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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ÞjóðA Lv 9II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Lausavísur 9’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 173-4.

Þjóðólfr ArnórssonLausavísur

es ‘have’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[1] es (‘er’): om. 39, H, var E, Flat


skyldi ‘should have’

skulu (verb): shall, should, must

[1] skyldi: vildi Mork, H, om. Hr


teitum ‘joyous’

teitr (adj.): cheerful, glad < ógnteitr (adj.)

[2] ‑teitum: ‘tieittum’ Flat


sterkr ‘the mighty’

sterkr (adj.): strong

[3] sterkr: styrkr H


olli ‘caused’

valda (verb): cause


Steinkels ‘Steinkell’s’

Steinkell (noun m.): Steinkell


gefin ‘been handed over’

gefa (verb): give


helju ‘to death’s realm’

1. hel (noun f.; °-jar, dat. -ju): death, Hel, hell

[4] helju (‘hælio’): ‘elio’ 39


[4] helju ‘death’s realm’: Cf. Note to ÞjóðA Sex 16/8 and Valg Har 8/6.


þvít ‘because’

þvít (conj.): because, since

[5] þvít (‘þvi at’): þat Flat


illa ‘badly’

1. illa (adv.): badly

[5] illa: om. Hr


reynðisk ‘turned out’

reyna (verb): test, try, experience

[5] reynðisk: reyndusk Mork


afls ‘of support’

2. afl (noun n.; °-s; *-): strength

[6] afls: alfs E, afl‑ Mork, Flat, H, alf Hr


þaðan ‘from there’

þaðan (adv.): from there


fyrir ‘’

fyrir (prep.): for, before, because of

[7] fyrir: fyrr Flat


hǫrfa ‘a retreat’

hǫrfa (verb): [a retreat]


hvat ‘whatever’

hvat (pron.): what

[8] hvat: ‘hua’ E, hvatt Flat


[8] hvat ‘whatever’: The interpretation here follows Andersson and Gade. Hvat is slightly elliptical, lacking a rel. particle (e)s. Previous eds read hvatt and take it with the previous cl., hence Hkon lét hǫrfa fyrir hvatt ‘Hákon effected a retreat swiftly’, but this virtually amounts to an emendation since only Flat reads hvatt, and all other mss but one have hvat.


segr ‘says’

segja (verb): say, tell

[8] segr: segir F, E, J2ˣ, Flat, Hr


[8] segr ‘says’: I.e. 3rd pers. sg. pres. of segja. The usual form, segir, is seen in five mss but segr may be an authentic older variant (cf. 1st pers. sg. pres. seg rather than segi, ANG §532.6).


fegrir ‘puts a gloss’

1. fegra (verb): beautify

[8] fegrir: ‘fegir’ H, Hr


[8] fegrir ‘puts a gloss on it’: Fegra is the causative verb from fagr ‘beautiful’, hence the informant literally ‘beautifies’ the narrative of the retreat.


Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Hákon jarl Ívarsson, commissioned by King Steinkell to defend Götaland (Gautland) against Haraldr’s attacks, fights well along with his Dan. forces, but their standard is captured and they are forced to flee.


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