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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ÞjóðA Run 3II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Runhent poem about Haraldr 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 106.

Þjóðólfr ArnórssonRunhent poem about Haraldr
234

Jarizleifr ‘Jaroslav’

Jarizleifr (noun m.): [Jaroslav]

notes

[1] Jarizleifr ‘Jaroslav’: See Context to st. 1.

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hvert ‘in what direction’

2. hverr (pron.): who, whom, each, every

[2] hvert: hvat U

notes

[2] hvert jǫfri brá ‘in what direction the prince developed’: The translation is indebted to Faulkes 1987, 131. Brá is clearly the 3rd pers. pret. sg. of bregða, and, combined with dat. sg. jǫfri ‘prince’ and hvert ‘(to) where’ which implies direction, it forms a construction equivalent to e-m bregðr til e-s ‘sby turns out like another person’, often used of family resemblances. The second couplet confirms this as the theme.

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jǫfri ‘the prince’

jǫfurr (noun m.): ruler, prince

[2] jǫfri: jǫfurr U

notes

[2] hvert jǫfri brá ‘in what direction the prince developed’: The translation is indebted to Faulkes 1987, 131. Brá is clearly the 3rd pers. pret. sg. of bregða, and, combined with dat. sg. jǫfri ‘prince’ and hvert ‘(to) where’ which implies direction, it forms a construction equivalent to e-m bregðr til e-s ‘sby turns out like another person’, often used of family resemblances. The second couplet confirms this as the theme.

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brá ‘developed’

bregða (verb; °bregðr/brigðr; brá, brugðu; brugðinn/brogðinn): pull, jerk, break; change

notes

[2] hvert jǫfri brá ‘in what direction the prince developed’: The translation is indebted to Faulkes 1987, 131. Brá is clearly the 3rd pers. pret. sg. of bregða, and, combined with dat. sg. jǫfri ‘prince’ and hvert ‘(to) where’ which implies direction, it forms a construction equivalent to e-m bregðr til e-s ‘sby turns out like another person’, often used of family resemblances. The second couplet confirms this as the theme.

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hófsk ‘distinguished himself’

hefja (verb): lift, start

[3] hófsk: ‘hofs’ U

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hlýri ‘the brother’

hlýri (noun m.): brother

kennings

hlýri ins helga, frams grams
‘the brother of the holy, outstanding king ’
   = Óláfr > = Haraldr

the brother of the holy, outstanding king → Óláfr > = Haraldr
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frams ‘outstanding’

framr (adj.; °compar. framari/fremri, superl. framastr/fremstr): outstanding, foremost

kennings

hlýri ins helga, frams grams
‘the brother of the holy, outstanding king ’
   = Óláfr > = Haraldr

the brother of the holy, outstanding king → Óláfr > = Haraldr

notes

[3, 4] ins helga, frams grams ‘of the holy, outstanding king’: Óláfr inn helgi Haraldsson, half-brother of Haraldr. The phrase mixes a strong adj. form (frams ‘outstanding’) with a weak one (helga ‘holy’). The strong form is justified by its position before the rest of the noun phrase, while the weak form is required after the def. art. ins.

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ins ‘of the’

2. inn (art.): the

kennings

hlýri ins helga, frams grams
‘the brother of the holy, outstanding king ’
   = Óláfr > = Haraldr

the brother of the holy, outstanding king → Óláfr > = Haraldr

notes

[3, 4] ins helga, frams grams ‘of the holy, outstanding king’: Óláfr inn helgi Haraldsson, half-brother of Haraldr. The phrase mixes a strong adj. form (frams ‘outstanding’) with a weak one (helga ‘holy’). The strong form is justified by its position before the rest of the noun phrase, while the weak form is required after the def. art. ins.

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helga ‘holy’

heilagr (adj.; °helgan; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): holy, sacred

kennings

hlýri ins helga, frams grams
‘the brother of the holy, outstanding king ’
   = Óláfr > = Haraldr

the brother of the holy, outstanding king → Óláfr > = Haraldr

notes

[3, 4] ins helga, frams grams ‘of the holy, outstanding king’: Óláfr inn helgi Haraldsson, half-brother of Haraldr. The phrase mixes a strong adj. form (frams ‘outstanding’) with a weak one (helga ‘holy’). The strong form is justified by its position before the rest of the noun phrase, while the weak form is required after the def. art. ins.

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grams ‘king’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

kennings

hlýri ins helga, frams grams
‘the brother of the holy, outstanding king ’
   = Óláfr > = Haraldr

the brother of the holy, outstanding king → Óláfr > = Haraldr

notes

[3, 4] ins helga, frams grams ‘of the holy, outstanding king’: Óláfr inn helgi Haraldsson, half-brother of Haraldr. The phrase mixes a strong adj. form (frams ‘outstanding’) with a weak one (helga ‘holy’). The strong form is justified by its position before the rest of the noun phrase, while the weak form is required after the def. art. ins.

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This follows st. 2, with the words, Ok enn svá ‘And also thus’.

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