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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Líkn 25VII

George S. Tate (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Líknarbraut 25’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 255-6.

Anonymous PoemsLíknarbraut
242526

Geypnir ‘holds in his hand’

geypna (verb): [holds in his hand]

notes

[1] geypnir ‘holds, gathers in his hand’: The verb (from gaupn, f. ‘hollow of the hand’) occurs only in Christian skaldic poetry, primarily in kennings depicting God or Christ as pantocrator ‘ruler of the universe’. See, e.g., Has 29/7-8, Geisl 16/7-8, Kálf Kátr 36/3 and Mgr 2/5. On the iconography of Christ as pantocrator, see Kirschbaum et al. 1968-76, I, 392-4. A good example from the period is from the early C13th painted ceiling of S. Michael’s, Hildesheim; in the final roundel of the tree of Jesse, Christ appears enthroned against a blue field, surrounded by sun, moon, and stars.

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skjöldungr ‘The ruler’

skjǫldungr (noun m.): king

kennings

Skjöldungr skríns hlýrna
‘The ruler of the shrine of heavenly bodies ’
   = God

the shrine of heavenly bodies → SKY/HEAVEN
The ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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skríns ‘of the shrine’

skrín (noun n.; °-s; -): shrine

kennings

Skjöldungr skríns hlýrna
‘The ruler of the shrine of heavenly bodies ’
   = God

the shrine of heavenly bodies → SKY/HEAVEN
The ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2] skríns ‘shrine’s’: Rydberg 1907, 50 (so also Guðrún Nordal 2001, 300) takes skríns and heiðtjalds ‘heath-tent’s’ (l. 4) (emended to heiðstalls ‘heath-ledge’s’; see below) together as a tvíkent heaven-kenning, making l. 3 parenthetical: ern er hilmir hlýrna ‘valiant is the prince of heavenly bodies’. The tvíkennt kenning of this reading is analogous to Has 29/7-8 (above), and the use of hlýrna as determinant in the kenning of the interjection is similar to gramr hlýrna ‘king of heavenly bodies’ Anon (FoGT) 35/3III. Following Skj B and Skald, however, this ed. prefers the balanced pairing of skjöldungr skríns hlýrna ‘prince of the shrine of heavenly bodies’ (ll. 1, 3, 2) and hilmir heiðtjalds (Skj B -stalls) ‘prince of the heath’s tent’ (ll. 3, 4), the first of which recalls Leið 32/5-6.

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skríns ‘of the shrine’

skrín (noun n.; °-s; -): shrine

kennings

Skjöldungr skríns hlýrna
‘The ruler of the shrine of heavenly bodies ’
   = God

the shrine of heavenly bodies → SKY/HEAVEN
The ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2] skríns ‘shrine’s’: Rydberg 1907, 50 (so also Guðrún Nordal 2001, 300) takes skríns and heiðtjalds ‘heath-tent’s’ (l. 4) (emended to heiðstalls ‘heath-ledge’s’; see below) together as a tvíkent heaven-kenning, making l. 3 parenthetical: ern er hilmir hlýrna ‘valiant is the prince of heavenly bodies’. The tvíkennt kenning of this reading is analogous to Has 29/7-8 (above), and the use of hlýrna as determinant in the kenning of the interjection is similar to gramr hlýrna ‘king of heavenly bodies’ Anon (FoGT) 35/3III. Following Skj B and Skald, however, this ed. prefers the balanced pairing of skjöldungr skríns hlýrna ‘prince of the shrine of heavenly bodies’ (ll. 1, 3, 2) and hilmir heiðtjalds (Skj B -stalls) ‘prince of the heath’s tent’ (ll. 3, 4), the first of which recalls Leið 32/5-6.

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styrkliga ‘mightily’

styrkliga (adv.): [mightily]

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hilmir ‘the prince’

hilmir (noun m.): prince, protector

kennings

hilmir heiðtjalds
‘the prince of the heath’s tent ’
   = God

the heath’s tent → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

hlýrna ‘of heavenly bodies’

hlýrn (noun n.): heavenly body, sky-light

kennings

Skjöldungr skríns hlýrna
‘The ruler of the shrine of heavenly bodies ’
   = God

the shrine of heavenly bodies → SKY/HEAVEN
The ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

hlýrna ‘of heavenly bodies’

hlýrn (noun n.): heavenly body, sky-light

kennings

Skjöldungr skríns hlýrna
‘The ruler of the shrine of heavenly bodies ’
   = God

the shrine of heavenly bodies → SKY/HEAVEN
The ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

heið ‘of the heath’s’

3. heiðr (noun f.; °heiðar, dat./acc heiði; heiðar): heath < heiðtjald (noun n.)

