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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þhorn Harkv 5I

R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorbjǫrn hornklofi, Haraldskvæði (Hrafnsmál) 5’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 98.

Þorbjǫrn hornklofiHaraldskvæði (Hrafnsmál)
456

ek ‘I’

ek (pron.; °mín, dat. mér, acc. mik): I, me

[1] ek: so FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ, om. 51ˣ, FskBˣ, 302ˣ

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myndu ‘would’

munu (verb): will, must

[1] myndu: mynda 301ˣ

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á ‘at’

3. á (prep.): on, at

notes

[2] á Kvinnum ‘at Kvinnar’: There is considerable doubt as to the nom. form (Kvinnar f. pl. is assumed), whether this is a p. n., and if so, where the place is. (a) It has been identified (Fsk 1847, 213) with Kvinnherad in Sunnhordland. Von See (1961b, 108) is convinced that a place in Kvinnherad is meant, and Steinnes (1949-51, 384-6) would narrow the location to Omviksdalen. (b) Kvinnum has been taken as a corruption of í Kǫrmtu, in reference to Karmøy in Rogaland, where Haraldr is known to have had an estate at Avaldsnes (Ǫgvaldsnes; so Olsen 1913; Koht 1955, 34, 37; Tveiten 1966, 18). (c) Lie (1956a) asserts rather that the word does not refer to a place (and in any case not a place on land, as this and the following stanza portray Haraldr as a sea-king) but is a scribal error of a common sort for knúum, dat. pl. of masc. knúi. The actual meaning of knúi is not known for certain (Faulkes in SnE 1998, II, 336 gives ‘knuckle’), but it is used as a heiti for ‘ship’ in Þul Skipa 4/1III.

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kymnum ‘’

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Kvinnum ‘Kvinnar’

Kvinnar (noun f.): Kvinnar

[2] Kvinnum: ‘kymnum’ FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ

notes

[2] á Kvinnum ‘at Kvinnar’: There is considerable doubt as to the nom. form (Kvinnar f. pl. is assumed), whether this is a p. n., and if so, where the place is. (a) It has been identified (Fsk 1847, 213) with Kvinnherad in Sunnhordland. Von See (1961b, 108) is convinced that a place in Kvinnherad is meant, and Steinnes (1949-51, 384-6) would narrow the location to Omviksdalen. (b) Kvinnum has been taken as a corruption of í Kǫrmtu, in reference to Karmøy in Rogaland, where Haraldr is known to have had an estate at Avaldsnes (Ǫgvaldsnes; so Olsen 1913; Koht 1955, 34, 37; Tveiten 1966, 18). (c) Lie (1956a) asserts rather that the word does not refer to a place (and in any case not a place on land, as this and the following stanza portray Haraldr as a sea-king) but is a scribal error of a common sort for knúum, dat. pl. of masc. knúi. The actual meaning of knúi is not known for certain (Faulkes in SnE 1998, II, 336 gives ‘knuckle’), but it is used as a heiti for ‘ship’ in Þul Skipa 4/1III.

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dróttin ‘lord’

dróttinn (noun m.; °dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar): lord, master

[3] dróttin: dróttinn FskBˣ, FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ

kennings

dróttin Norðmanna;
‘lord of Norwegians; ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr

lord of Norwegians; → NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr
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Norðmanna ‘of Norwegians’

Norðmaðr (noun m.): Norwegian

kennings

dróttin Norðmanna;
‘lord of Norwegians; ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr

lord of Norwegians; → NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr
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kjólum ‘ships’

kjóll (noun m.): ship

notes

[4] kjólum ‘ships’: Some eds read kjǫlum ‘keels’ (Munch and Unger 1847, 112; Möbius 1860).

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roðnum ‘reddened’

rjóða (verb): to redden

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rǫndum ‘shield-rims’

rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim

notes

[5] rǫndum ‘shield-rims’: To avoid two references to shields, Skj B emends to rǫngum ‘ship’s ribs’ (which Hallberg 1975, 117, takes to be the meaning of rǫndum), and Lindquist (1929, 4) and Skald emend to brǫndum ‘prows’. Kiil (1958a, 32) interprets rǫndum to refer to the upper edge of the ship’s sides. Sievers (1879, 296) would delete l. 6 altogether.

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ok ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[6] ok: so FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ, om. 51ˣ, FskBˣ, 302ˣ

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tjǫrguðum ‘’

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tjǫrgum ‘tarred’

tjǫrugr (adj.): [tarred]

[7] tjǫrgum: tjǫrguðum FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ

notes

[7] tjǫrgum ‘tarred’: From tjǫrugr. Though the eds have generally preferred tjǫrguðum (p. p.) ‘tarred’, the reading of the FskA transcripts, it is easier to see why a scribe would have altered tjǫrgum to the more common tjǫrguðum than the reverse.

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ok ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[8] ok: om. 51ˣ, FskBˣ, 302ˣ

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tjǫldum ‘awnings’

tjald (noun n.; °-s; *-): tent, awning

[8] tjǫldum drifnum: drifnum skjǫldum FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ

notes

[8] tjǫldum ‘awnings’: When ships were in harbour, awnings or ‘tents’ were erected on board to provide shelter (see Falk 1912, 10-13; Jesch 2001a, 154, 164-5).

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drifnum ‘foam-spattered’

2. drífa (verb; °drífr; dreif, drifu; drifinn): drive, rush

[8] tjǫldum drifnum: drifnum skjǫldum FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

As for st. 1.

For Haraldr’s war-band and life at his court, see also sts 6, 13, 15-23 below, Þjóð Har 1-3, Þjóð Lv 1 and Hhárf Lv 1 . — [1]: Sievers (1879, 296), followed by Sueti (1884, 25) would emend to Kunna munt konung ‘You probably know the king’. 

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