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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ÞjóðA Har 4II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Stanzas about Haraldr Sigurðarson’s leiðangr 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 154-5.

Þjóðólfr ArnórssonStanzas about Haraldr Sigurðarson’s leiðangr
345

Sorgar ‘Anguish’

sorg (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): sorrow, affliction

[1] Sorgar: Skógs H, Hr

notes

[1] sorgar veit ‘anguish will be felt’: Especially in light of the companion st. 3 this is likely to be an impersonal verb phrase which refers to the strain on the oars before the voyage ends, but herr ‘troop’ in l. 3 could be the understood subject. In either case the reference could be specifically to sea-battles ahead.

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veit ‘will be felt’

1. vita (verb): know

[1] veit: veit ek J2ˣ, Hr

notes

[1] sorgar veit ‘anguish will be felt’: Especially in light of the companion st. 3 this is likely to be an impersonal verb phrase which refers to the strain on the oars before the voyage ends, but herr ‘troop’ in l. 3 could be the understood subject. In either case the reference could be specifically to sea-battles ahead.

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áðr ‘before’

áðr (adv.; °//): before

[1] áðr: at J2ˣ, áðr en H, Hr

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slíti ‘whips’

slíta (verb): to tear

[1] slíti: slítisk E, 570a, H, Hr

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sæfang ‘the sea-gear [oar]’

sæfang (noun n.): [sea-gear [oar]]

[2] sæfang (‘siafang’): sjáfǫng F

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strǫngum ‘the powerful’

strangr (adj.): strong

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þars ‘where’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

notes

[3, 4] þars hár heldr sjau tøgum ára til varra ‘where the oarport holds [each of] the seventy oars in place for the stroke [lit. strokes]’: The mix of sg. (hár heldr ‘oarport holds’) and pl. sjau tøgum ára til varra ‘seventy oars in place for the strokes’ is not unusual in skaldic poetry. As Jesch points out (2001, 155), hár ‘oarport, hole in the upper gunwale supporting the oar’, sometimes refers more broadly to the space occupied by the oarsman (it is taken as the whole ship in ÍF 28), and vǫrr ‘stroke, pull of the oar’ to the sea, but here the more precise meanings are likely. Finnur Jónsson took til varra as a reference to arriving at the landing-stage (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B).

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heldr ‘holds’

halda (verb): hold, keep

notes

[3, 4] þars hár heldr sjau tøgum ára til varra ‘where the oarport holds [each of] the seventy oars in place for the stroke [lit. strokes]’: The mix of sg. (hár heldr ‘oarport holds’) and pl. sjau tøgum ára til varra ‘seventy oars in place for the strokes’ is not unusual in skaldic poetry. As Jesch points out (2001, 155), hár ‘oarport, hole in the upper gunwale supporting the oar’, sometimes refers more broadly to the space occupied by the oarsman (it is taken as the whole ship in ÍF 28), and vǫrr ‘stroke, pull of the oar’ to the sea, but here the more precise meanings are likely. Finnur Jónsson took til varra as a reference to arriving at the landing-stage (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B).

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til ‘in place’

til (prep.): to

notes

[3, 4] þars hár heldr sjau tøgum ára til varra ‘where the oarport holds [each of] the seventy oars in place for the stroke [lit. strokes]’: The mix of sg. (hár heldr ‘oarport holds’) and pl. sjau tøgum ára til varra ‘seventy oars in place for the strokes’ is not unusual in skaldic poetry. As Jesch points out (2001, 155), hár ‘oarport, hole in the upper gunwale supporting the oar’, sometimes refers more broadly to the space occupied by the oarsman (it is taken as the whole ship in ÍF 28), and vǫrr ‘stroke, pull of the oar’ to the sea, but here the more precise meanings are likely. Finnur Jónsson took til varra as a reference to arriving at the landing-stage (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B).

Close

varra ‘for the stroke [lit. strokes]’

1. vǫrr (noun m.; °dat. verri; acc. vǫrru): oar-stroke

[3] varra: ‘uarar’ 570a

notes

[3, 4] þars hár heldr sjau tøgum ára til varra ‘where the oarport holds [each of] the seventy oars in place for the stroke [lit. strokes]’: The mix of sg. (hár heldr ‘oarport holds’) and pl. sjau tøgum ára til varra ‘seventy oars in place for the strokes’ is not unusual in skaldic poetry. As Jesch points out (2001, 155), hár ‘oarport, hole in the upper gunwale supporting the oar’, sometimes refers more broadly to the space occupied by the oarsman (it is taken as the whole ship in ÍF 28), and vǫrr ‘stroke, pull of the oar’ to the sea, but here the more precise meanings are likely. Finnur Jónsson took til varra as a reference to arriving at the landing-stage (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B).

