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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þhorn Harkv 6I

R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorbjǫrn hornklofi, Haraldskvæði (Hrafnsmál) 6’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 99.

Þorbjǫrn hornklofiHaraldskvæði (Hrafnsmál)
567

Freys ‘of Freyr’

Freyr (noun m.): (a god)

kennings

leik Freys.
‘the sport of Freyr. ’
   = BATTLE

the sport of Freyr. → BATTLE

notes

[4] leik Freys ‘the sport of Freyr <god> [BATTLE]’: Snorri apparently understood the kenning to mean ‘battle’, given that he cites the stanza in evidence of Haraldr’s war-making over the winter. Since Freyr is not generally known as a god of war but rather of fertility, it has been suggested (by Ólafur Briem: see ÍF 26, 112) that this may instead refer to some fertility rite associated with Yule. Yet leikr is not otherwise known to have the meaning ‘sacrifice, offering’ that its cognate OE lāc may have. Toasts were, however, drunk to Óðinn, Njǫrðr and Freyr at Yule, as observed in Hkr (ÍF 26, 168). Hkr 1991 suggests as an alternative that ‘Freyr’s sport’ is love, but this would seem to contradict the point of the stanza, which is that Haraldr has never cared for ease and pleasure.

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heygja ‘’

heygja (verb)

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leik ‘the sport’

1. leikr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ar): sport, play

kennings

leik Freys.
‘the sport of Freyr. ’
   = BATTLE

the sport of Freyr. → BATTLE

notes

[4] leik Freys ‘the sport of Freyr <god> [BATTLE]’: Snorri apparently understood the kenning to mean ‘battle’, given that he cites the stanza in evidence of Haraldr’s war-making over the winter. Since Freyr is not generally known as a god of war but rather of fertility, it has been suggested (by Ólafur Briem: see ÍF 26, 112) that this may instead refer to some fertility rite associated with Yule. Yet leikr is not otherwise known to have the meaning ‘sacrifice, offering’ that its cognate OE lāc may have. Toasts were, however, drunk to Óðinn, Njǫrðr and Freyr at Yule, as observed in Hkr (ÍF 26, 168). Hkr 1991 suggests as an alternative that ‘Freyr’s sport’ is love, but this would seem to contradict the point of the stanza, which is that Haraldr has never cared for ease and pleasure.

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heyja ‘practise’

2. heyja (verb): fight, wage (battle)

[4] heyja: heygja J1ˣ, heyja corrected from hefja 51ˣ, 302ˣ, hefja FskBˣ, FskAˣ

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læiddz ‘’

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Ungr ‘[When] young’

ungr (adj.): young

notes

[5] ungr ‘[when] young’: Sueti (1884, 26) would delete ungr on metrical grounds; cf. Sievers (1879, 296).

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leiddisk ‘he grew tired’

2. leiða (verb; -dd): lead; (-sk) grow tired

[5] leiddisk: ‘læiddz’ J1ˣ

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eld ‘by the fire’

eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire < eldvelli (noun n.)eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire < eldpell (noun n.)eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire < eldvísi (noun m.)

notes

[5] eldvelli ‘cooking by the fire’: The translation (so ÍF 26; Hkr 1991) is a conjecture, as velli (presumably n. acc. sg.) is otherwise unattested (cf. vella f. ‘boiling heat’), and the resulting cpd is unusual. It is not clear whether the word refers to cooking food or warming oneself by the fire. Jón Helgason (1946, 136) suggests that the word could refer to a vessel for boiling meat, so that the passage would mean that Haraldr spurned the comfort of cooked food (cf. HHund II 7-9).

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velli ‘of cooking’

velli (noun n.) < eldvelli (noun n.)

[5] ‑velli: vísi F, ‑pelli FskBˣ

notes

[5] eldvelli ‘cooking by the fire’: The translation (so ÍF 26; Hkr 1991) is a conjecture, as velli (presumably n. acc. sg.) is otherwise unattested (cf. vella f. ‘boiling heat’), and the resulting cpd is unusual. It is not clear whether the word refers to cooking food or warming oneself by the fire. Jón Helgason (1946, 136) suggests that the word could refer to a vessel for boiling meat, so that the passage would mean that Haraldr spurned the comfort of cooked food (cf. HHund II 7-9).

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ok ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[6] ok: eða J1ˣ, J2ˣ

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at ‘’

5. at (nota): to (with infinitive)

[6] at: om. J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 51ˣ, FskBˣ, 302ˣ

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sitja ‘sitting’

sitja (verb): sit

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dyngju ‘women’s chamber’

dyngja (noun f.; °-u): [women chamber]

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eða ‘and’

eða (conj.): or

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fulla ‘filled’

2. fullr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): full, complete

[8] fulla: ‘fula’ FskBˣ

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In Fsk, as for st. 1. In Hkr, the stanza is offered in support of an account of how Haraldr over the course of a winter regained control of Vingulmǫrk (in Viken) and harried in Ranríki (Bohuslän).

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