skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ÞjóðA Magnfl 8II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Magnússflokkr 8’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 73-4.

Þjóðólfr ArnórssonMagnússflokkr
789

Lǫgðu ‘clashed’

leggja (verb): put, lay

Close

grœðis ‘of the ocean’

grœðir (noun m.): ?healer, ?ocean

[1] grœðis: ‘glæðis’ F, J2ˣ, H, Hr, ‘glǫðez’ E

kennings

bǫrva glóða grœðis,
‘the trees of the embers of the ocean, ’
   = MEN

the embers of the ocean, → GOLD
the trees of the GOLD → MEN

notes

[1] glóða grœðis ‘embers of the ocean [GOLD]’: Grœðis is adopted here, as by most eds, despite being attested only in (supported by papp18ˣ) and 39, since the majority reading glæðis does not match the known vocabulary and may be influenced by the following glóða. The presumed gold-kenning forms the determinant of a common type of man-kenning with bǫrva ‘trees’ as its base-word, and the cl. arrangement that this entails is more or less unavoidable, unless the complex solution tentatively proposed, and then withdrawn, by Kock is adopted (NN §850, 2265).

Close

grœðis ‘of the ocean’

grœðir (noun m.): ?healer, ?ocean

[1] grœðis: ‘glæðis’ F, J2ˣ, H, Hr, ‘glǫðez’ E

kennings

bǫrva glóða grœðis,
‘the trees of the embers of the ocean, ’
   = MEN

the embers of the ocean, → GOLD
the trees of the GOLD → MEN

notes

[1] glóða grœðis ‘embers of the ocean [GOLD]’: Grœðis is adopted here, as by most eds, despite being attested only in (supported by papp18ˣ) and 39, since the majority reading glæðis does not match the known vocabulary and may be influenced by the following glóða. The presumed gold-kenning forms the determinant of a common type of man-kenning with bǫrva ‘trees’ as its base-word, and the cl. arrangement that this entails is more or less unavoidable, unless the complex solution tentatively proposed, and then withdrawn, by Kock is adopted (NN §850, 2265).

Close

glóða ‘of the embers’

glóð (noun f.): ember

[1] glóða: ‘glǫða’ E, glóðar H, Hr

kennings

bǫrva glóða grœðis,
‘the trees of the embers of the ocean, ’
   = MEN

the embers of the ocean, → GOLD
the trees of the GOLD → MEN

notes

[1] glóða grœðis ‘embers of the ocean [GOLD]’: Grœðis is adopted here, as by most eds, despite being attested only in (supported by papp18ˣ) and 39, since the majority reading glæðis does not match the known vocabulary and may be influenced by the following glóða. The presumed gold-kenning forms the determinant of a common type of man-kenning with bǫrva ‘trees’ as its base-word, and the cl. arrangement that this entails is more or less unavoidable, unless the complex solution tentatively proposed, and then withdrawn, by Kock is adopted (NN §850, 2265).

Close

glóða ‘of the embers’

glóð (noun f.): ember

[1] glóða: ‘glǫða’ E, glóðar H, Hr

kennings

bǫrva glóða grœðis,
‘the trees of the embers of the ocean, ’
   = MEN

the embers of the ocean, → GOLD
the trees of the GOLD → MEN

notes

[1] glóða grœðis ‘embers of the ocean [GOLD]’: Grœðis is adopted here, as by most eds, despite being attested only in (supported by papp18ˣ) and 39, since the majority reading glæðis does not match the known vocabulary and may be influenced by the following glóða. The presumed gold-kenning forms the determinant of a common type of man-kenning with bǫrva ‘trees’ as its base-word, and the cl. arrangement that this entails is more or less unavoidable, unless the complex solution tentatively proposed, and then withdrawn, by Kock is adopted (NN §850, 2265).

Close

gramr ‘The king’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

Close

skǫmmu ‘a short time ago’

skǫmmu (adv.): recently

Close

þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

Close

bitr ‘biting’

bitr (adj.; °bitran; superl. bitrastr): sharp, biting

[3] bitr á: bitra 39, F, E, Hr, ‘bittra’ J2ˣ

kennings

bitr brandleikr
‘biting sword-sport ’
   = BATTLE

biting sword-sport → BATTLE

notes

[3] bitr á ‘biting ... upon’: Bitra, the reading of most mss, does not provide the prep. needed by the syntax.

