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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þloft Tøgdr 1I

Matthew Townend (ed.) 2012, ‘Þórarinn loftunga, Tøgdrápa 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 852.

Þórarinn loftungaTøgdrápa
12

Knútrs ‘Knútr’

Knútr (noun m.): Knútr

[1] Knútrs (‘Knutr er’): knútr var 61, Flat, Tóm, DG8, ‘Kn[…]’ 75c

notes

[1] Knútrs und sólar ‘Knútr is under the sun’s’: This is the first half of the klofastef ‘split refrain’ for the poem, but the second half is not extant, nor does this line recur in the poem as preserved. The obvious comparison is with the klofastef of Sigv Knútdr: Knútrs und himnum | hǫfuðfremstr jǫfurr ‘Knútr is the most eminent king under the heavens’ (see Note to Sigv Knútdr 3/1). Sveinbjörn Egilsson (quoted in ÍF 27) proposed setri hveim betri as the completion of Þórarinn’s klofastef, but this is hypermetrical.

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und ‘under’

3. und (prep.): under, underneath

[1] und: ‘[…]nd’ 75c

notes

[1] Knútrs und sólar ‘Knútr is under the sun’s’: This is the first half of the klofastef ‘split refrain’ for the poem, but the second half is not extant, nor does this line recur in the poem as preserved. The obvious comparison is with the klofastef of Sigv Knútdr: Knútrs und himnum | hǫfuðfremstr jǫfurr ‘Knútr is the most eminent king under the heavens’ (see Note to Sigv Knútdr 3/1). Sveinbjörn Egilsson (quoted in ÍF 27) proposed setri hveim betri as the completion of Þórarinn’s klofastef, but this is hypermetrical.

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sólar ‘the sun’s’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun

[1] sólar: himnum FskAˣ

notes

[1] Knútrs und sólar ‘Knútr is under the sun’s’: This is the first half of the klofastef ‘split refrain’ for the poem, but the second half is not extant, nor does this line recur in the poem as preserved. The obvious comparison is with the klofastef of Sigv Knútdr: Knútrs und himnum | hǫfuðfremstr jǫfurr ‘Knútr is the most eminent king under the heavens’ (see Note to Sigv Knútdr 3/1). Sveinbjörn Egilsson (quoted in ÍF 27) proposed setri hveim betri as the completion of Þórarinn’s klofastef, but this is hypermetrical.

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Sið ‘custom’

siðr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -/-i; -ir, acc. -u): faith, morals < siðnæmr (adj.)

[2] Sið‑: siðr DG8, hlið FskAˣ

notes

[2] siðnæmr ‘custom-practised’: ON siðr can mean ‘custom, manners’ or ‘religious faith’. The cpd is a hap. leg. in poetry, though it occurs in prose in Konungs skuggsjá (see Fritzner: siðnæmr), and suggests Knútr’s Christian courtliness.

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næmr ‘practised’

næmr (adj.; °superl. -astr/-str): [practised, taking] < siðnæmr (adj.)

[2] ‑næmr: nær Flat, ‘neme’ Tóm

notes

[2] siðnæmr ‘custom-practised’: ON siðr can mean ‘custom, manners’ or ‘religious faith’. The cpd is a hap. leg. in poetry, though it occurs in prose in Konungs skuggsjá (see Fritzner: siðnæmr), and suggests Knútr’s Christian courtliness.

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minn ‘My’

minn (pron.; °f. mín, n. mitt): my

[4] minn: ‘[…]’ 75c

notes

[4] vinr minn ‘my friend’: Hofmann (1955, 94-5) suggests OE influence here, citing such parallels as wine mīn in Beowulf ll. 457 and 1704 (Beowulf 2008, 18, 57).

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vinr ‘friend’

vinr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -/(-i OsvReyk 92.17); -ir): friend

[4] vinr: vin Holm2

notes

[4] vinr minn ‘my friend’: Hofmann (1955, 94-5) suggests OE influence here, citing such parallels as wine mīn in Beowulf ll. 457 and 1704 (Beowulf 2008, 18, 57).