kennings

hilmir heiðtjalds
‘the prince of the heath’s tent ’
   = God

the heath’s tent → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[4] heiðtjalds ‘of the heath’s tent’: Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1844, 43 normalises ms. ‘-tialldz’ to -tjallz to improve rhyme with alla ‘all’. Konráð Gíslason 1877, 23-4, pointing out instances of tjald: ald- rhymes in Has (tjalds: aldir 10/4, tjalds: halda 20/7) and Líkn (tjalds [ms. ‘tíalldz’]: aldir 50/8), concludes that the scribe mistakenly substituted -tjalds for -stalls ‘ledge’s’, not only here but in Has 65/6 (ms. ‘tialldz’: alla). (Cf. Has 29/8 skýstalls: allri.) Rydberg 1907, 50 and Skj B accordingly emend to heiðstalls. But it is puzzling that the scribe of B (the same for both Has and Líkn) who got -stalls (ms. ‘stallz’) right in Has 29/8 would then substitute ‘tialldz’ (-tjalds) for -stalls in 65/6 and then again here. As Kock (NN §2328) argues, the pronunciation of ‘-lds-’ as ‘-lls-’ is not unusual in the period (analogous to kall for karl). This ed., with Skald, maintains the ms. reading and assumes that -tjalds (at least -al-) is intended to rhyme with alla. Cf. Játg Lv 2II hjald-: fjalli and, similarly, Halli XI Fl 3/8II vind-: finna (Skj B and Skald both emend to vinn-).

Close

heið ‘of the heath’s’

3. heiðr (noun f.; °heiðar, dat./acc heiði; heiðar): heath < heiðtjald (noun n.)

kennings

hilmir heiðtjalds
‘the prince of the heath’s tent ’
   = God

the heath’s tent → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[4] heiðtjalds ‘of the heath’s tent’: Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1844, 43 normalises ms. ‘-tialldz’ to -tjallz to improve rhyme with alla ‘all’. Konráð Gíslason 1877, 23-4, pointing out instances of tjald: ald- rhymes in Has (tjalds: aldir 10/4, tjalds: halda 20/7) and Líkn (tjalds [ms. ‘tíalldz’]: aldir 50/8), concludes that the scribe mistakenly substituted -tjalds for -stalls ‘ledge’s’, not only here but in Has 65/6 (ms. ‘tialldz’: alla). (Cf. Has 29/8 skýstalls: allri.) Rydberg 1907, 50 and Skj B accordingly emend to heiðstalls. But it is puzzling that the scribe of B (the same for both Has and Líkn) who got -stalls (ms. ‘stallz’) right in Has 29/8 would then substitute ‘tialldz’ (-tjalds) for -stalls in 65/6 and then again here. As Kock (NN §2328) argues, the pronunciation of ‘-lds-’ as ‘-lls-’ is not unusual in the period (analogous to kall for karl). This ed., with Skald, maintains the ms. reading and assumes that -tjalds (at least -al-) is intended to rhyme with alla. Cf. Játg Lv 2II hjald-: fjalli and, similarly, Halli XI Fl 3/8II vind-: finna (Skj B and Skald both emend to vinn-).

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tjalds ‘tent’

tjald (noun n.; °-s; *-): tent, awning < heiðtjald (noun n.)

kennings

hilmir heiðtjalds
‘the prince of the heath’s tent ’
   = God

the heath’s tent → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[4] heiðtjalds ‘of the heath’s tent’: Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1844, 43 normalises ms. ‘-tialldz’ to -tjallz to improve rhyme with alla ‘all’. Konráð Gíslason 1877, 23-4, pointing out instances of tjald: ald- rhymes in Has (tjalds: aldir 10/4, tjalds: halda 20/7) and Líkn (tjalds [ms. ‘tíalldz’]: aldir 50/8), concludes that the scribe mistakenly substituted -tjalds for -stalls ‘ledge’s’, not only here but in Has 65/6 (ms. ‘tialldz’: alla). (Cf. Has 29/8 skýstalls: allri.) Rydberg 1907, 50 and Skj B accordingly emend to heiðstalls. But it is puzzling that the scribe of B (the same for both Has and Líkn) who got -stalls (ms. ‘stallz’) right in Has 29/8 would then substitute ‘tialldz’ (-tjalds) for -stalls in 65/6 and then again here. As Kock (NN §2328) argues, the pronunciation of ‘-lds-’ as ‘-lls-’ is not unusual in the period (analogous to kall for karl). This ed., with Skald, maintains the ms. reading and assumes that -tjalds (at least -al-) is intended to rhyme with alla. Cf. Játg Lv 2II hjald-: fjalli and, similarly, Halli XI Fl 3/8II vind-: finna (Skj B and Skald both emend to vinn-).

