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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þloft Glækv 9I

Matthew Townend (ed.) 2012, ‘Þórarinn loftunga, Glælognskviða 9’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 875.

Þórarinn loftungaGlælognskviða
8910x

Ôleif ‘to Óláfr’

Óláfr (noun m.): Óláfr

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at ‘that’

4. at (conj.): that

notes

[2] þér ‘you’: The 2nd pers. pron. is sg. here, as also at ll. 9 and 12, indicating that the poet is specifically addressing Sveinn.

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unni ‘he grant’

1. unna (verb): love

[2] unni: árni E, 61, Flat, Tóm

notes

[2] þér ‘you’: The 2nd pers. pron. is sg. here, as also at ll. 9 and 12, indicating that the poet is specifically addressing Sveinn.

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þér ‘you’

þú (pron.; °gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik): you

notes

[2] þér ‘you’: The 2nd pers. pron. is sg. here, as also at ll. 9 and 12, indicating that the poet is specifically addressing Sveinn.

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goðs ‘God’s’

1. guð (noun m.; °***guðrs, guðis, gus): (Christian) God

notes

[3] maðr goðs ‘God’s man’: In later Old Norse translations from Latin, goðs maðr is used to render vir dei/domini ‘man of God / the Lord’, and also phrases such as vir sanctus/venerabilis ‘holy/venerable man’ (Walter 1976, 48).

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maðr ‘man’

maðr (noun m.): man, person

[3] maðr: vinr 325VI, 321ˣ

notes

[3] maðr goðs ‘God’s man’: In later Old Norse translations from Latin, goðs maðr is used to render vir dei/domini ‘man of God / the Lord’, and also phrases such as vir sanctus/venerabilis ‘holy/venerable man’ (Walter 1976, 48).

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grundar ‘ground’

grund (noun f.): earth, land

[4] grundar: grundir Tóm

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sinnar ‘his’

3. sinn (pron.; °f. sín, n. sitt): (refl. poss. pron.)

[4] sinnar: sinna 325VI, sínar 61, 325V, Tóm

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of ‘’

4. of (particle): (before verb)

[5] hann of: þvít hann 39, E

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af ‘from’

af (prep.): from

[6] af: at 325VII

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sjalfum ‘himself’

[6] sjalfum: ‘[…]’ 325XI 2 n

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ár ‘prosperity’

2. ár (noun n.; °-s; -): year, year’s abundance

[7] ár ok: ‘[…]’ 325XI 2 n

notes

[7] ár ok frið ‘prosperity and peace’: A formulaic phrase (though recorded only here in extant skaldic verse), with possible origins in pre-Christian ideas of kingship (see Lönnroth 1986, 83-6; Rainford 1995, 104-8).

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ok ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[7] ár ok: ‘[…]’ 325XI 2 n

notes

[7] ár ok frið ‘prosperity and peace’: A formulaic phrase (though recorded only here in extant skaldic verse), with possible origins in pre-Christian ideas of kingship (see Lönnroth 1986, 83-6; Rainford 1995, 104-8).

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frið ‘peace’

friðr (noun m.): peace

notes

[7] ár ok frið ‘prosperity and peace’: A formulaic phrase (though recorded only here in extant skaldic verse), with possible origins in pre-Christian ideas of kingship (see Lönnroth 1986, 83-6; Rainford 1995, 104-8).

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ǫllum ‘for all’

allr (adj.): all

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þá ‘when’

2. þá (adv.): then

[9] þás (‘þa er’): so 39, E, Holm2, 325VI, 321ˣ, 61, 325V, 325VII, Bb, Flat, Tóm, þar er Kˣ

notes

[9] þás ‘when’: The reading of all the ÓH mss is here preferred to ’s reading þar er (normalised þars) ‘where’.

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s ‘’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[9] þás (‘þa er’): so 39, E, Holm2, 325VI, 321ˣ, 61, 325V, 325VII, Bb, Flat, Tóm, þar er Kˣ

notes

[9] þás ‘when’: The reading of all the ÓH mss is here preferred to ’s reading þar er (normalised þars) ‘where’.

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rekr ‘present’

2. reka (verb): drive, force

[9] rekr: reki 321ˣ, réttir 61, 325VII, Flat, reitir Tóm

notes

[9] rekr ‘present’: LP: rekja and CVC: rekja II suggest that rekr is from rekja ‘to unwind, trace, remember’, here ‘to present (prayers)’, but it is also possible that it derives from reka ‘to drive, perform, cast’.

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fyr ‘before’

fyr (prep.): for, over, because of, etc.

[10] fyr: om. 325VI

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regin ‘the sacred’

regin (noun n.): divine power

[10] regin: rekin 325VI

kennings

reginnagla máls bóka.
‘the sacred nail of the language of books.’
   = SAINT = Óláfr