Close

hár ‘the oarport’

1. hár (noun m.; °; -ir): oarport

notes

[3, 4] þars hár heldr sjau tøgum ára til varra ‘where the oarport holds [each of] the seventy oars in place for the stroke [lit. strokes]’: The mix of sg. (hár heldr ‘oarport holds’) and pl. sjau tøgum ára til varra ‘seventy oars in place for the strokes’ is not unusual in skaldic poetry. As Jesch points out (2001, 155), hár ‘oarport, hole in the upper gunwale supporting the oar’, sometimes refers more broadly to the space occupied by the oarsman (it is taken as the whole ship in ÍF 28), and vǫrr ‘stroke, pull of the oar’ to the sea, but here the more precise meanings are likely. Finnur Jónsson took til varra as a reference to arriving at the landing-stage (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B).

Close

sjau ‘the seven’

sjau (num. cardinal): seven

[4] sjau tøgum: so F, E, H, ‘lxxxgom’ Kˣ, ‘lxxgom’ J2ˣ, ‘víj tígir’ 570a, ‘vj́·tigum’ Hr

notes

[3, 4] þars hár heldr sjau tøgum ára til varra ‘where the oarport holds [each of] the seventy oars in place for the stroke [lit. strokes]’: The mix of sg. (hár heldr ‘oarport holds’) and pl. sjau tøgum ára til varra ‘seventy oars in place for the strokes’ is not unusual in skaldic poetry. As Jesch points out (2001, 155), hár ‘oarport, hole in the upper gunwale supporting the oar’, sometimes refers more broadly to the space occupied by the oarsman (it is taken as the whole ship in ÍF 28), and vǫrr ‘stroke, pull of the oar’ to the sea, but here the more precise meanings are likely. Finnur Jónsson took til varra as a reference to arriving at the landing-stage (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B).

Close

tøgum ‘ty’

tigr (noun m.; °-ar/-s(DN II (1309) 80¹², etc.); -ir, acc. -u): a ten of, a decade; a ten of, a decade

[4] sjau tøgum: so F, E, H, ‘lxxxgom’ Kˣ, ‘lxxgom’ J2ˣ, ‘víj tígir’ 570a, ‘vj́·tigum’ Hr

notes

[3, 4] þars hár heldr sjau tøgum ára til varra ‘where the oarport holds [each of] the seventy oars in place for the stroke [lit. strokes]’: The mix of sg. (hár heldr ‘oarport holds’) and pl. sjau tøgum ára til varra ‘seventy oars in place for the strokes’ is not unusual in skaldic poetry. As Jesch points out (2001, 155), hár ‘oarport, hole in the upper gunwale supporting the oar’, sometimes refers more broadly to the space occupied by the oarsman (it is taken as the whole ship in ÍF 28), and vǫrr ‘stroke, pull of the oar’ to the sea, but here the more precise meanings are likely. Finnur Jónsson took til varra as a reference to arriving at the landing-stage (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B).

Close

ára ‘oars’

1. ár (noun f.; °-ar, dat. u/-; -ar/-ir(LandslBorg 151b²¹)): oar

notes

[3, 4] þars hár heldr sjau tøgum ára til varra ‘where the oarport holds [each of] the seventy oars in place for the stroke [lit. strokes]’: The mix of sg. (hár heldr ‘oarport holds’) and pl. sjau tøgum ára til varra ‘seventy oars in place for the strokes’ is not unusual in skaldic poetry. As Jesch points out (2001, 155), hár ‘oarport, hole in the upper gunwale supporting the oar’, sometimes refers more broadly to the space occupied by the oarsman (it is taken as the whole ship in ÍF 28), and vǫrr ‘stroke, pull of the oar’ to the sea, but here the more precise meanings are likely. Finnur Jónsson took til varra as a reference to arriving at the landing-stage (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B).

Close

naðri ‘the snake [ship]’

naðr (noun m.): snake

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neglðum ‘nailed’

nagla (verb): [nailed]

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heglða ‘the hail-beaten’

hegla (verb): [hail-beaten]

[6] heglða: ‘helgda’ E, ‘hellda’ 570a

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úts ‘out’

út (adv.): out(side)

[7] úts (‘ut er’): út F, 570a

notes

[7, 8] úts, sem líti innan arnarvæng ‘[looking] out, it is like seeing an eagle’s wing from within’: (a) Innan is here taken as an adv. The viewpoint may be imaginatively that of the oarsmen (Jesch 2001a, 155) or that of someone looking innan ‘from the land’ at the scene út ‘out at sea’; either way there is mild tautology. (b) Innan could alternatively qualify arnarvæng ‘eagle’s wing’ (so Poole 1991, 60). For innan plus acc. rather than gen., cf. innan hverja vík ‘in every bay’, st. 5/8. (c) A further possibility is to take út ‘out’ with the róa cl.: the men row out onto the hail-beaten current (so Skj B and ÍF 28). Skj B reads unnar (so H, Hr) rather than innan in l. 7, hence straum unnar ‘current of the wave’ (bølgeström), but this assumes a disjointed l. 7, and innan has stronger ms. support (as Kock pointed out, NN §872).

