skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þjóð Yt 2I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 10.

Þjóðólfr ór HviniYnglingatal
123

dag ‘the daylight’

dagr (noun m.; °-s, dat. degi/dag/dagi(Thom¹ 332¹‡n.); -ar): day < dagskjarr (adj.)

kennings

dagskjarr Dúrnis niðja salvǫrðuðr
‘hall-guard of the descendants of Dúrnir’
   = DWARF

the descendants of Dúrnir → DWARFS
the hall of DWARFS → ROCK
the daylight-shy guard of the ROCK → DWARF

notes

[1] dagskjarr ‘daylight-shy’: Dagskjarr is best interpreted as an epithet qualifying salvǫrðuðr ‘guard of the hall’ (Noreen 1921, 41) rather than as a proper name (Lindqvist 1936, 282). The cpd may suggest the notion that sunlight will turn a dwarf to stone; for this motif see Boberg (1966, 109 (F 451.3.2.1 Dwarfs turn to stone at sunrise)); Reichborn-Kjennerud (1934a, 280-3).

Close

skjarr ‘shy’

skjarr (adj.): shy, shunning < dagskjarr (adj.)

kennings

dagskjarr Dúrnis niðja salvǫrðuðr
‘hall-guard of the descendants of Dúrnir’
   = DWARF

the descendants of Dúrnir → DWARFS
the hall of DWARFS → ROCK
the daylight-shy guard of the ROCK → DWARF

notes

[1] dagskjarr ‘daylight-shy’: Dagskjarr is best interpreted as an epithet qualifying salvǫrðuðr ‘guard of the hall’ (Noreen 1921, 41) rather than as a proper name (Lindqvist 1936, 282). The cpd may suggest the notion that sunlight will turn a dwarf to stone; for this motif see Boberg (1966, 109 (F 451.3.2.1 Dwarfs turn to stone at sunrise)); Reichborn-Kjennerud (1934a, 280-3).

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Durins ‘Durinn’s’

Durinn (noun m.)

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Dúrnis ‘of Dúrnir’

Dúrnir (noun m.): Dúrnir

[2] Dúrnis: Durins papp18ˣ

kennings

dagskjarr Dúrnis niðja salvǫrðuðr
‘hall-guard of the descendants of Dúrnir’
   = DWARF

the descendants of Dúrnir → DWARFS
the hall of DWARFS → ROCK
the daylight-shy guard of the ROCK → DWARF

notes

[2] Dúrnis ‘of Dúrnir’: See Note to Þul Dverga 3/8III, Dúrnir.

Close

Dúrnis ‘of Dúrnir’

Dúrnir (noun m.): Dúrnir

[2] Dúrnis: Durins papp18ˣ

kennings

dagskjarr Dúrnis niðja salvǫrðuðr
‘hall-guard of the descendants of Dúrnir’
   = DWARF

the descendants of Dúrnir → DWARFS
the hall of DWARFS → ROCK
the daylight-shy guard of the ROCK → DWARF

notes

[2] Dúrnis ‘of Dúrnir’: See Note to Þul Dverga 3/8III, Dúrnir.

Close

Dúrnis ‘of Dúrnir’

Dúrnir (noun m.): Dúrnir

[2] Dúrnis: Durins papp18ˣ

kennings

dagskjarr Dúrnis niðja salvǫrðuðr
‘hall-guard of the descendants of Dúrnir’
   = DWARF

the descendants of Dúrnir → DWARFS
the hall of DWARFS → ROCK
the daylight-shy guard of the ROCK → DWARF

notes

[2] Dúrnis ‘of Dúrnir’: See Note to Þul Dverga 3/8III, Dúrnir.

Close

niðja ‘of the descendants’

1. niðr (noun m.; °-s; niðjar/niðir, acc. niði): son, kinsman, relative

kennings

dagskjarr Dúrnis niðja salvǫrðuðr
‘hall-guard of the descendants of Dúrnir’
   = DWARF

the descendants of Dúrnir → DWARFS
the hall of DWARFS → ROCK
the daylight-shy guard of the ROCK → DWARF
Close

niðja ‘of the descendants’

1. niðr (noun m.; °-s; niðjar/niðir, acc. niði): son, kinsman, relative

kennings

dagskjarr Dúrnis niðja salvǫrðuðr
‘hall-guard of the descendants of Dúrnir’
   = DWARF

the descendants of Dúrnir → DWARFS
the hall of DWARFS → ROCK
the daylight-shy guard of the ROCK → DWARF
Close

niðja ‘of the descendants’