Close

á ‘upon’

3. á (prep.): on, at

[3] bitr á: bitra 39, F, E, Hr, ‘bittra’ J2ˣ

notes

[3] bitr á ‘biting ... upon’: Bitra, the reading of most mss, does not provide the prep. needed by the syntax.

Close

bǫrva ‘the trees’

bǫrr (noun m.): tree

[3] bǫrva: ‘biorfa’ J2ˣ

kennings

bǫrva glóða grœðis,
‘the trees of the embers of the ocean, ’
   = MEN

the embers of the ocean, → GOLD
the trees of the GOLD → MEN
Close

brand ‘sword’

brandr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): sword, prow; fire < brandleikr (noun m.)

kennings

bitr brandleikr
‘biting sword-sport ’
   = BATTLE

biting sword-sport → BATTLE
Close

leikr ‘sport’

1. leikr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ar): sport, play < brandleikr (noun m.)

[4] ‑leikr: ‑lækr H, lækir Hr

kennings

bitr brandleikr
‘biting sword-sport ’
   = BATTLE

biting sword-sport → BATTLE
Close

man ‘maiden’

man (noun n.): girl < manþing (noun n.)

[5] man‑: mann‑ H

kennings

Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr
‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’
   = WARRIORS

Heðinn’s maiden → Hildr
the assembly of HILDR → BATTLE
the shirt of the BATTLE → ARMOUR
stainers of the ARMOUR → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr ‘stainers of the shirt of the assembly of Heðinn <legendary hero’s> maiden [(lit. ‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’) = Hildr > BATTLE > ARMOUR > WARRIORS]’: (a) The legendary Heðinn, hero of the Hjaðningavíg (‘battle of Heðinn’s men’, SnE 1998, I, 72), took as battle-trophy and wife the valkyrie named Hildr, whose name is also a generic term for ‘valkyrie’ and hence frequently found in battle-kennings. As a common noun hildr is also a term for ‘battle’, and hence there are several kennings for ‘battle’ meaning ‘Heðinn’s maiden’ (LP: Heðinn; Meissner 201-2). This means that þing ‘assembly’ in the present verse is not strictly required in the postulated kenning; however, the redundancy is matched and exceeded in Sturl Þverv l. 2IV þingmót snótar Heðins ‘assembly-meet of Heðinn’s lady [= Hildr <valkyrie> > BATTLE]’. Thus in Þjóðólfr’s st. Hildr’s þing is ‘battle’, and the serkr ‘shirt’ of battle is armour, and those who ‘stain’ armour (merkjendr) are warriors, who paint it with their enemies’ blood. (b) There are no attractive alternatives to this widely-accepted reading. Serkjar Heðins ‘Heðinn’s shirts’ would itself be a well-formed armour kenning (cf. Hfr ErfÓl 10/4I, but this would leave especially mannþinga(t) unaccounted for. (c) The variant reading þingat (so 39, F, E, J2ˣ) as the adv. ‘(to) there’ cannot be explained within the helmingr.

Close

man ‘maiden’

man (noun n.): girl < manþing (noun n.)

[5] man‑: mann‑ H

kennings

Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr
‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’
   = WARRIORS

