELD
the hail-storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

vita ‘beacon’

viti (noun m.; °-a; -ar): beacon, marker < gunnviti (noun m.): [battle-beacon]

kennings

bǫr leygs gráps gǫtu gunnvita.
‘the tree of the flame of the hail-storm of the path of the battle-beacon. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-beacon. → SWORD
the path of the SWORD → SHIELD
the hail-storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

vita ‘beacon’

viti (noun m.; °-a; -ar): beacon, marker < gunnviti (noun m.): [battle-beacon]

kennings

bǫr leygs gráps gǫtu gunnvita.
‘the tree of the flame of the hail-storm of the path of the battle-beacon. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-beacon. → SWORD
the path of the SWORD → SHIELD
the hail-storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

vita ‘beacon’

viti (noun m.; °-a; -ar): beacon, marker < gunnviti (noun m.): [battle-beacon]

kennings

bǫr leygs gráps gǫtu gunnvita.
‘the tree of the flame of the hail-storm of the path of the battle-beacon. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-beacon. → SWORD
the path of the SWORD → SHIELD
the hail-storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

vita ‘beacon’

viti (noun m.; °-a; -ar): beacon, marker < gunnviti (noun m.): [battle-beacon]

kennings

bǫr leygs gráps gǫtu gunnvita.
‘the tree of the flame of the hail-storm of the path of the battle-beacon. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-beacon. → SWORD
the path of the SWORD → SHIELD
the hail-storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

gráps ‘of the hail-storm’

gráp (noun n.): hail

[4] gráps: ‘grāþs’ Tˣ

kennings

bǫr leygs gráps gǫtu gunnvita.
‘the tree of the flame of the hail-storm of the path of the battle-beacon. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-beacon. → SWORD
the path of the SWORD → SHIELD
the hail-storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

gráps ‘of the hail-storm’

gráp (noun n.): hail

[4] gráps: ‘grāþs’ Tˣ

kennings

bǫr leygs gráps gǫtu gunnvita.
‘the tree of the flame of the hail-storm of the path of the battle-beacon. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-beacon. → SWORD
the path of the SWORD → SHIELD
the hail-storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

gráps ‘of the hail-storm’

gráp (noun n.): hail

[4] gráps: ‘grāþs’ Tˣ

kennings

bǫr leygs gráps gǫtu gunnvita.
‘the tree of the flame of the hail-storm of the path of the battle-beacon. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-beacon. → SWORD
the path of the SWORD → SHIELD
the hail-storm of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the flame of the BATTLE → SWORD
the tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

TøgTøg’

(unknown) < tøgdrápa (noun f.)

notes

[4] Tøgdrápa ‘(“Journey drápa”)’: This is the only occurrence of the cpd in skaldic verse. It is taken here as the title of the poem, and it certainly came to be used as such, but it is not certain whether Þórarinn intended it as a title or as a technical term, ‘the poem in tøgdrápa metre’. The former would appear more likely if Þórarinn’s poem predates Sigv Knútdr, the latter if Sigvatr’s poem predates Þórarinn’s (see further Introduction on this and the probable meaning of Tøgdrápa).

Close

drápa ‘drápa (‘Journey drápa’)’

drápa (noun f.; °-u): poem with refrains < tøgdrápa (noun f.)

[4] ‑drápa: so W, drôpu all others

notes

[4] Tøgdrápa ‘(“Journey drápa”)’: This is the only occurrence of the cpd in skaldic verse. It is taken here as the title of the poem, and it certainly came to be used as such, but it is not certain whether Þórarinn intended it as a title or as a technical term, ‘the poem in tøgdrápa metre’. The former would appear more likely if Þórarinn’s poem predates Sigv Knútdr, the latter if Sigvatr’s poem predates Þórarinn’s (see further Introduction on this and the probable meaning of Tøgdrápa).

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The helmingr is quoted in SnE (Skm) in exemplification of the kenning gullskati ‘gold-man’, in a series of man-kennings involving gold.

The content of the helmingr suggests it is from the last stanza of the poem. The kenning in ll. 2-4 is extended to an exceptional degree but, apart from its inclusion of two sword-kennings, conforms to normal patterns. — Only in ms. A is the helmingr attributed to Þórarinn; in R and elsewhere it is simply introduced with sem hér er ‘as it stands here’ (SnE 1998, I, 63).

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