Cookies on our website

We use cookies on this website, mainly to provide a secure browsing experience but also to collect statistics on how the website is used. You can find out more about the cookies we set, the information we store and how we use it on the cookies page.

Continue

skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

ÞjóðA Lv 4II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Lausavísur 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 168-9.

Þjóðólfr ArnórssonLausavísur
345

rauð ‘reddened’

rjóða (verb): to redden

[1] rauð: ‘ro᷎ð’ Flat

Close

í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

[1] í móðu: so all others, af móði F

notes

[1, 2] í móðu spjóta ‘in the river of spears [BLOOD]’: (a) So Andersson and Gade 2000. (b) Alternatively, í móðu could stand alone as a rather curious ‘in the river’, and spjóta would form the determinant in a battle-kenning, mót spjóta ‘meeting of spears’ (Skj B). (c) Í móðu geira could be taken as ‘in the river of spears [BLOOD]’, with the object of rauð ‘reddened’ understood as weapons (Fidjestøl 1971, 49 n., as one option). (d) The F reading af móði would presumably mean ‘in his zeal’ or ‘in anger’ (Fidjestøl 1971, 49 n.).

Close

móðu ‘the river’

1. móða (noun f.; °-u; -ur): river

[1] í móðu: so all others, af móði F

kennings

móðu spjóta;
‘the river of spears; ’
   = BLOOD

the river of spears; → BLOOD

notes

[1, 2] í móðu spjóta ‘in the river of spears [BLOOD]’: (a) So Andersson and Gade 2000. (b) Alternatively, í móðu could stand alone as a rather curious ‘in the river’, and spjóta would form the determinant in a battle-kenning, mót spjóta ‘meeting of spears’ (Skj B). (c) Í móðu geira could be taken as ‘in the river of spears [BLOOD]’, with the object of rauð ‘reddened’ understood as weapons (Fidjestøl 1971, 49 n., as one option). (d) The F reading af móði would presumably mean ‘in his zeal’ or ‘in anger’ (Fidjestøl 1971, 49 n.).

Close

mót ‘encounter’

1. mót (noun n.; °; -): meeting

[2] mót: ‘mótr’ Mork

Close

hart ‘a harsh’

harðr (adj.; °comp. -ari; superl. -astr): hard, harsh

[2] hart: illt Mork, H, Hr

Close

þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

[2] þar: þat Flat, Hr

notes

[2] þar ‘there’: The variant þat ‘that (was a harsh assembly)’ (so Flat, Hr) is also possible.

Close

spjóta ‘of spears’

spjót (noun n.; °-s; -): spear

[2] spjóta: spjótum Mork, H, Hr

kennings

móðu spjóta;
‘the river of spears; ’
   = BLOOD

the river of spears; → BLOOD

notes

[1, 2] í móðu spjóta ‘in the river of spears [BLOOD]’: (a) So Andersson and Gade 2000. (b) Alternatively, í móðu could stand alone as a rather curious ‘in the river’, and spjóta would form the determinant in a battle-kenning, mót spjóta ‘meeting of spears’ (Skj B). (c) Í móðu geira could be taken as ‘in the river of spears [BLOOD]’, with the object of rauð ‘reddened’ understood as weapons (Fidjestøl 1971, 49 n., as one option). (d) The F reading af móði would presumably mean ‘in his zeal’ or ‘in anger’ (Fidjestøl 1971, 49 n.).

Close

Dǫnum ‘towards the Danes’

dan (noun m.; °-s, dat. -): Dane

Close

vôru ‘were’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[3] vôru: var Hr

Close

geira ‘lances’

geirr (noun m.): spear

notes

[3] geira ‘lances’: This is most naturally taken as object of rauð ‘reddened’. Presumably in order to integrate geira with the adjacent phrases, Kock took it with goð in l. 3 to give goð geira ‘deities of spears’, hence ‘valkyries’. However, as well as being slightly implausible, this entails either taking rauð ‘reddened’ as intransitive, or emending to réð (í móðu) ‘headed along the river’ (NN §§847C, 2268; Kock and Meissner 1931, I, 55 and II, 52 (: geirr), 138 (: ráða 10)).