Heðinn’s maiden → Hildr
the assembly of HILDR → BATTLE
the shirt of the BATTLE → ARMOUR
stainers of the ARMOUR → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr ‘stainers of the shirt of the assembly of Heðinn <legendary hero’s> maiden [(lit. ‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’) = Hildr > BATTLE > ARMOUR > WARRIORS]’: (a) The legendary Heðinn, hero of the Hjaðningavíg (‘battle of Heðinn’s men’, SnE 1998, I, 72), took as battle-trophy and wife the valkyrie named Hildr, whose name is also a generic term for ‘valkyrie’ and hence frequently found in battle-kennings. As a common noun hildr is also a term for ‘battle’, and hence there are several kennings for ‘battle’ meaning ‘Heðinn’s maiden’ (LP: Heðinn; Meissner 201-2). This means that þing ‘assembly’ in the present verse is not strictly required in the postulated kenning; however, the redundancy is matched and exceeded in Sturl Þverv l. 2IV þingmót snótar Heðins ‘assembly-meet of Heðinn’s lady [= Hildr <valkyrie> > BATTLE]’. Thus in Þjóðólfr’s st. Hildr’s þing is ‘battle’, and the serkr ‘shirt’ of battle is armour, and those who ‘stain’ armour (merkjendr) are warriors, who paint it with their enemies’ blood. (b) There are no attractive alternatives to this widely-accepted reading. Serkjar Heðins ‘Heðinn’s shirts’ would itself be a well-formed armour kenning (cf. Hfr ErfÓl 10/4I, but this would leave especially mannþinga(t) unaccounted for. (c) The variant reading þingat (so 39, F, E, J2ˣ) as the adv. ‘(to) there’ cannot be explained within the helmingr.

Close

man ‘maiden’

man (noun n.): girl < manþing (noun n.)

[5] man‑: mann‑ H

kennings

Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr
‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’
   = WARRIORS

Heðinn’s maiden → Hildr
the assembly of HILDR → BATTLE
the shirt of the BATTLE → ARMOUR
stainers of the ARMOUR → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr ‘stainers of the shirt of the assembly of Heðinn <legendary hero’s> maiden [(lit. ‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’) = Hildr > BATTLE > ARMOUR > WARRIORS]’: (a) The legendary Heðinn, hero of the Hjaðningavíg (‘battle of Heðinn’s men’, SnE 1998, I, 72), took as battle-trophy and wife the valkyrie named Hildr, whose name is also a generic term for ‘valkyrie’ and hence frequently found in battle-kennings. As a common noun hildr is also a term for ‘battle’, and hence there are several kennings for ‘battle’ meaning ‘Heðinn’s maiden’ (LP: Heðinn; Meissner 201-2). This means that þing ‘assembly’ in the present verse is not strictly required in the postulated kenning; however, the redundancy is matched and exceeded in Sturl Þverv l. 2IV þingmót snótar Heðins ‘assembly-meet of Heðinn’s lady [= Hildr <valkyrie> > BATTLE]’. Thus in Þjóðólfr’s st. Hildr’s þing is ‘battle’, and the serkr ‘shirt’ of battle is armour, and those who ‘stain’ armour (merkjendr) are warriors, who paint it with their enemies’ blood. (b) There are no attractive alternatives to this widely-accepted reading. Serkjar Heðins ‘Heðinn’s shirts’ would itself be a well-formed armour kenning (cf. Hfr ErfÓl 10/4I, but this would leave especially mannþinga(t) unaccounted for. (c) The variant reading þingat (so 39, F, E, J2ˣ) as the adv. ‘(to) there’ cannot be explained within the helmingr.

Close

man ‘maiden’

man (noun n.): girl < manþing (noun n.)

[5] man‑: mann‑ H

kennings

Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr
‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’
   = WARRIORS

Heðinn’s maiden → Hildr
the assembly of HILDR → BATTLE
the shirt of the BATTLE → ARMOUR
stainers of the ARMOUR → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr ‘stainers of the shirt of the assembly of Heðinn <legendary hero’s> maiden [(lit. ‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’) = Hildr > BATTLE > ARMOUR > WARRIORS]’: (a) The legendary Heðinn, hero of the Hjaðningavíg (‘battle of Heðinn’s men’, SnE 1998, I, 72), took as battle-trophy and wife the valkyrie named Hildr, whose name is also a generic term for ‘valkyrie’ and hence frequently found in battle-kennings. As a common noun hildr is also a term for ‘battle’, and hence there are several kennings for ‘battle’ meaning ‘Heðinn’s maiden’ (LP: Heðinn; Meissner 201-2). This means that þing ‘assembly’ in the present verse is not strictly required in the postulated kenning; however, the redundancy is matched and exceeded in Sturl Þverv l. 2IV þingmót snótar Heðins ‘assembly-meet of Heðinn’s lady [= Hildr <valkyrie> > BATTLE]’. Thus in Þjóðólfr’s st. Hildr’s þing is ‘battle’, and the serkr ‘shirt’ of battle is armour, and those who ‘stain’ armour (merkjendr) are warriors, who paint it with their enemies’ blood. (b) There are no attractive alternatives to this widely-accepted reading. Serkjar Heðins ‘Heðinn’s shirts’ would itself be a well-formed armour kenning (cf. Hfr ErfÓl 10/4I, but this would leave especially mannþinga(t) unaccounted for. (c) The variant reading þingat (so 39, F, E, J2ˣ) as the adv. ‘(to) there’ cannot be explained within the helmingr.