1. niðr (noun m.; °-s; niðjar/niðir, acc. niði): son, kinsman, relative

kennings

dagskjarr Dúrnis niðja salvǫrðuðr
‘hall-guard of the descendants of Dúrnir’
   = DWARF

the descendants of Dúrnir → DWARFS
the hall of DWARFS → ROCK
the daylight-shy guard of the ROCK → DWARF
Close

sal ‘of the hall’

1. salr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; dat. sǫlum): hall < salvǫrðuðr (noun m.)

kennings

dagskjarr Dúrnis niðja salvǫrðuðr
‘hall-guard of the descendants of Dúrnir’
   = DWARF

the descendants of Dúrnir → DWARFS
the hall of DWARFS → ROCK
the daylight-shy guard of the ROCK → DWARF
Close

sal ‘of the hall’

1. salr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; dat. sǫlum): hall < salvǫrðuðr (noun m.)

kennings

dagskjarr Dúrnis niðja salvǫrðuðr
‘hall-guard of the descendants of Dúrnir’
   = DWARF

the descendants of Dúrnir → DWARFS
the hall of DWARFS → ROCK
the daylight-shy guard of the ROCK → DWARF
Close

vǫrðuðr ‘guard’

varðaðr (noun m.): [guard] < salvǫrðuðr (noun m.)

kennings

dagskjarr Dúrnis niðja salvǫrðuðr
‘hall-guard of the descendants of Dúrnir’
   = DWARF

the descendants of Dúrnir → DWARFS
the hall of DWARFS → ROCK
the daylight-shy guard of the ROCK → DWARF
Close

Svegði ‘’

Close

Sveigði ‘Sveigðir’

Sveigðir (noun m.): Sveigðir

[4] Sveigði: so F, J2ˣ, Svegði Kˣ, papp18ˣ, 521ˣ, R685ˣ, 761aˣ

notes

[4] Sveigði ‘Sveigðir’: Like Fjǫlnir, Sveigðir is also attested as an Óðinn-heiti, e.g. in the kenning salr Sveigðis ‘hall of Sveigðir [SHIELD]’ in Gsind Hákdr 5/7. Sveigðir as a pers. n. is not attested, which suggests that this king’s name stems from legendary or mythical traditions.

Close

þás ‘when’

þás (conj.): when

Close

hinn ‘the’

2. inn (art.): the

kennings

hinn stórgeði konr Dusla
‘the great-minded offspring of Dusli ’
   = Sveigðir

the great-minded offspring of Dusli → Sveigðir
Close

stór ‘great’

stórr (adj.): large, great < stórgeðr (adj.)

kennings

hinn stórgeði konr Dusla
‘the great-minded offspring of Dusli ’
   = Sveigðir

the great-minded offspring of Dusli → Sveigðir
Close

geði ‘minded’

-geðr (adj.): -minded < stórgeðr (adj.)

kennings

hinn stórgeði konr Dusla
‘the great-minded offspring of Dusli ’
   = Sveigðir

the great-minded offspring of Dusli → Sveigðir
Close

dulsa ‘’

Close

dysla ‘’

Close

Dusla ‘of Dusli’

Dusli (noun m.): Dusli

[7] Dusla: so J2ˣ, R685ˣ, ‘dulsa’ Kˣ, papp18ˣ, 521ˣ, 761aˣ, ‘dysla’ F

kennings

hinn stórgeði konr Dusla
‘the great-minded offspring of Dusli ’
   = Sveigðir

the great-minded offspring of Dusli → Sveigðir

notes

[7] konr Dusla ‘offspring of Dusli [= Sveigðir]’: It is uncertain whether this kenning refers to a king of the Ynglingar in general or to Sveigðir himself. The word dusli is difficult because its transmission is not uniform in the mss and its reference is unclear. (a) It is most likely that dusli is a proper name. It may be a nominalized form of the adj. dusill ‘shabby, ragged’ and hence a nickname ‘the Shabby’ (cf. Lindquist 1929, 59), although ‘shabby’ seems an inappropriate notion in reference to an ancestor of the Yngling kings. (b) Noreen (1917, 2-5) reads dusla as m. dat. sg. of the weak form of the adj. dusill, qualifying dvergi ‘dwarf’ in the following line. This, however, involves a problematic partition of l. 7 (cf. NN §1782; Åkerlund 1939, 81).