Close

tjalds ‘tent’

tjald (noun n.; °-s; *-): tent, awning < heiðtjald (noun n.)

kennings

hilmir heiðtjalds
‘the prince of the heath’s tent ’
   = God

the heath’s tent → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[4] heiðtjalds ‘of the heath’s tent’: Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1844, 43 normalises ms. ‘-tialldz’ to -tjallz to improve rhyme with alla ‘all’. Konráð Gíslason 1877, 23-4, pointing out instances of tjald: ald- rhymes in Has (tjalds: aldir 10/4, tjalds: halda 20/7) and Líkn (tjalds [ms. ‘tíalldz’]: aldir 50/8), concludes that the scribe mistakenly substituted -tjalds for -stalls ‘ledge’s’, not only here but in Has 65/6 (ms. ‘tialldz’: alla). (Cf. Has 29/8 skýstalls: allri.) Rydberg 1907, 50 and Skj B accordingly emend to heiðstalls. But it is puzzling that the scribe of B (the same for both Has and Líkn) who got -stalls (ms. ‘stallz’) right in Has 29/8 would then substitute ‘tialldz’ (-tjalds) for -stalls in 65/6 and then again here. As Kock (NN §2328) argues, the pronunciation of ‘-lds-’ as ‘-lls-’ is not unusual in the period (analogous to kall for karl). This ed., with Skald, maintains the ms. reading and assumes that -tjalds (at least -al-) is intended to rhyme with alla. Cf. Játg Lv 2II hjald-: fjalli and, similarly, Halli XI Fl 3/8II vind-: finna (Skj B and Skald both emend to vinn-).

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saman ‘at once’

saman (adv.): together

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alla ‘all’

allr (adj.): all

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Krists ‘Christ’

Kristr (noun m.; °-s/-, dat. -i; -ar): Christ

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Kristr vinnr kr‑’ B, 399a‑bˣ

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vinnr ‘gains’

2. vinna (verb): perform, work

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Kristr vinnr kr‑’ B, 399a‑bˣ

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krapt ‘power’

1. kraftr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/- ; -ar): power

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Kristr vinnr kr‑’ B, 399a‑bˣ

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ins ‘of the’

2. inn (art.): the

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Kristr vinnr kr‑’ B, 399a‑bˣ

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hæsta ‘most high’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Kristr vinnr kr‑’ B, 399a‑bˣ

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kross ‘The cross’

kross (noun m.; °-, dat. -i; -ar): cross, crucifix < krossmark (noun n.): sign of the cross

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Kristr vinnr kr‑’ B, 399a‑bˣ

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mark ‘sign’

mark (noun n.; °-s; *-): sign < krossmark (noun n.): sign of the cross

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Kristr vinnr kr‑’ B, 399a‑bˣ

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viðum ‘for trees’

1. viðr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -i/-; -ir, acc. -u/-i): wood, tree

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Kristr vinnr kr‑’ B, 399a‑bˣ

kennings

viðum hnossa;
‘for trees of treasures; ’
   = MEN

for trees of treasures; → MEN
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hnossa ‘of treasures’

1. hnoss (noun f.; °; -ir): treasure

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Kristr vinnr kr‑’ B, 399a‑bˣ

kennings

viðum hnossa;
‘for trees of treasures; ’
   = MEN

for trees of treasures; → MEN
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alls ‘of all’

allr (adj.): all

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Kristr vinnr kr‑’ B, 399a‑bˣ

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bezt ‘best’

betri (adj. comp.; °superl. beztr/baztr; pos. „ góðr adj.): better, best

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Kristr vinnr kr‑’ B, 399a‑bˣ

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lofar ‘exalts’

lofa (verb): praise, permit

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Kristr vinnr kr‑’ B, 399a‑bˣ

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æztan ‘the highest’

œðri (adj. comp.): nobler, higher

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Kristr vinnr kr‑’ B, 399a‑bˣ

kennings

æztan konung fyrða.
‘the highest king of men.’
   = RULER = Christ

the highest king of men. → RULER = Christ
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öll ‘all’

allr (adj.): all

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Kristr vinnr kr‑’ B, 399a‑bˣ

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dýrð ‘glory’

dýrð (noun f.; °-ar/-a(NoDipl(1279) 44²ˆ); -ir): glory

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Kristr vinnr kr‑’ B, 399a‑bˣ

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konung ‘king’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Kristr vinnr kr‑’ B, 399a‑bˣ

kennings

æztan konung fyrða.
‘the highest king of men.’
   = RULER = Christ

the highest king of men. → RULER = Christ
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fyrða ‘of men’

2. fyrðr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -): man

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Kristr vinnr kr‑’ B, 399a‑bˣ

kennings

æztan konung fyrða.
‘the highest king of men.’
   = RULER = Christ

the highest king of men. → RULER = Christ
Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[5-8]: B gives only an incipit of the stef ‘refrain’, with the same scribal error (Kristr for Krists) as in 13/5. A marginal obelos (†) indicates its occurrence; see Note to 13/5.

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