Close

þinga ‘of the assembly’

þing (noun n.; °-s; -): meeting, assembly < manþing (noun n.)

[5] ‑þinga: ‑þingat 39, F, E, J2ˣ, ‑þunga H, Hr

kennings

Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr
‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’
   = WARRIORS

Heðinn’s maiden → Hildr
the assembly of HILDR → BATTLE
the shirt of the BATTLE → ARMOUR
stainers of the ARMOUR → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr ‘stainers of the shirt of the assembly of Heðinn <legendary hero’s> maiden [(lit. ‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’) = Hildr > BATTLE > ARMOUR > WARRIORS]’: (a) The legendary Heðinn, hero of the Hjaðningavíg (‘battle of Heðinn’s men’, SnE 1998, I, 72), took as battle-trophy and wife the valkyrie named Hildr, whose name is also a generic term for ‘valkyrie’ and hence frequently found in battle-kennings. As a common noun hildr is also a term for ‘battle’, and hence there are several kennings for ‘battle’ meaning ‘Heðinn’s maiden’ (LP: Heðinn; Meissner 201-2). This means that þing ‘assembly’ in the present verse is not strictly required in the postulated kenning; however, the redundancy is matched and exceeded in Sturl Þverv l. 2IV þingmót snótar Heðins ‘assembly-meet of Heðinn’s lady [= Hildr <valkyrie> > BATTLE]’. Thus in Þjóðólfr’s st. Hildr’s þing is ‘battle’, and the serkr ‘shirt’ of battle is armour, and those who ‘stain’ armour (merkjendr) are warriors, who paint it with their enemies’ blood. (b) There are no attractive alternatives to this widely-accepted reading. Serkjar Heðins ‘Heðinn’s shirts’ would itself be a well-formed armour kenning (cf. Hfr ErfÓl 10/4I, but this would leave especially mannþinga(t) unaccounted for. (c) The variant reading þingat (so 39, F, E, J2ˣ) as the adv. ‘(to) there’ cannot be explained within the helmingr.

Close

þinga ‘of the assembly’

þing (noun n.; °-s; -): meeting, assembly < manþing (noun n.)

[5] ‑þinga: ‑þingat 39, F, E, J2ˣ, ‑þunga H, Hr

kennings

Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr
‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’
   = WARRIORS

Heðinn’s maiden → Hildr
the assembly of HILDR → BATTLE
the shirt of the BATTLE → ARMOUR
stainers of the ARMOUR → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr ‘stainers of the shirt of the assembly of Heðinn <legendary hero’s> maiden [(lit. ‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’) = Hildr > BATTLE > ARMOUR > WARRIORS]’: (a) The legendary Heðinn, hero of the Hjaðningavíg (‘battle of Heðinn’s men’, SnE 1998, I, 72), took as battle-trophy and wife the valkyrie named Hildr, whose name is also a generic term for ‘valkyrie’ and hence frequently found in battle-kennings. As a common noun hildr is also a term for ‘battle’, and hence there are several kennings for ‘battle’ meaning ‘Heðinn’s maiden’ (LP: Heðinn; Meissner 201-2). This means that þing ‘assembly’ in the present verse is not strictly required in the postulated kenning; however, the redundancy is matched and exceeded in Sturl Þverv l. 2IV þingmót snótar Heðins ‘assembly-meet of Heðinn’s lady [= Hildr <valkyrie> > BATTLE]’. Thus in Þjóðólfr’s st. Hildr’s þing is ‘battle’, and the serkr ‘shirt’ of battle is armour, and those who ‘stain’ armour (merkjendr) are warriors, who paint it with their enemies’ blood. (b) There are no attractive alternatives to this widely-accepted reading. Serkjar Heðins ‘Heðinn’s shirts’ would itself be a well-formed armour kenning (cf. Hfr ErfÓl 10/4I, but this would leave especially mannþinga(t) unaccounted for. (c) The variant reading þingat (so 39, F, E, J2ˣ) as the adv. ‘(to) there’ cannot be explained within the helmingr.