Close

konr ‘offspring’

konr (noun m.; °-ar): kind, descendant

[7] konr: korn R685ˣ

kennings

hinn stórgeði konr Dusla
‘the great-minded offspring of Dusli ’
   = Sveigðir

the great-minded offspring of Dusli → Sveigðir

notes

[7] konr Dusla ‘offspring of Dusli [= Sveigðir]’: It is uncertain whether this kenning refers to a king of the Ynglingar in general or to Sveigðir himself. The word dusli is difficult because its transmission is not uniform in the mss and its reference is unclear. (a) It is most likely that dusli is a proper name. It may be a nominalized form of the adj. dusill ‘shabby, ragged’ and hence a nickname ‘the Shabby’ (cf. Lindquist 1929, 59), although ‘shabby’ seems an inappropriate notion in reference to an ancestor of the Yngling kings. (b) Noreen (1917, 2-5) reads dusla as m. dat. sg. of the weak form of the adj. dusill, qualifying dvergi ‘dwarf’ in the following line. This, however, involves a problematic partition of l. 7 (cf. NN §1782; Åkerlund 1939, 81).

Close

salr ‘hall’

1. salr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; dat. sǫlum): hall

[9] salr: sal all

kennings

bjartr jǫtunbyggðr salr þeira Sǫkmímis
‘the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir and his followers ’
   = ROCK

the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir and his followers → ROCK

notes

[9-11] bjartr jǫtunbyggðr salr þeira Sǫkmímis ‘the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir <giant> and his followers [ROCK]’: Giants count, like dwarfs, as rock-dwellers, for which reason references to giants’ dwellings can denote a rocky cave. Although all mss read salbjartr, emendation to nom. sg. salr is required since it is the subject of gein ‘gaped’.

Close

bjartr ‘the bright’

bjartr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): bright

kennings

bjartr jǫtunbyggðr salr þeira Sǫkmímis
‘the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir and his followers ’
   = ROCK

the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir and his followers → ROCK

notes

[9-11] bjartr jǫtunbyggðr salr þeira Sǫkmímis ‘the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir <giant> and his followers [ROCK]’: Giants count, like dwarfs, as rock-dwellers, for which reason references to giants’ dwellings can denote a rocky cave. Although all mss read salbjartr, emendation to nom. sg. salr is required since it is the subject of gein ‘gaped’.

Close

þeira ‘and his followers’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

kennings

bjartr jǫtunbyggðr salr þeira Sǫkmímis
‘the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir and his followers ’
   = ROCK

the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir and his followers → ROCK

notes

[9-11] bjartr jǫtunbyggðr salr þeira Sǫkmímis ‘the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir <giant> and his followers [ROCK]’: Giants count, like dwarfs, as rock-dwellers, for which reason references to giants’ dwellings can denote a rocky cave. Although all mss read salbjartr, emendation to nom. sg. salr is required since it is the subject of gein ‘gaped’. — [10] þeira Sǫkmímis ‘of Sǫkmímir <giant> and his followers’: The line is hypermetrical, with not four but five syllables. This led Bugge (1894, 120 n. 2) to suggest the pronunciation þěra. Noreen (1892, 202) suggested ‑míms instead of ‑mímis. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) made a valid case against both ideas, and nothing can be added to his judgement that this is an insoluble problem.

Close

þeira ‘and his followers’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

kennings

bjartr jǫtunbyggðr salr þeira Sǫkmímis
‘the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir and his followers ’
   = ROCK

the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir and his followers → ROCK

notes

[9-11] bjartr jǫtunbyggðr salr þeira Sǫkmímis ‘the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir <giant> and his followers [ROCK]’: Giants count, like dwarfs, as rock-dwellers, for which reason references to giants’ dwellings can denote a rocky cave. Although all mss read salbjartr, emendation to nom. sg. salr is required since it is the subject of gein ‘gaped’. — [10] þeira Sǫkmímis ‘of Sǫkmímir <giant> and his followers’: The line is hypermetrical, with not four but five syllables. This led Bugge (1894, 120 n. 2) to suggest the pronunciation þěra. Noreen (1892, 202) suggested ‑míms instead of ‑mímis. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) made a valid case against both ideas, and nothing can be added to his judgement that this is an insoluble problem.