Close

grǫm ‘wrathful’

2. gramr (adj.): angry

notes

[4] grǫm; skǫmmu ‘wrathful; a short time ago’: King Haraldr’s metrical point (Context above) is the counsel of perfection, but aðalhendingar with unequal consonant length are quite common (Gade 1995a, 6, 23 and 249, n. 20).

Close

en ‘and’

2. en (conj.): but, and

notes

[4, 8] en þat vas skǫmmu; en þat vas lǫngu ‘and that was a short time ago; but that was a long time ago’: These echo ll. 4 and 8 in Þfisk Lv 1-3, Hharð Lv 10-11 and Anon (HSig) 3-4, linking Þjóðólfr’s st. to the others in the skaldic repartee (on which see Fidjestøl 1971, which includes comment on variants in the ‘refrain’, and on other links between the sts). There may also be a more distant echo of vas þat fyr lǫngu in Þjóð Haustl 6/2III (cf. Gade 1995a, 156, 261 n. 18). The H reading here may echo Haust and/ or the similar l. 8 of Þfisk Lv 1-2.

Close

þat ‘that’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

notes

[4, 8] en þat vas skǫmmu; en þat vas lǫngu ‘and that was a short time ago; but that was a long time ago’: These echo ll. 4 and 8 in Þfisk Lv 1-3, Hharð Lv 10-11 and Anon (HSig) 3-4, linking Þjóðólfr’s st. to the others in the skaldic repartee (on which see Fidjestøl 1971, which includes comment on variants in the ‘refrain’, and on other links between the sts). There may also be a more distant echo of vas þat fyr lǫngu in Þjóð Haustl 6/2III (cf. Gade 1995a, 156, 261 n. 18). The H reading here may echo Haust and/ or the similar l. 8 of Þfisk Lv 1-2.

Close

vas ‘was’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

notes

[4, 8] en þat vas skǫmmu; en þat vas lǫngu ‘and that was a short time ago; but that was a long time ago’: These echo ll. 4 and 8 in Þfisk Lv 1-3, Hharð Lv 10-11 and Anon (HSig) 3-4, linking Þjóðólfr’s st. to the others in the skaldic repartee (on which see Fidjestøl 1971, which includes comment on variants in the ‘refrain’, and on other links between the sts). There may also be a more distant echo of vas þat fyr lǫngu in Þjóð Haustl 6/2III (cf. Gade 1995a, 156, 261 n. 18). The H reading here may echo Haust and/ or the similar l. 8 of Þfisk Lv 1-2.

Close

skǫmmu ‘a short time ago’

skǫmmu (adv.): recently

notes

[4] grǫm; skǫmmu ‘wrathful; a short time ago’: King Haraldr’s metrical point (Context above) is the counsel of perfection, but aðalhendingar with unequal consonant length are quite common (Gade 1995a, 6, 23 and 249, n. 20). — [4, 8] en þat vas skǫmmu; en þat vas lǫngu ‘and that was a short time ago; but that was a long time ago’: These echo ll. 4 and 8 in Þfisk Lv 1-3, Hharð Lv 10-11 and Anon (HSig) 3-4, linking Þjóðólfr’s st. to the others in the skaldic repartee (on which see Fidjestøl 1971, which includes comment on variants in the ‘refrain’, and on other links between the sts). There may also be a more distant echo of vas þat fyr lǫngu in Þjóð Haustl 6/2III (cf. Gade 1995a, 156, 261 n. 18). The H reading here may echo Haust and/ or the similar l. 8 of Þfisk Lv 1-2.

Close

skǫmmu ‘a short time ago’

skǫmmu (adv.): recently

notes

[4] grǫm; skǫmmu ‘wrathful; a short time ago’: King Haraldr’s metrical point (Context above) is the counsel of perfection, but aðalhendingar with unequal consonant length are quite common (Gade 1995a, 6, 23 and 249, n. 20). — [4, 8] en þat vas skǫmmu; en þat vas lǫngu ‘and that was a short time ago; but that was a long time ago’: These echo ll. 4 and 8 in Þfisk Lv 1-3, Hharð Lv 10-11 and Anon (HSig) 3-4, linking Þjóðólfr’s st. to the others in the skaldic repartee (on which see Fidjestøl 1971, which includes comment on variants in the ‘refrain’, and on other links between the sts). There may also be a more distant echo of vas þat fyr lǫngu in Þjóð Haustl 6/2III (cf. Gade 1995a, 156, 261 n. 18). The H reading here may echo Haust and/ or the similar l. 8 of Þfisk Lv 1-2.