Close

þinga ‘of the assembly’

þing (noun n.; °-s; -): meeting, assembly < manþing (noun n.)

[5] ‑þinga: ‑þingat 39, F, E, J2ˣ, ‑þunga H, Hr

kennings

Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr
‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’
   = WARRIORS

Heðinn’s maiden → Hildr
the assembly of HILDR → BATTLE
the shirt of the BATTLE → ARMOUR
stainers of the ARMOUR → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr ‘stainers of the shirt of the assembly of Heðinn <legendary hero’s> maiden [(lit. ‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’) = Hildr > BATTLE > ARMOUR > WARRIORS]’: (a) The legendary Heðinn, hero of the Hjaðningavíg (‘battle of Heðinn’s men’, SnE 1998, I, 72), took as battle-trophy and wife the valkyrie named Hildr, whose name is also a generic term for ‘valkyrie’ and hence frequently found in battle-kennings. As a common noun hildr is also a term for ‘battle’, and hence there are several kennings for ‘battle’ meaning ‘Heðinn’s maiden’ (LP: Heðinn; Meissner 201-2). This means that þing ‘assembly’ in the present verse is not strictly required in the postulated kenning; however, the redundancy is matched and exceeded in Sturl Þverv l. 2IV þingmót snótar Heðins ‘assembly-meet of Heðinn’s lady [= Hildr <valkyrie> > BATTLE]’. Thus in Þjóðólfr’s st. Hildr’s þing is ‘battle’, and the serkr ‘shirt’ of battle is armour, and those who ‘stain’ armour (merkjendr) are warriors, who paint it with their enemies’ blood. (b) There are no attractive alternatives to this widely-accepted reading. Serkjar Heðins ‘Heðinn’s shirts’ would itself be a well-formed armour kenning (cf. Hfr ErfÓl 10/4I, but this would leave especially mannþinga(t) unaccounted for. (c) The variant reading þingat (so 39, F, E, J2ˣ) as the adv. ‘(to) there’ cannot be explained within the helmingr.

Close

munðut ‘did not remember’

1. muna (verb): remember

Close

merkjendr ‘stainers’

merkjandi (noun m.): [stainers]

kennings

Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr
‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’
   = WARRIORS

Heðinn’s maiden → Hildr
the assembly of HILDR → BATTLE
the shirt of the BATTLE → ARMOUR
stainers of the ARMOUR → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr ‘stainers of the shirt of the assembly of Heðinn <legendary hero’s> maiden [(lit. ‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’) = Hildr > BATTLE > ARMOUR > WARRIORS]’: (a) The legendary Heðinn, hero of the Hjaðningavíg (‘battle of Heðinn’s men’, SnE 1998, I, 72), took as battle-trophy and wife the valkyrie named Hildr, whose name is also a generic term for ‘valkyrie’ and hence frequently found in battle-kennings. As a common noun hildr is also a term for ‘battle’, and hence there are several kennings for ‘battle’ meaning ‘Heðinn’s maiden’ (LP: Heðinn; Meissner 201-2). This means that þing ‘assembly’ in the present verse is not strictly required in the postulated kenning; however, the redundancy is matched and exceeded in Sturl Þverv l. 2IV þingmót snótar Heðins ‘assembly-meet of Heðinn’s lady [= Hildr <valkyrie> > BATTLE]’. Thus in Þjóðólfr’s st. Hildr’s þing is ‘battle’, and the serkr ‘shirt’ of battle is armour, and those who ‘stain’ armour (merkjendr) are warriors, who paint it with their enemies’ blood. (b) There are no attractive alternatives to this widely-accepted reading. Serkjar Heðins ‘Heðinn’s shirts’ would itself be a well-formed armour kenning (cf. Hfr ErfÓl 10/4I, but this would leave especially mannþinga(t) unaccounted for. (c) The variant reading þingat (so 39, F, E, J2ˣ) as the adv. ‘(to) there’ cannot be explained within the helmingr.