Close

Sǫkmímis ‘of Sǫkmímir’

Sǫkmímir (noun m.): Sǫkmímir

kennings

bjartr jǫtunbyggðr salr þeira Sǫkmímis
‘the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir and his followers ’
   = ROCK

the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir and his followers → ROCK

notes

[9-11] bjartr jǫtunbyggðr salr þeira Sǫkmímis ‘the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir <giant> and his followers [ROCK]’: Giants count, like dwarfs, as rock-dwellers, for which reason references to giants’ dwellings can denote a rocky cave. Although all mss read salbjartr, emendation to nom. sg. salr is required since it is the subject of gein ‘gaped’. — [10] Sǫkmímis ‘of Sǫkmímir <giant>’: (a) The form Sǫk- is assumed here on the basis of all three ms. spellings (‘sꜹc-’ , ‘so᷎c’ J2ˣ, ‘sꜹk’ F), though Sǫkkmímir occurs in Grí 50/2 (NK 67) and Þul Jǫtna I 6/5III (and see Note there). (b) Kock’s suggestion of Søkkmímir ‘Wealth-Mímir’ (cf. NN §1783A) is attractive, given the parallel with Hoddmímir ‘Treasure-Mímir’ in Vafþr 45/3 (NK 53). However, the ms. spellings do not favour normalised ‑kk and the existence of a word søkk ‘treasure’ in ON is uncertain (see Eyv Lv 4/5, Eyv Hál 1/10, Anon Pl 20/6VII (emendation) and Notes to these). (c) Interpretations of the name on the basis of søkkva ‘to sink’, i.e. as ‘giant who lives in the deep’ or similar (Bugge 1894, 120 n. 2; Yt 1925), are also problematic in the light of the ms. spellings. — [10] þeira Sǫkmímis ‘of Sǫkmímir <giant> and his followers’: The line is hypermetrical, with not four but five syllables. This led Bugge (1894, 120 n. 2) to suggest the pronunciation þěra. Noreen (1892, 202) suggested ‑míms instead of ‑mímis. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) made a valid case against both ideas, and nothing can be added to his judgement that this is an insoluble problem.

Close

Sǫkmímis ‘of Sǫkmímir’

Sǫkmímir (noun m.): Sǫkmímir

kennings

bjartr jǫtunbyggðr salr þeira Sǫkmímis
‘the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir and his followers ’
   = ROCK

the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir and his followers → ROCK

notes

[9-11] bjartr jǫtunbyggðr salr þeira Sǫkmímis ‘the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir <giant> and his followers [ROCK]’: Giants count, like dwarfs, as rock-dwellers, for which reason references to giants’ dwellings can denote a rocky cave. Although all mss read salbjartr, emendation to nom. sg. salr is required since it is the subject of gein ‘gaped’. — [10] Sǫkmímis ‘of Sǫkmímir <giant>’: (a) The form Sǫk- is assumed here on the basis of all three ms. spellings (‘sꜹc-’ , ‘so᷎c’ J2ˣ, ‘sꜹk’ F), though Sǫkkmímir occurs in Grí 50/2 (NK 67) and Þul Jǫtna I 6/5III (and see Note there). (b) Kock’s suggestion of Søkkmímir ‘Wealth-Mímir’ (cf. NN §1783A) is attractive, given the parallel with Hoddmímir ‘Treasure-Mímir’ in Vafþr 45/3 (NK 53). However, the ms. spellings do not favour normalised ‑kk and the existence of a word søkk ‘treasure’ in ON is uncertain (see Eyv Lv 4/5, Eyv Hál 1/10, Anon Pl 20/6VII (emendation) and Notes to these). (c) Interpretations of the name on the basis of søkkva ‘to sink’, i.e. as ‘giant who lives in the deep’ or similar (Bugge 1894, 120 n. 2; Yt 1925), are also problematic in the light of the ms. spellings. — [10] þeira Sǫkmímis ‘of Sǫkmímir <giant> and his followers’: The line is hypermetrical, with not four but five syllables. This led Bugge (1894, 120 n. 2) to suggest the pronunciation þěra. Noreen (1892, 202) suggested ‑míms instead of ‑mímis. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) made a valid case against both ideas, and nothing can be added to his judgement that this is an insoluble problem.

