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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Líkn 25VII

George S. Tate (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Líknarbraut 25’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 255-6.

Anonymous PoemsLíknarbraut
242526

Geypnir skjöldungr skepnu
skríns styrkliga sína
(ern er hilmir) hlýrna
(heiðtjalds) saman alla.
Krists vinnr krapt ins hæsta
krossmark viðum hnossa
alls bezt; lofar æztan
öll dýrð konung fyrða.

{Skjöldungr {skríns hlýrna}} geypnir styrkliga sína skepnu alla saman; {hilmir {heiðtjalds}} er ern. Krossmark ins hæsta Krists vinnr krapt alls bezt {viðum hnossa}; öll dýrð lofar {æztan konung fyrða}.

{The ruler {of the shrine of heavenly bodies}} [SKY/HEAVEN > = God] holds in his hand mightily his creation all at once; {the prince {of the heath’s tent}} [SKY/HEAVEN > = God] is valiant. The cross-sign of the most high Christ gains power best of all {for trees of treasures} [MEN]; all glory exalts {the highest king of men} [RULER = Christ].

Mss: B(11v), 399a-bˣ

Readings: [5-8] abbrev. as ‘Kristr vinnr kr‑’ B, 399a‑bˣ

Editions: Skj AII, 155, Skj BII, 166-7, Skald II, 88, NN §2328; Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1844, 43, Rydberg 1907, 15, 50, Tate 1974, 70.

Notes: [1] geypnir ‘holds, gathers in his hand’: The verb (from gaupn, f. ‘hollow of the hand’) occurs only in Christian skaldic poetry, primarily in kennings depicting God or Christ as pantocrator ‘ruler of the universe’. See, e.g., Has 29/7-8, Geisl 16/7-8, Kálf Kátr 36/3 and Mgr 2/5. On the iconography of Christ as pantocrator, see Kirschbaum et al. 1968-76, I, 392-4. A good example from the period is from the early C13th painted ceiling of S. Michael’s, Hildesheim; in the final roundel of the tree of Jesse, Christ appears enthroned against a blue field, surrounded by sun, moon, and stars. — [2] skríns ‘shrine’s’: Rydberg 1907, 50 (so also Guðrún Nordal 2001, 300) takes skríns and heiðtjalds ‘heath-tent’s’ (l. 4) (emended to heiðstalls ‘heath-ledge’s’; see below) together as a tvíkent heaven-kenning, making l. 3 parenthetical: ern er hilmir hlýrna ‘valiant is the prince of heavenly bodies’. The tvíkennt kenning of this reading is analogous to Has 29/7-8 (above), and the use of hlýrna as determinant in the kenning of the interjection is similar to gramr hlýrna ‘king of heavenly bodies’ Anon (FoGT) 35/3III. Following Skj B and Skald, however, this ed. prefers the balanced pairing of skjöldungr skríns hlýrna ‘prince of the shrine of heavenly bodies’ (ll. 1, 3, 2) and hilmir heiðtjalds (Skj B -stalls) ‘prince of the heath’s tent’ (ll. 3, 4), the first of which recalls Leið 32/5-6. — [4] heiðtjalds ‘of the heath’s tent’: Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1844, 43 normalises ms. ‘-tialldz’ to -tjallz to improve rhyme with alla ‘all’. Konráð Gíslason 1877, 23-4, pointing out instances of tjald: ald- rhymes in Has (tjalds: aldir 10/4, tjalds: halda 20/7) and Líkn (tjalds [ms. ‘tíalldz’]: aldir 50/8), concludes that the scribe mistakenly substituted -tjalds for -stalls ‘ledge’s’, not only here but in Has 65/6 (ms. ‘tialldz’: alla). (Cf. Has 29/8 skýstalls: allri.) Rydberg 1907, 50 and Skj B accordingly emend to heiðstalls. But it is puzzling that the scribe of B (the same for both Has and Líkn) who got -stalls (ms. ‘stallz’) right in Has 29/8 would then substitute ‘tialldz’ (-tjalds) for -stalls in 65/6 and then again here. As Kock (NN §2328) argues, the pronunciation of ‘-lds-’ as ‘-lls-’ is not unusual in the period (analogous to kall for karl). This ed., with Skald, maintains the ms. reading and assumes that -tjalds (at least -al-) is intended to rhyme with alla. Cf. Játg Lv 2II hjald-: fjalli and, similarly, Halli XI Fl 3/8II vind-: finna (Skj B and Skald both emend to vinn-).

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  4. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  5. Guðrún Nordal. 2001. Tools of Literacy: The Role of Skaldic Verse in Icelandic Textual Culture of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. Toronto, Buffalo and London: University of Toronto Press.
  6. Rydberg, Hugo, ed. 1907. ‘Die geistlichen Drápur und Dróttkvættfragmente des Cod. AM 757 4to.’. Ph.D. thesis. University of Lund. Copenhagen: Møller.
  7. Tate, George S. 1974. ‘Líknarbraut: A Skaldic Drápa on the Cross’. Ph.D. thesis. Cornell University. DAI 35:6112A.
  8. Kirschbaum, Engelbert et al., eds. 1968-76. Lexikon der christlichen Ikonographie. 8 vols. Rpt. 1990-8. Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder.
  9. Konráð Gíslason. 1877. Om helrim i förste og tredje linie af regelmæssigt ‘dróttkvætt’ og ‘hrynhenda’. Indbydelsesskrift til Kjøbenhavns universitets aarsfest til erindring om kirkens reformation. Copenhagen: Schultz.
  10. Sveinbjörn Egilsson, ed. 1844. Fjøgur gømul kvæði. Boðsrit til að hlusta á þá opinberu yfirheyrslu í Bessastaða Skóla þann 22-29 mai 1844. Viðeyar Klaustri: prentuð af Helga Helgasyni, á kostnað Bessastaða Skóla. Bessastaðir: Helgi Helgason.
  11. Internal references
  12. Not published: do not cite (DplV)
  13. Kirsten Wolf (ed.) 2007, ‘Kálfr Hallsson, Kátrínardrápa 36’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 953-4.
  14. Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Leiðarvísan 32’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 169.
  15. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Drápa af Máríugrát 2’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 760-1.
  16. George S. Tate 2007, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Líknarbraut’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 228-86.
  17. Katrina Attwood 2007, ‘(Introduction to) Gamli kanóki, Harmsól’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 70-132.
  18. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Játgeirr Torfason, Lausavísa’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 652-3.
  19. Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Lausavísur, Stanzas from the Fourth Grammatical Treatise 35’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 612.
  20. Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 16’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 20-1.
  21. Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 29’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 97-8.
  22. Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 65’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 131-2.
  23. Russell Poole (ed.) 2009, ‘Halli stirði, Flokkr 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 340-1.
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