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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þhorn Harkv 15I

R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorbjǫrn hornklofi, Haraldskvæði (Hrafnsmál) 15’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 109.

Þorbjǫrn hornklofiHaraldskvæði (Hrafnsmál)
141516

es ‘is [he]’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[1] es (‘er’): so FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ, er hann 51ˣ, 302ˣ, er þat FskBˣ

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gjafa ‘’

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gjafall ‘generous’

gjafall (adj.): generous, bountiful < fégjafall (adj.)

[1] ‑gjafall: ‑gjafa 51ˣ, FskBˣ, 302ˣ, ‑gjafal FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ

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es ‘who’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[2] es (‘er’): sem FskAˣ, 52ˣ

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fold ‘[his] land’

fold (noun f.): land

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ítr* ‘the excellent’

ítr (adj.): glorious

[3] ítr*: ítra all

kennings

ítr* ógnflýtir
‘the excellent war-hastener ’
   = WARRIOR

the excellent war-hastener → WARRIOR

notes

[3] ítr* ‘excellent’: (a) Ms. ítra is here emended to ítr so that it may qualify ógnflýtir ‘war-hastener [WARRIOR]’, as suggested by Jón Helgason (1946, 137). (b) The syntax is decidedly strained when ms. ítra is construed as m. acc. pl. with íþróttarmenn ‘men of skills’ (l. 4; so Skj B) or as f. acc. sg. with fold ‘land’ (l. 2), especially in view of the simple syntax that characterises the rest of the stanzas. (c) Kock (FF §56) proposes analysing ítra as a substantival m. gen. pl. dependent on ógnflýtir ‘war-hastener’, together giving the sense ‘warrior of warriors’, i.e. best of warriors. Alternatively, Jón Helgason (1946, 137) mentions the possibility of interpreting ógnflýtir ítra as ‘causer of terror to chieftains’, ascribing to ógn- its fundamental sense ‘terror’ rather than the transferred sense ‘war’ that it usually has in verse. Yet these proposals face the difficulty that ítr is nowhere else used as a substantive, and both produce more than usually elliptical sense.

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ógn ‘war’

ógn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): terror, battle < ógnflýtir (noun m.)ógn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): terror, battle < ógnflýtr (noun m.)

kennings

ítr* ógnflýtir
‘the excellent war-hastener ’
   = WARRIOR

the excellent war-hastener → WARRIOR
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flýtir ‘hastener’

flýtir (noun m.): hastener < ógnflýtir (noun m.)

[3] ‑flýtir: so FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ, ‑flýtr 51ˣ, FskBˣ, 302ˣ

kennings

ítr* ógnflýtir
‘the excellent war-hastener ’
   = WARRIOR

the excellent war-hastener → WARRIOR
Close

íþróttarmenn ‘men of skills’

íþróttarmaðr (noun m.): [men of skills]

notes

[4] íþróttarmenn ‘men of skills’: Lit. ‘men of skill, accomplishment’. On metrical grounds, Sueti (1884, 27) and Wisén (1886-9) emend to inndrótt ‘retinue’.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In Fsk, this and the following five stanzas are offered in support of the observation that Haraldr was a generous king.

The valkyrie begins a new series of questions to the raven. Finnur Jónsson’s suggestion (LH I, 429 n. 1) that here the raven becomes the questioner and the valkyrie the respondent seems unlikely, given the address to the raven in st. 20/2, and the fact that it is the raven who has followed Haraldr since birth (see st. 4/5-8) and thus can provide information about his court.

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