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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ÞjóðA Sex 8II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Sexstefja 8’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 120.

Þjóðólfr ArnórssonSexstefja
789

Ok ‘And’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[1] Ok: ‘[...]k’ B, Ok 744ˣ

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her ‘of war’

herr (noun m.; °-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra): army, host < hertogi (noun m.): duke

kennings

hneykir hertoga
‘the confounder of war-leaders ’
   = RULER

the confounder of war-leaders → RULER
Close

toga ‘leaders’

tog (noun n.; °; dat. -um): leader < hertogi (noun m.): duke

[1] ‑toga: ‘‑tug[…]’ B, ‘‑tuge’ 744ˣ

kennings

hneykir hertoga
‘the confounder of war-leaders ’
   = RULER

the confounder of war-leaders → RULER
Close

hneykir ‘the confounder’

hneykir (noun m.): confounder

[1] hneykir: hnykkir B, hnekkir C

kennings

hneykir hertoga
‘the confounder of war-leaders ’
   = RULER

the confounder of war-leaders → RULER
Close

her ‘the war’

herr (noun m.; °-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra): army, host < herfinginn (adj./verb p.p.)

[2] her‑: ‘h[…]’ B, harð 744ˣ

kennings

herfingnum skundaði haugs;
‘the war-captured impeller of the mound; ’
   = GENEROUS RULER

the war-captured impeller of the mound; → GENEROUS RULER

notes

[2] herfingnum ‘war-captured’: The form -fingnum is secured by the rhyme on stinga. It is dat. sg. of p. p. finginn, a variant on fenginn apparently modelled on pret. pl. fingum (later fengum; ANG §504 and Anm. 5; Finnur Jónsson 1901, 98).

Close

fingnum ‘captured’

finginn (adj./verb p.p.): [captured] < herfinginn (adj./verb p.p.)

[2] ‑fingnum: ‘fengnum’ R, Tˣ, C, ‘‑feinngium’ B

kennings

herfingnum skundaði haugs;
‘the war-captured impeller of the mound; ’
   = GENEROUS RULER

the war-captured impeller of the mound; → GENEROUS RULER

notes

[2] herfingnum ‘war-captured’: The form -fingnum is secured by the rhyme on stinga. It is dat. sg. of p. p. finginn, a variant on fenginn apparently modelled on pret. pl. fingum (later fengum; ANG §504 and Anm. 5; Finnur Jónsson 1901, 98).

Close

lét ‘had’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

[2] lét stinga: ‘l[...]a’ B, lét stinga 744ˣ

Close

stinga ‘stabbed’

stinga (verb): stab, poke

[2] lét stinga: ‘l[...]a’ B, lét stinga 744ˣ

Close

leyfð ‘a eulogy’

leyfð (noun f.): praise

Close

haugs ‘of the mound’

haugr (noun m.; °-s, -i; -ar): mound, cairn

[4] haugs: haug B

kennings

herfingnum skundaði haugs;
‘the war-captured impeller of the mound; ’
   = GENEROUS RULER

the war-captured impeller of the mound; → GENEROUS RULER

notes

[4] skundaði haugs ‘of the impeller of the mound [GENEROUS RULER]’: Haugs is secured by the rhyme on augu, and evidently forms a kenning with dat. sg. skundaði. Its meaning in this context is elusive but it might stand for treasure, hence designating the referent as a generous distributor of treasure. Haugr often refers to burial mounds, potentially containing valuable grave-goods (the mound of the legendary king Hǫlgi alternated gold and silver layers with earth ones, SnE 1998, I, 60). Skundaðr, though unique (to judge from LP), clearly derives from skunda ‘hasten, impel’, and must be synonymous with skyndir, which forms kennings with terms for treasure such as GSúrs Lv 16/5V baugskyndir and Þmáhl Máv 11/5V menskyndir, both with variants. Kock (Skald; NN §488), following an unidentified ‘older edition’ (äldre upplaga), preferred to assume an imperfect aðalhending, and to read hauks (skundaði), presumably referring to an aristocrat as one who flies falcons or hawks. (Sveinbjörn Egilsson read haugs but translated accipitris ‘hawk’s’ in SnE 1848-87, I, 514-15). The identity of the referent of the kenning is a matter of speculation, but the simplest assumption is that this is the blinding of the same victim as in st. 7 (see Note to st. 7/1).

Close

skundaði ‘impeller’

skunduðr (noun m.): [impeller]

[4] skundaði: so Tˣ, skyndaði R, B, C

kennings

herfingnum skundaði haugs;
‘the war-captured impeller of the mound; ’
   = GENEROUS RULER

the war-captured impeller of the mound; → GENEROUS RULER

notes

[4] skundaði haugs ‘of the impeller of the mound [GENEROUS RULER]’: Haugs is secured by the rhyme on augu, and evidently forms a kenning with dat. sg. skundaði. Its meaning in this context is elusive but it might stand for treasure, hence designating the referent as a generous distributor of treasure. Haugr often refers to burial mounds, potentially containing valuable grave-goods (the mound of the legendary king Hǫlgi alternated gold and silver layers with earth ones, SnE 1998, I, 60). Skundaðr, though unique (to judge from LP), clearly derives from skunda ‘hasten, impel’, and must be synonymous with skyndir, which forms kennings with terms for treasure such as GSúrs Lv 16/5V baugskyndir and Þmáhl Máv 11/5V menskyndir, both with variants. Kock (Skald; NN §488), following an unidentified ‘older edition’ (äldre upplaga), preferred to assume an imperfect aðalhending, and to read hauks (skundaði), presumably referring to an aristocrat as one who flies falcons or hawks. (Sveinbjörn Egilsson read haugs but translated accipitris ‘hawk’s’ in SnE 1848-87, I, 514-15). The identity of the referent of the kenning is a matter of speculation, but the simplest assumption is that this is the blinding of the same victim as in st. 7 (see Note to st. 7/1).

Close

augu ‘the eyes’

auga (noun n.; °auga; augu/augun, gen. augna): eye

[4] augu: ‘a[...]’ B, augu 744ˣ

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Within a discussion in Skm of heiti for rulers, the st. illustrates the point that hertogi ‘army leader’ can designate kings as well as jarls, since they lead armies into battle.

The st. seems to refer to the same incident as st. 7.

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