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þinig ‘there’

þannig (adv.): thus, there, that way

[4] þinig: þannig Tóm

notes

[4] þinig ‘there’: That is, to Norway (so ÍF 27 and 29). The use of this adv. suggests that the poem was not composed or recited in Norway itself, though it is possible that þinig can mean ‘(to) here’ as well as ‘(to) there’ (see Fritzner, LP: þinig).

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Fœrði ‘brought’

2. fœra (verb): bring

[5] Fœrði: ferði Bæb, fœrðr Flat

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ór ‘from’

3. ór (prep.): out of

[5] ór: ok 68, ‘yr’ 75c

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fimr ‘The skilful’

fimr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): agile, deft

[6] fimr gramr Lima‑: flot heims gota 325V;    fimr: fira 61, 75c, 325VII, Flat, Tóm

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gramr ‘lord’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

[6] fimr gramr Lima‑: flot heims gota 325V

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Lima ‘Limfjorden’

1. lim (noun f.; °; -ar): limb < Limafjǫrðr (noun m.): [Limfjorden]

[6] fimr gramr Lima‑: flot heims gota 325V

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út ‘out’

út (adv.): out(side)

[7] út ólítinn: ‘óólitin’ DG8

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ólítinn ‘no small’

ólítill (adj.): not small

[7] út ólítinn: ‘óólitin’ DG8

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otr ‘of the otter’

otr (noun m.; °; otrar): otter < otrheimr (noun m.): [otter-world]

[8] otrheims: ‘otreims’ Holm2, ‘ortreins’ 325XI 2 g

kennings

otrheims
‘of the otter-world ’
   = SEA

the otter-world → SEA

notes

[8] otrheims ‘of the otter-world [SEA]’: This it taken here with flota ‘fleet’, to refer to sea-going ships, and this interpretation is favoured by Kock (NN §2782, also ÍF 27 and 29). These eds also mention the alternative possibility (adopted in Skj B) that otrheims has the sense ‘to sea’, as an adverbial gen. of direction (on which, see NS §141; Poole 2004).

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heims ‘world’

heimr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): home, abode; world < otrheimr (noun m.): [otter-world]

[8] otrheims: ‘otreims’ Holm2, ‘ortreins’ 325XI 2 g

kennings

otrheims
‘of the otter-world ’
   = SEA

the otter-world → SEA

notes

[8] otrheims ‘of the otter-world [SEA]’: This it taken here with flota ‘fleet’, to refer to sea-going ships, and this interpretation is favoured by Kock (NN §2782, also ÍF 27 and 29). These eds also mention the alternative possibility (adopted in Skj B) that otrheims has the sense ‘to sea’, as an adverbial gen. of direction (on which, see NS §141; Poole 2004).

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Stanzas 1-6 are quoted continuously, with no intermediate prose, in ÓH-Hkr and ÓHLeg; Fsk only has sts 1-4, also continuously. In each case the citation follows, and authenticates, an account (of varying fullness) of King Knútr’s journey from Denmark north along the Norwegian coast, and in ÓH-Hkr it forms part of a chapter featuring Þórarinn.

In ÓHLeg the stanzas are cited from a drápa about Knútr, while Fsk designates the poem as a kvæði. ÓH-Hkr follows an account of Þórarinn’s earlier poem Hfl with Þórarinn orti aðra drápu um Knút konung, er kǫlluð er Tøgdrápa. Í þeiri drápu er sagt frá þessum ferðum Knúts konungs, er hann fór ór Danmǫrku sunnan til Nóregs, ok er þetta einn stefjabálkr ‘Þórarinn composed another drápa about King Knútr, which is called Tøgdrápa. In that drápa these journeys of King Knútr are told about, when he went from Denmark north to Norway, and this is one stefjabálkr’ (ÍF 27, 308). — [5, 6] Limafirði ‘Limfjorden’: For the use of tmesis to accommodate a p. n. in skaldic lines, see Note to Hfr Óldr 2/7, 8; for another probable play on the p. n. Limafjǫrðr, see Glúmr Gráf 11/4 and Note. Limfjorden is a major fjord in northern Jutland. This stanza would seem to add to the evidence that it was navigable to the west at this period; see Note to Sigv Knútdr 8/8.

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