Close

Heðins ‘of Heðinn’s’

2. Heðinn (noun m.): [Heðinn, champions]

kennings

Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr
‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’
   = WARRIORS

Heðinn’s maiden → Hildr
the assembly of HILDR → BATTLE
the shirt of the BATTLE → ARMOUR
stainers of the ARMOUR → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr ‘stainers of the shirt of the assembly of Heðinn <legendary hero’s> maiden [(lit. ‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’) = Hildr > BATTLE > ARMOUR > WARRIORS]’: (a) The legendary Heðinn, hero of the Hjaðningavíg (‘battle of Heðinn’s men’, SnE 1998, I, 72), took as battle-trophy and wife the valkyrie named Hildr, whose name is also a generic term for ‘valkyrie’ and hence frequently found in battle-kennings. As a common noun hildr is also a term for ‘battle’, and hence there are several kennings for ‘battle’ meaning ‘Heðinn’s maiden’ (LP: Heðinn; Meissner 201-2). This means that þing ‘assembly’ in the present verse is not strictly required in the postulated kenning; however, the redundancy is matched and exceeded in Sturl Þverv l. 2IV þingmót snótar Heðins ‘assembly-meet of Heðinn’s lady [= Hildr <valkyrie> > BATTLE]’. Thus in Þjóðólfr’s st. Hildr’s þing is ‘battle’, and the serkr ‘shirt’ of battle is armour, and those who ‘stain’ armour (merkjendr) are warriors, who paint it with their enemies’ blood. (b) There are no attractive alternatives to this widely-accepted reading. Serkjar Heðins ‘Heðinn’s shirts’ would itself be a well-formed armour kenning (cf. Hfr ErfÓl 10/4I, but this would leave especially mannþinga(t) unaccounted for. (c) The variant reading þingat (so 39, F, E, J2ˣ) as the adv. ‘(to) there’ cannot be explained within the helmingr.

Close

Heðins ‘of Heðinn’s’

2. Heðinn (noun m.): [Heðinn, champions]

kennings

Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr
‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’
   = WARRIORS

Heðinn’s maiden → Hildr
the assembly of HILDR → BATTLE
the shirt of the BATTLE → ARMOUR
stainers of the ARMOUR → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr ‘stainers of the shirt of the assembly of Heðinn <legendary hero’s> maiden [(lit. ‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’) = Hildr > BATTLE > ARMOUR > WARRIORS]’: (a) The legendary Heðinn, hero of the Hjaðningavíg (‘battle of Heðinn’s men’, SnE 1998, I, 72), took as battle-trophy and wife the valkyrie named Hildr, whose name is also a generic term for ‘valkyrie’ and hence frequently found in battle-kennings. As a common noun hildr is also a term for ‘battle’, and hence there are several kennings for ‘battle’ meaning ‘Heðinn’s maiden’ (LP: Heðinn; Meissner 201-2). This means that þing ‘assembly’ in the present verse is not strictly required in the postulated kenning; however, the redundancy is matched and exceeded in Sturl Þverv l. 2IV þingmót snótar Heðins ‘assembly-meet of Heðinn’s lady [= Hildr <valkyrie> > BATTLE]’. Thus in Þjóðólfr’s st. Hildr’s þing is ‘battle’, and the serkr ‘shirt’ of battle is armour, and those who ‘stain’ armour (merkjendr) are warriors, who paint it with their enemies’ blood. (b) There are no attractive alternatives to this widely-accepted reading. Serkjar Heðins ‘Heðinn’s shirts’ would itself be a well-formed armour kenning (cf. Hfr ErfÓl 10/4I, but this would leave especially mannþinga(t) unaccounted for. (c) The variant reading þingat (so 39, F, E, J2ˣ) as the adv. ‘(to) there’ cannot be explained within the helmingr.

