skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Þjsk Jarl 1I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorleifr jarlsskáld Rauðfeldarson, Jarlsníð 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 372.

Þorleifr jarlsskáld RauðfeldarsonJarlsníð1

Þoku ‘Fog’

1. þoka (noun f.; °-u; -ur): [Fog, mist]

notes

[1] þoku dregr upp it ýtra ‘fog rises up on the outer side’: This line lacks skothending. Emendation of ýtra ‘outer, outer side’ to eystra ‘east’ (Skj B; Skald) gives end-rhyme with vestra ‘west’ in l. 2, as well as syntactic and semantic parallelism. These features enhance the stanza’s incantatory quality (cf. for example the runic metrical charms in Liestøl 1963, 38-41), but it makes sense as it stands so has not been emended here; see also Note to Þjsk Hákdr 1/1.

Close

dregr ‘rises’

2. draga (verb; °dregr; dró, drógu; dreginn/droget(Hirð NKS 1642 4° 146v²⁹; cf. [$962$])): drag, pull, draw

notes

[1] þoku dregr upp it ýtra ‘fog rises up on the outer side’: This line lacks skothending. Emendation of ýtra ‘outer, outer side’ to eystra ‘east’ (Skj B; Skald) gives end-rhyme with vestra ‘west’ in l. 2, as well as syntactic and semantic parallelism. These features enhance the stanza’s incantatory quality (cf. for example the runic metrical charms in Liestøl 1963, 38-41), but it makes sense as it stands so has not been emended here; see also Note to Þjsk Hákdr 1/1.

Close

upp ‘up’

upp (adv.): up

notes

[1] þoku dregr upp it ýtra ‘fog rises up on the outer side’: This line lacks skothending. Emendation of ýtra ‘outer, outer side’ to eystra ‘east’ (Skj B; Skald) gives end-rhyme with vestra ‘west’ in l. 2, as well as syntactic and semantic parallelism. These features enhance the stanza’s incantatory quality (cf. for example the runic metrical charms in Liestøl 1963, 38-41), but it makes sense as it stands so has not been emended here; see also Note to Þjsk Hákdr 1/1.

Close

it ‘on’

2. inn (art.): the

notes

[1] þoku dregr upp it ýtra ‘fog rises up on the outer side’: This line lacks skothending. Emendation of ýtra ‘outer, outer side’ to eystra ‘east’ (Skj B; Skald) gives end-rhyme with vestra ‘west’ in l. 2, as well as syntactic and semantic parallelism. These features enhance the stanza’s incantatory quality (cf. for example the runic metrical charms in Liestøl 1963, 38-41), but it makes sense as it stands so has not been emended here; see also Note to Þjsk Hákdr 1/1.

Close

ýtra ‘the outer side’

ýtri (adj. comp.): outer side

notes

[1] þoku dregr upp it ýtra ‘fog rises up on the outer side’: This line lacks skothending. Emendation of ýtra ‘outer, outer side’ to eystra ‘east’ (Skj B; Skald) gives end-rhyme with vestra ‘west’ in l. 2, as well as syntactic and semantic parallelism. These features enhance the stanza’s incantatory quality (cf. for example the runic metrical charms in Liestøl 1963, 38-41), but it makes sense as it stands so has not been emended here; see also Note to Þjsk Hákdr 1/1.

Close

él ‘a storm’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm

[2] él: ei 4867ˣ, 563aˣ

Close

mǫkkr ‘the cloud’

mǫkkr (noun m.): [cloud]

[3] mǫkkr (‘mokkr’): ‘nockur’ 4867ˣ, 563aˣ

notes

[3, 4] mǫkkr náms naðrbings ‘the cloud from the taking of the adder-bed [GOLD]’: That is, presumably, the smoke and soot from Þorleifr’s burned ship. Nám m. ‘seizure, taking’ occurs nowhere else as a simplex (though cf. landnám ‘land-taking, settlement’) and mǫkkr m. ‘cloud’ appears otherwise only in a C13th stanza (Guðbr Frag 2/1III) and in the name Mǫkkurkálfi, given to a giant animated figure made of clay (SnE 1998, I, 21-2). Although the gen. case of náms is unexpected, the sense of the phrase is clear enough.