Close

Sǫkmímis ‘of Sǫkmímir’

Sǫkmímir (noun m.): Sǫkmímir

kennings

bjartr jǫtunbyggðr salr þeira Sǫkmímis
‘the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir and his followers ’
   = ROCK

the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir and his followers → ROCK

notes

[9-11] bjartr jǫtunbyggðr salr þeira Sǫkmímis ‘the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir <giant> and his followers [ROCK]’: Giants count, like dwarfs, as rock-dwellers, for which reason references to giants’ dwellings can denote a rocky cave. Although all mss read salbjartr, emendation to nom. sg. salr is required since it is the subject of gein ‘gaped’. — [10] Sǫkmímis ‘of Sǫkmímir <giant>’: (a) The form Sǫk- is assumed here on the basis of all three ms. spellings (‘sꜹc-’ , ‘so᷎c’ J2ˣ, ‘sꜹk’ F), though Sǫkkmímir occurs in Grí 50/2 (NK 67) and Þul Jǫtna I 6/5III (and see Note there). (b) Kock’s suggestion of Søkkmímir ‘Wealth-Mímir’ (cf. NN §1783A) is attractive, given the parallel with Hoddmímir ‘Treasure-Mímir’ in Vafþr 45/3 (NK 53). However, the ms. spellings do not favour normalised ‑kk and the existence of a word søkk ‘treasure’ in ON is uncertain (see Eyv Lv 4/5, Eyv Hál 1/10, Anon Pl 20/6VII (emendation) and Notes to these). (c) Interpretations of the name on the basis of søkkva ‘to sink’, i.e. as ‘giant who lives in the deep’ or similar (Bugge 1894, 120 n. 2; Yt 1925), are also problematic in the light of the ms. spellings. — [10] þeira Sǫkmímis ‘of Sǫkmímir <giant> and his followers’: The line is hypermetrical, with not four but five syllables. This led Bugge (1894, 120 n. 2) to suggest the pronunciation þěra. Noreen (1892, 202) suggested ‑míms instead of ‑mímis. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) made a valid case against both ideas, and nothing can be added to his judgement that this is an insoluble problem.

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jǫtun ‘giant’

jǫtunn (noun m.; °jǫtuns, dat. jǫtni; jǫtnar): giant < jǫtunbyggðr (adj./verb p.p.)jǫtunn (noun m.; °jǫtuns, dat. jǫtni; jǫtnar): giantjǫtunn (noun m.; °jǫtuns, dat. jǫtni; jǫtnar): giant < jǫtunbyggð (noun f.)jǫtunn (noun m.; °jǫtuns, dat. jǫtni; jǫtnar): giant

kennings

bjartr jǫtunbyggðr salr þeira Sǫkmímis
‘the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir and his followers ’
   = ROCK

the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir and his followers → ROCK

notes

[9-11] bjartr jǫtunbyggðr salr þeira Sǫkmímis ‘the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir <giant> and his followers [ROCK]’: Giants count, like dwarfs, as rock-dwellers, for which reason references to giants’ dwellings can denote a rocky cave. Although all mss read salbjartr, emendation to nom. sg. salr is required since it is the subject of gein ‘gaped’.

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bygdor ‘’

Close

byðr ‘’

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byggðr ‘inhabited’

-byggðr (adj.): inhabited, settled < jǫtunbyggðr (adj./verb p.p.)

[11] ‑byggðr: ‑byðr F, ‑byggðir J2ˣ, ‘‑bygdor’ R685ˣ

kennings

bjartr jǫtunbyggðr salr þeira Sǫkmímis
‘the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir and his followers ’
   = ROCK

the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir and his followers → ROCK

notes

[9-11] bjartr jǫtunbyggðr salr þeira Sǫkmímis ‘the bright giant-inhabited hall of Sǫkmímir <giant> and his followers [ROCK]’: Giants count, like dwarfs, as rock-dwellers, for which reason references to giants’ dwellings can denote a rocky cave. Although all mss read salbjartr, emendation to nom. sg. salr is required since it is the subject of gein ‘gaped’.

Close

jofro ‘’

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jǫfri ‘the prince’

jǫfurr (noun m.): ruler, prince

[12] jǫfri: ‘jofro’ J2ˣ, R685ˣ

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

King Sveigðir succeeds his father Fjǫlnir. He makes a vow to search for Óðinn and Goðheim(a)r, a name for Svíþjóð in mikla ‘Great Sweden’ according to Yng (ÍF 26, 9-10, 22). The evening after a feast at Steinn in eastern Sweden, the king sees a dwarf by a large rock. The dwarf invites the king to enter if he wants to see Óðinn. The king follows the dwarf, enters the rock and never comes out again.

Sveigðir’s death has been associated with a motif familiar from traditional folktales and known as (ModSwed.) bergtagning ‘abduction into a mountain by supernatural beings’ (see de Boor 1924, 552; Lindow 1995, 8; ‘Bergentrückt’ [‘mountain-lured’], HDA, 1, 1056-71; Boberg 1966, 109 (F 451.5.2.4 Dwarfs kidnap mortals)).

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