Close

Heðins ‘of Heðinn’s’

2. Heðinn (noun m.): [Heðinn, champions]

kennings

Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr
‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’
   = WARRIORS

Heðinn’s maiden → Hildr
the assembly of HILDR → BATTLE
the shirt of the BATTLE → ARMOUR
stainers of the ARMOUR → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr ‘stainers of the shirt of the assembly of Heðinn <legendary hero’s> maiden [(lit. ‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’) = Hildr > BATTLE > ARMOUR > WARRIORS]’: (a) The legendary Heðinn, hero of the Hjaðningavíg (‘battle of Heðinn’s men’, SnE 1998, I, 72), took as battle-trophy and wife the valkyrie named Hildr, whose name is also a generic term for ‘valkyrie’ and hence frequently found in battle-kennings. As a common noun hildr is also a term for ‘battle’, and hence there are several kennings for ‘battle’ meaning ‘Heðinn’s maiden’ (LP: Heðinn; Meissner 201-2). This means that þing ‘assembly’ in the present verse is not strictly required in the postulated kenning; however, the redundancy is matched and exceeded in Sturl Þverv l. 2IV þingmót snótar Heðins ‘assembly-meet of Heðinn’s lady [= Hildr <valkyrie> > BATTLE]’. Thus in Þjóðólfr’s st. Hildr’s þing is ‘battle’, and the serkr ‘shirt’ of battle is armour, and those who ‘stain’ armour (merkjendr) are warriors, who paint it with their enemies’ blood. (b) There are no attractive alternatives to this widely-accepted reading. Serkjar Heðins ‘Heðinn’s shirts’ would itself be a well-formed armour kenning (cf. Hfr ErfÓl 10/4I, but this would leave especially mannþinga(t) unaccounted for. (c) The variant reading þingat (so 39, F, E, J2ˣ) as the adv. ‘(to) there’ cannot be explained within the helmingr.

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Heðins ‘of Heðinn’s’

2. Heðinn (noun m.): [Heðinn, champions]

kennings

Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr
‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’
   = WARRIORS

Heðinn’s maiden → Hildr
the assembly of HILDR → BATTLE
the shirt of the BATTLE → ARMOUR
stainers of the ARMOUR → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr ‘stainers of the shirt of the assembly of Heðinn <legendary hero’s> maiden [(lit. ‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’) = Hildr > BATTLE > ARMOUR > WARRIORS]’: (a) The legendary Heðinn, hero of the Hjaðningavíg (‘battle of Heðinn’s men’, SnE 1998, I, 72), took as battle-trophy and wife the valkyrie named Hildr, whose name is also a generic term for ‘valkyrie’ and hence frequently found in battle-kennings. As a common noun hildr is also a term for ‘battle’, and hence there are several kennings for ‘battle’ meaning ‘Heðinn’s maiden’ (LP: Heðinn; Meissner 201-2). This means that þing ‘assembly’ in the present verse is not strictly required in the postulated kenning; however, the redundancy is matched and exceeded in Sturl Þverv l. 2IV þingmót snótar Heðins ‘assembly-meet of Heðinn’s lady [= Hildr <valkyrie> > BATTLE]’. Thus in Þjóðólfr’s st. Hildr’s þing is ‘battle’, and the serkr ‘shirt’ of battle is armour, and those who ‘stain’ armour (merkjendr) are warriors, who paint it with their enemies’ blood. (b) There are no attractive alternatives to this widely-accepted reading. Serkjar Heðins ‘Heðinn’s shirts’ would itself be a well-formed armour kenning (cf. Hfr ErfÓl 10/4I, but this would leave especially mannþinga(t) unaccounted for. (c) The variant reading þingat (so 39, F, E, J2ˣ) as the adv. ‘(to) there’ cannot be explained within the helmingr.