Close

náms ‘from the taking’

nám (noun n.; °-s): learning

notes

[3, 4] mǫkkr náms naðrbings ‘the cloud from the taking of the adder-bed [GOLD]’: That is, presumably, the smoke and soot from Þorleifr’s burned ship. Nám m. ‘seizure, taking’ occurs nowhere else as a simplex (though cf. landnám ‘land-taking, settlement’) and mǫkkr m. ‘cloud’ appears otherwise only in a C13th stanza (Guðbr Frag 2/1III) and in the name Mǫkkurkálfi, given to a giant animated figure made of clay (SnE 1998, I, 21-2). Although the gen. case of náms is unexpected, the sense of the phrase is clear enough.

Close

af ‘for’

af (prep.): from

[3] af: ‘a[...]’ 4867ˣ

notes

[3] af nøkkvi ‘for some reason’: Kock (NN §318) thinks this adverbial phrase qualifies the final clause, in accordance with its position in the stanza, but the Text above, with Skj B, sees af nøkkvi as implying a question (what caused the fog and storm?) to which mǫkkr náms naðrbings is the answer (Skj B takes it with l. 1 rather than l. 2, as here).

Close

nøkkvi ‘some reason’

nøkkurr (pron.): some, a certain

notes

[3] af nøkkvi ‘for some reason’: Kock (NN §318) thinks this adverbial phrase qualifies the final clause, in accordance with its position in the stanza, but the Text above, with Skj B, sees af nøkkvi as implying a question (what caused the fog and storm?) to which mǫkkr náms naðrbings is the answer (Skj B takes it with l. 1 rather than l. 2, as here).

Close

naðr ‘of the adder’

naðr (noun m.): snake < naðrbingr (noun m.)

[4] naðr‑: niðr 4867ˣ, 563aˣ

kennings

naðrbings
‘of the adder-bed ’
   = GOLD

the adder-bed → GOLD

notes

[3, 4] mǫkkr náms naðrbings ‘the cloud from the taking of the adder-bed [GOLD]’: That is, presumably, the smoke and soot from Þorleifr’s burned ship. Nám m. ‘seizure, taking’ occurs nowhere else as a simplex (though cf. landnám ‘land-taking, settlement’) and mǫkkr m. ‘cloud’ appears otherwise only in a C13th stanza (Guðbr Frag 2/1III) and in the name Mǫkkurkálfi, given to a giant animated figure made of clay (SnE 1998, I, 21-2). Although the gen. case of náms is unexpected, the sense of the phrase is clear enough.

Close

bings ‘bed’

bingr (noun m.; °dat. -i): [bed, lair] < naðrbingr (noun m.)

kennings

naðrbings
‘of the adder-bed ’
   = GOLD

the adder-bed → GOLD

notes

[3, 4] mǫkkr náms naðrbings ‘the cloud from the taking of the adder-bed [GOLD]’: That is, presumably, the smoke and soot from Þorleifr’s burned ship. Nám m. ‘seizure, taking’ occurs nowhere else as a simplex (though cf. landnám ‘land-taking, settlement’) and mǫkkr m. ‘cloud’ appears otherwise only in a C13th stanza (Guðbr Frag 2/1III) and in the name Mǫkkurkálfi, given to a giant animated figure made of clay (SnE 1998, I, 21-2). Although the gen. case of náms is unexpected, the sense of the phrase is clear enough.

Close

hingat ‘this way’

hingat (adv.): (to) here

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Þorleifr travels to Hákon jarl’s court disguised as a beggar, in order to perform a composition called KonuvísurVísur about a woman’ (‘konur visur’, Flat(27vb)), but see Noreen 1922a, 45; Almqvist 1965-74, I, 194-5). In these, Hákon is spoken of as a woman in poetic terms (kona kenndr í skáldskap), as revenge for Hákon’s attack on his ship (see Biography above). At first Hákon hears praise of himself and his son Eiríkr jarl (see Introduction to Þjsk Hák), but he is soon assailed by unbearable itching between his thighs. He commands Þorleifr to recite something better, but when Þorleifr starts the Þokuvísur ‘Fog Vísur’, said to be the middle part of the poem, darkness falls. The third and last part of the poem causes weapons to fight by themselves and Hákon to fall unconscious. He awakes to find Þorleifr magically escaped and his own beard and half his hair rotted away, never to return. 

Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.