Close

gramr ‘The lord’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

Close

stóð ‘stood [high]’

standa (verb): stand

Close

stillis ‘of the ruler’

stillir (noun m.): ruler

Close

en ‘but’

2. en (conj.): but, and

[8] en þat vas (‘enn þat var’): var þat fyrir H

notes

[4, 8] en þat vas skǫmmu; en þat vas lǫngu ‘and that was a short time ago; but that was a long time ago’: These echo ll. 4 and 8 in Þfisk Lv 1-3, Hharð Lv 10-11 and Anon (HSig) 3-4, linking Þjóðólfr’s st. to the others in the skaldic repartee (on which see Fidjestøl 1971, which includes comment on variants in the ‘refrain’, and on other links between the sts). There may also be a more distant echo of vas þat fyr lǫngu in Þjóð Haustl 6/2III (cf. Gade 1995a, 156, 261 n. 18). The H reading here may echo Haust and/ or the similar l. 8 of Þfisk Lv 1-2.

Close

þat ‘that’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

[8] en þat vas (‘enn þat var’): var þat fyrir H

notes

[4, 8] en þat vas skǫmmu; en þat vas lǫngu ‘and that was a short time ago; but that was a long time ago’: These echo ll. 4 and 8 in Þfisk Lv 1-3, Hharð Lv 10-11 and Anon (HSig) 3-4, linking Þjóðólfr’s st. to the others in the skaldic repartee (on which see Fidjestøl 1971, which includes comment on variants in the ‘refrain’, and on other links between the sts). There may also be a more distant echo of vas þat fyr lǫngu in Þjóð Haustl 6/2III (cf. Gade 1995a, 156, 261 n. 18). The H reading here may echo Haust and/ or the similar l. 8 of Þfisk Lv 1-2.

Close

vas ‘was’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[8] en þat vas (‘enn þat var’): var þat fyrir H

notes

[4, 8] en þat vas skǫmmu; en þat vas lǫngu ‘and that was a short time ago; but that was a long time ago’: These echo ll. 4 and 8 in Þfisk Lv 1-3, Hharð Lv 10-11 and Anon (HSig) 3-4, linking Þjóðólfr’s st. to the others in the skaldic repartee (on which see Fidjestøl 1971, which includes comment on variants in the ‘refrain’, and on other links between the sts). There may also be a more distant echo of vas þat fyr lǫngu in Þjóð Haustl 6/2III (cf. Gade 1995a, 156, 261 n. 18). The H reading here may echo Haust and/ or the similar l. 8 of Þfisk Lv 1-2.

Close

lǫngu ‘a long time ago’

langr (adj.; °compar. lengri, superl. lengstr): long

notes

[4, 8] en þat vas skǫmmu; en þat vas lǫngu ‘and that was a short time ago; but that was a long time ago’: These echo ll. 4 and 8 in Þfisk Lv 1-3, Hharð Lv 10-11 and Anon (HSig) 3-4, linking Þjóðólfr’s st. to the others in the skaldic repartee (on which see Fidjestøl 1971, which includes comment on variants in the ‘refrain’, and on other links between the sts). There may also be a more distant echo of vas þat fyr lǫngu in Þjóð Haustl 6/2III (cf. Gade 1995a, 156, 261 n. 18). The H reading here may echo Haust and/ or the similar l. 8 of Þfisk Lv 1-2.

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In Mork, Flat and H-Hr, King Haraldr exchanges sts with a man fishing (Þfisk Lv 1, Hharð Lv 10), then bids Þjóðólfr join in. After he has recited, the king mocks the inexact rhyme of grǫm : skǫmmu, and Þjóðólfr refuses to participate further. Ms. F has a similar context but lacks the criticism.

[2] hart ‘harsh’: The variant reading illt ‘bad, dire’ (so Mork, H, Hr) is equally good.

Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.