Close

sem ‘it is like’

sem (conj.): as, which

notes

[7, 8] úts, sem líti innan arnarvæng ‘[looking] out, it is like seeing an eagle’s wing from within’: (a) Innan is here taken as an adv. The viewpoint may be imaginatively that of the oarsmen (Jesch 2001a, 155) or that of someone looking innan ‘from the land’ at the scene út ‘out at sea’; either way there is mild tautology. (b) Innan could alternatively qualify arnarvæng ‘eagle’s wing’ (so Poole 1991, 60). For innan plus acc. rather than gen., cf. innan hverja vík ‘in every bay’, st. 5/8. (c) A further possibility is to take út ‘out’ with the róa cl.: the men row out onto the hail-beaten current (so Skj B and ÍF 28). Skj B reads unnar (so H, Hr) rather than innan in l. 7, hence straum unnar ‘current of the wave’ (bølgeström), but this assumes a disjointed l. 7, and innan has stronger ms. support (as Kock pointed out, NN §872).

Close

innan ‘from within’

innan (prep.): inside, within

[7] innan: unnar H, Hr

notes

[7, 8] úts, sem líti innan arnarvæng ‘[looking] out, it is like seeing an eagle’s wing from within’: (a) Innan is here taken as an adv. The viewpoint may be imaginatively that of the oarsmen (Jesch 2001a, 155) or that of someone looking innan ‘from the land’ at the scene út ‘out at sea’; either way there is mild tautology. (b) Innan could alternatively qualify arnarvæng ‘eagle’s wing’ (so Poole 1991, 60). For innan plus acc. rather than gen., cf. innan hverja vík ‘in every bay’, st. 5/8. (c) A further possibility is to take út ‘out’ with the róa cl.: the men row out onto the hail-beaten current (so Skj B and ÍF 28). Skj B reads unnar (so H, Hr) rather than innan in l. 7, hence straum unnar ‘current of the wave’ (bølgeström), but this assumes a disjointed l. 7, and innan has stronger ms. support (as Kock pointed out, NN §872).

Close

líti ‘seeing’

líta (verb): look, see; appear

[7] líti: lítit 570a

notes

[7, 8] úts, sem líti innan arnarvæng ‘[looking] out, it is like seeing an eagle’s wing from within’: (a) Innan is here taken as an adv. The viewpoint may be imaginatively that of the oarsmen (Jesch 2001a, 155) or that of someone looking innan ‘from the land’ at the scene út ‘out at sea’; either way there is mild tautology. (b) Innan could alternatively qualify arnarvæng ‘eagle’s wing’ (so Poole 1991, 60). For innan plus acc. rather than gen., cf. innan hverja vík ‘in every bay’, st. 5/8. (c) A further possibility is to take út ‘out’ with the róa cl.: the men row out onto the hail-beaten current (so Skj B and ÍF 28). Skj B reads unnar (so H, Hr) rather than innan in l. 7, hence straum unnar ‘current of the wave’ (bølgeström), but this assumes a disjointed l. 7, and innan has stronger ms. support (as Kock pointed out, NN §872).

Close

arnar ‘an eagle’s’

1. ǫrn (noun m.; °arnar, dat. erni; ernir, acc. ǫrnu): eagle < arnarvængr (noun m.): °eagle’s wing

notes

[7, 8] úts, sem líti innan arnarvæng ‘[looking] out, it is like seeing an eagle’s wing from within’: (a) Innan is here taken as an adv. The viewpoint may be imaginatively that of the oarsmen (Jesch 2001a, 155) or that of someone looking innan ‘from the land’ at the scene út ‘out at sea’; either way there is mild tautology. (b) Innan could alternatively qualify arnarvæng ‘eagle’s wing’ (so Poole 1991, 60). For innan plus acc. rather than gen., cf. innan hverja vík ‘in every bay’, st. 5/8. (c) A further possibility is to take út ‘out’ with the róa cl.: the men row out onto the hail-beaten current (so Skj B and ÍF 28). Skj B reads unnar (so H, Hr) rather than innan in l. 7, hence straum unnar ‘current of the wave’ (bølgeström), but this assumes a disjointed l. 7, and innan has stronger ms. support (as Kock pointed out, NN §872).

Close

væng ‘wing’

vængr (noun m.; °; -ir/-jar): wing < arnarvængr (noun m.): °eagle’s wing

[8] ‑væng: vængs 570a

notes

[7, 8] úts, sem líti innan arnarvæng ‘[looking] out, it is like seeing an eagle’s wing from within’: (a) Innan is here taken as an adv. The viewpoint may be imaginatively that of the oarsmen (Jesch 2001a, 155) or that of someone looking innan ‘from the land’ at the scene út ‘out at sea’; either way there is mild tautology. (b) Innan could alternatively qualify arnarvæng ‘eagle’s wing’ (so Poole 1991, 60). For innan plus acc. rather than gen., cf. innan hverja vík ‘in every bay’, st. 5/8. (c) A further possibility is to take út ‘out’ with the róa cl.: the men row out onto the hail-beaten current (so Skj B and ÍF 28). Skj B reads unnar (so H, Hr) rather than innan in l. 7, hence straum unnar ‘current of the wave’ (bølgeström), but this assumes a disjointed l. 7, and innan has stronger ms. support (as Kock pointed out, NN §872).

Close

með ‘with’

með (prep.): with

[8] með: ór F, 570a, af E, H, Hr

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