the language of books. → LATIN
the sacred nail of the LATIN → SAINT = Óláfr

notes

[10] reginnagla ‘the sacred nail’: Regin n. pl. means ‘ruling, divine powers’, especially the heathen gods, and hence regin- can function as the first element in a cpd with the sense ‘sacred, divine, god-related, mighty’; the exact connotations here are unclear. The second element here, ‑nagla, could be either acc. pl. of the strong m. noun nagl ‘nail’ or acc./dat. sg. or acc. pl. of the weak m. noun nagli, also ‘nail’ (the prep. fyr ‘before’ can take either acc. or dat., depending on meaning). There are basically three alternatives as to the cpd’s meaning: (a) If reginnagla is sg. and figuratively refers to a person, then clearly the cpd is most likely to refer to the saint: Óláfr himself (so NN §2017; Magerøy 1948, 32-6; ÍF 27). Although the determinant máls bóka ‘of the language of books [LATIN]’ could point to the clergy, the reference to petitioning Óláfr in st. 9/1 points to him. (b) If reginnagla is pl., figuratively indicating people, it most probably refers to priests or clerics; so Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B). (c) If reginnagla is pl., but through pars pro toto indicates a built structure, it could indicate the church altar or Óláfr’s shrine. The term reginnaglar occurs also in Eyrbyggja saga (ÍF 4, 8), where it refers to nails hammered into high-seat pillars in a temple: þar fyrir innan stóðu ǫndvegissúlurnar, ok váru þar í naglar; þeir hétu reginnaglar ‘inside there stood the high-seat pillars, and there were nails in them; they were called holy nails’.

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nagla ‘ nail’

1. nagli (noun m.; °-a; -ar): [nagel, nail]

kennings

reginnagla máls bóka.
‘the sacred nail of the language of books.’
   = SAINT = Óláfr

the language of books. → LATIN
the sacred nail of the LATIN → SAINT = Óláfr

notes

[10] reginnagla ‘the sacred nail’: Regin n. pl. means ‘ruling, divine powers’, especially the heathen gods, and hence regin- can function as the first element in a cpd with the sense ‘sacred, divine, god-related, mighty’; the exact connotations here are unclear. The second element here, ‑nagla, could be either acc. pl. of the strong m. noun nagl ‘nail’ or acc./dat. sg. or acc. pl. of the weak m. noun nagli, also ‘nail’ (the prep. fyr ‘before’ can take either acc. or dat., depending on meaning). There are basically three alternatives as to the cpd’s meaning: (a) If reginnagla is sg. and figuratively refers to a person, then clearly the cpd is most likely to refer to the saint: Óláfr himself (so NN §2017; Magerøy 1948, 32-6; ÍF 27). Although the determinant máls bóka ‘of the language of books [LATIN]’ could point to the clergy, the reference to petitioning Óláfr in st. 9/1 points to him. (b) If reginnagla is pl., figuratively indicating people, it most probably refers to priests or clerics; so Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B). (c) If reginnagla is pl., but through pars pro toto indicates a built structure, it could indicate the church altar or Óláfr’s shrine. The term reginnaglar occurs also in Eyrbyggja saga (ÍF 4, 8), where it refers to nails hammered into high-seat pillars in a temple: þar fyrir innan stóðu ǫndvegissúlurnar, ok váru þar í naglar; þeir hétu reginnaglar ‘inside there stood the high-seat pillars, and there were nails in them; they were called holy nails’.

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bóka ‘of books’

1. bók (noun f.; °bǿkr/bókar; bǿkr): book

[11] bóka: ‘bocka’ 61, boga Flat, Tóm

kennings

reginnagla máls bóka.
‘the sacred nail of the language of books.’
   = SAINT = Óláfr

the language of books. → LATIN
the sacred nail of the LATIN → SAINT = Óláfr
Close

bóka ‘of books’

1. bók (noun f.; °bǿkr/bókar; bǿkr): book

[11] bóka: ‘bocka’ 61, boga Flat, Tóm

kennings

reginnagla máls bóka.
‘the sacred nail of the language of books.’
   = SAINT = Óláfr

the language of books. → LATIN
the sacred nail of the LATIN → SAINT = Óláfr
Close

máls ‘of the language’

1. mál (noun n.; °-s; -): speech, matter

kennings

reginnagla máls bóka.
‘the sacred nail of the language of books.’
   = SAINT = Óláfr

the language of books. → LATIN
the sacred nail of the LATIN → SAINT = Óláfr
Close

máls ‘of the language’

1. mál (noun n.; °-s; -): speech, matter

kennings

reginnagla máls bóka.
‘the sacred nail of the language of books.’
   = SAINT = Óláfr

the language of books. → LATIN
the sacred nail of the LATIN → SAINT = Óláfr
Close

bœnir ‘prayers’

bœn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): request, prayer

[12] bœnir þínar: bœnir E, bœn þinnar 321ˣ, bœnar þinnar 325V

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þínar ‘your’

þinn (pron.; °f. þín, n. þitt): your

[12] bœnir þínar: bœnir E, bœn þinnar 321ˣ, bœnar þinnar 325V

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

See Context to st. 2 above.

In Skj and Skald, ll. 1-8 are printed as st. 9 and ll. 9-12 as st. 10, but the twelve lines are very tightly linked syntactically, with ll. 9-12 forming a subordinate clause dependent on ll. 1-2, 4, while ll. 5-8 form an independent main clause, as does l. 3. The collective evidence of the mss is equivocal in terms of stanza divisions, and in 39 and E, ll. 9-12 occur between ll. 1-4 and 5-8, while in 325V ll. 5-8 are omitted. — [11] bóka máls ‘of the language of books [LATIN]’: ON bók ‘book’ is a semantic loan from OE, and a development from an earlier meaning ‘textile, tapestry’, recorded in eddic verse (see LP, AEW: bók; Fischer 1909, 1). Though mál bóka may simply mean ‘the language of books, learned language’, the language of books, especially in early C11th Scandinavia, is specifically the Lat. language (compare OE bōclǣden ‘book-language, Latin’ and later ON bókmál ‘book-language, learned language, Latin’; see ONP: bókmál). This phrase thus supplies the first extant skaldic reference to both Lat. and books, and indicates that the poem’s genesis was in an at least partly ecclesiastical milieu.

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