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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þhorn Harkv 21I

R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorbjǫrn hornklofi, Haraldskvæði (Hrafnsmál) 21’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 115.

Þorbjǫrn hornklofiHaraldskvæði (Hrafnsmál)
202122

heita ‘are called’

2. heita (verb): be called, promise

[1, 2] heita þeir: þeir heita FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ

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es ‘who’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

notes

[1] ulfheðnar ‘wolf-skins’: Berserks; see Note to st. 8/5. 

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orrostum ‘’

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orrostu ‘combat’

orrusta (noun f.; °-u; -ur): battle

[2] orrostu: orrostum FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ

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vígr ‘’

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vigrar ‘spears’

3. vigr (noun f.): spear

[4] vigrar: vígr FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ, vígr at Flat

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rjóða ‘they redden’

rjóða (verb): to redden

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es ‘when’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[5] es (‘er’): þá er FskAˣ, 301ˣ, þá er corrected from þar er 52ˣ

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sýst ‘’

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þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

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sist ‘seated’

sitja (verb): sit

[6] sist: sízt 52ˣ, sýst Flat

notes

[6] sist ‘seated’: Most eds have read (with Flat) the word as sýst, p. p. of sýsla (LP: 2. sýsla 1) or sýsa (CVC: sýsa) ‘do, work, effect, transact business’. Thus, for example, Kershaw (1922, 85) renders the line, ‘and then they act all in a body’. Yet the reading ‘sist’ found in most of the mss is presumably intended to represent the p. p. of the verb sissa ‘to seat’ (so Lindquist 1929, 6-7; Jón Helgason 1946, 140 and 1968, 20, n.), which takes a dat. object. This produces less colourful (and perhaps less apposite) meaning, but the sense and syntax are less strained (since it is usually the work done that is in the dat. after sýsla).

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saman ‘together’

saman (adv.): together

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þar ‘There’

þar (adv.): there

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undir ‘to’

undir (prep.): under

[8] undir felisk: undir felask 51ˣ, FskBˣ, 302ˣ, FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ, om. Flat

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felisk ‘may entrust himself’

4. fela (verb): commend?

[8] undir felisk: undir felask 51ˣ, FskBˣ, 302ˣ, FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ, om. Flat

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skyli ‘sovereign’

skyli (noun m.): lord

[9] skyli sá: hœfa at standa þá er skatnar Flat

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inn ‘the’

2. inn (art.): the

[9] inn (‘hinn’): en 51ˣ, FskBˣ, 302ˣ, om. Flat

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vísi ‘wise’

1. víss (adj.): wise, certain(ly) < skilvíss (adj.)

[9] ‑vísi: vísir Flat

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es ‘who’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[10] þeim es (‘þæim er’): om. Flat

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In Fsk, as for st. 20; Flat is very similar.

The stanza is ascribed in Flat to Auðunn illskælda. It contains the raven’s reply to the valkyrie’s previous question. — [7-10]: Here the metre changes from ljóðaháttr to málaháttr. The Flat readings could give Áræðismǫnnum einum | hygg ek þar hœfa at standa, | þá es skatnar skilvísir | í skjǫld hǫggva, presumably ‘I believe it is fitting for men of courage alone to stand there when men wise in understanding hew into a shield’ (so Möbius 1860), but they lack proper alliteration in ll. 7-8.

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