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serkjar ‘of the shirt’

1. serkr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ir): shirt

kennings

Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr
‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’
   = WARRIORS

Heðinn’s maiden → Hildr
the assembly of HILDR → BATTLE
the shirt of the BATTLE → ARMOUR
stainers of the ARMOUR → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr ‘stainers of the shirt of the assembly of Heðinn <legendary hero’s> maiden [(lit. ‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’) = Hildr > BATTLE > ARMOUR > WARRIORS]’: (a) The legendary Heðinn, hero of the Hjaðningavíg (‘battle of Heðinn’s men’, SnE 1998, I, 72), took as battle-trophy and wife the valkyrie named Hildr, whose name is also a generic term for ‘valkyrie’ and hence frequently found in battle-kennings. As a common noun hildr is also a term for ‘battle’, and hence there are several kennings for ‘battle’ meaning ‘Heðinn’s maiden’ (LP: Heðinn; Meissner 201-2). This means that þing ‘assembly’ in the present verse is not strictly required in the postulated kenning; however, the redundancy is matched and exceeded in Sturl Þverv l. 2IV þingmót snótar Heðins ‘assembly-meet of Heðinn’s lady [= Hildr <valkyrie> > BATTLE]’. Thus in Þjóðólfr’s st. Hildr’s þing is ‘battle’, and the serkr ‘shirt’ of battle is armour, and those who ‘stain’ armour (merkjendr) are warriors, who paint it with their enemies’ blood. (b) There are no attractive alternatives to this widely-accepted reading. Serkjar Heðins ‘Heðinn’s shirts’ would itself be a well-formed armour kenning (cf. Hfr ErfÓl 10/4I, but this would leave especially mannþinga(t) unaccounted for. (c) The variant reading þingat (so 39, F, E, J2ˣ) as the adv. ‘(to) there’ cannot be explained within the helmingr.

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serkjar ‘of the shirt’

1. serkr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ir): shirt

kennings

Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr
‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’
   = WARRIORS

Heðinn’s maiden → Hildr
the assembly of HILDR → BATTLE
the shirt of the BATTLE → ARMOUR
stainers of the ARMOUR → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] Heðins manþinga serkjar merkjendr ‘stainers of the shirt of the assembly of Heðinn <legendary hero’s> maiden [(lit. ‘of Heðinn’s maiden-assembly’) = Hildr > BATTLE > ARMOUR > WARRIORS]’: (a) The legendary Heðinn, hero of the Hjaðningavíg (‘battle of Heðinn’s men’, SnE 1998, I, 72), took as battle-trophy and wife the valkyrie named Hildr, whose name is also a generic term for ‘valkyrie’ and hence frequently found in battle-kennings. As a common noun hildr is also a term for ‘battle’, and hence there are several kennings for ‘battle’ meaning ‘Heðinn’s maiden’ (LP: Heðinn; Meissner 201-2). This means that þing ‘assembly’ in the present verse is not strictly required in the postulated kenning; however, the redundancy is matched and exceeded in Sturl Þverv l. 2IV þingmót snótar Heðins ‘assembly-meet of Heðinn’s lady [= Hildr <valkyrie> > BATTLE]’. Thus in Þjóðólfr’s st. Hildr’s þing is ‘battle’, and the serkr ‘shirt’ of battle is armour, and those who ‘stain’ armour (merkjendr) are warriors, who paint it with their enemies’ blood. (b) There are no attractive alternatives to this widely-accepted reading. Serkjar Heðins ‘Heðinn’s shirts’ would itself be a well-formed armour kenning (cf. Hfr ErfÓl 10/4I, but this would leave especially mannþinga(t) unaccounted for. (c) The variant reading þingat (so 39, F, E, J2ˣ) as the adv. ‘(to) there’ cannot be explained within the helmingr.

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gný ‘tumult’

gnýr (noun m.): din, tumult

kennings

gný geirs.
‘tumult of the spear.’
   = BATTLE

tumult of the spear. → BATTLE
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gørva ‘to carry out’

1. gera (verb): do, make

[7] gørva: geira H, Hr

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geirs ‘of the spear’

geirr (noun m.): spear

kennings

gný geirs.
‘tumult of the spear.’
   = BATTLE

tumult of the spear. → BATTLE
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orrostu ‘battle’

orrusta (noun f.; °-u; -ur): battle

[8] orrostu: ‘oʀ̄’ E, orrosta J2ˣ

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Magnús engages with Sveinn Úlfsson in a fierce sea-battle off Århus (Áróss).

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