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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þhorn Harkv 1I

R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorbjǫrn hornklofi, Haraldskvæði (Hrafnsmál) 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 94.

Þorbjǫrn hornklofiHaraldskvæði (Hrafnsmál)
12

hring ‘sword’

1. hringr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ar): ring; sword < hringberandi (noun m.): [sword-bearers]

kennings

Hringberendr
‘Let sword-bearers ’
   = WARRIORS

Let sword-bearers → WARRIORS

notes

[1] hringberendr ‘sword-bearers [WARRIORS]’: Hringr refers to a ring on a sword-hilt, and hence by pars pro toto is used as sword-heiti, and this is assumed here (so Skj B, and see LP: 2. hringr, Tveiten 1966, 18, and Note to Þul Sverða 7/7III). If on the other hand hring- is literal, i.e. ‘ring’, the meaning is ‘nobles’ (see ÍF 29, 59 n.).

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berendr ‘bearers’

1. -berandi (noun m.): [bearers] < hringberandi (noun m.): [sword-bearers]

kennings

Hringberendr
‘Let sword-bearers ’
   = WARRIORS

Let sword-bearers → WARRIORS

notes

[1] hringberendr ‘sword-bearers [WARRIORS]’: Hringr refers to a ring on a sword-hilt, and hence by pars pro toto is used as sword-heiti, and this is assumed here (so Skj B, and see LP: 2. hringr, Tveiten 1966, 18, and Note to Þul Sverða 7/7III). If on the other hand hring- is literal, i.e. ‘ring’, the meaning is ‘nobles’ (see ÍF 29, 59 n.).

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meðan ‘while’

meðan (conj.): while

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ek ‘I’

ek (pron.; °mín, dat. mér, acc. mik): I, me

[2] ek: om. FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ

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frá ‘concerning’

frá (prep.): from

notes

[3] íþróttir odda ‘feats of weapon-points’: This could be considered a battle-kenning, as by Meissner (Meissner 201), though there are no close parallels.

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Haraldi ‘Haraldr’

Haraldr (noun m.): Haraldr

notes

[3] íþróttir odda ‘feats of weapon-points’: This could be considered a battle-kenning, as by Meissner (Meissner 201), though there are no close parallels.

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segi ‘recount’

segja (verb): say, tell

[2] segi: segi ek FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ

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odda ‘of weapon-points’

oddr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): point of weapon

[3] odda: oddi FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ

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íþróttir ‘feats’

íþrótt (noun f.): skill, accomplishment

[3] íþróttir: so FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ, íþróttar 51ˣ, FskBˣ, 302ˣ

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afarauðga ‘exceedingly wealthy’

afarauðigr (adj.): exceedingly wealthy

[4] afarauðga: so FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ, hárfagra 51ˣ, FskBˣ, 302ˣ

notes

[4] afarauðga ‘exceedingly wealthy’: The use of this epithet is appropriate to the context of addressing courtiers, for whom a ruler’s wealth (and thus his munificence) is of the first importance. The variant hárfagra ‘Fair-hair’ does not supply the necessary (vocalic) alliteration. It may be influenced by the fact that it appears in early poetry (Þjóð Har 5/7 and Jór Send 2/4) and became the conventional nickname of Haraldr; see ‘Ruler biographies’ in Introduction to this volume.

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segja ‘recount’

segja (verb): say, tell

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þeim ‘that’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

notes

[6] þeim es ek heyrða ... mey ‘that I heard a ... girl’: This is elliptical, lacking an inf. of a verb of saying. (a) In the translation given here, segja (frá) of l. 5 is assumed to be supplied again in the next line, hence ‘recount … [utter]’ (so Ulset 1975, 27). (b) Skj B interprets the construction as ‘the words that I heard from a girl’, to which Kock (NN §1815) objects on the ground that mey cannot mean ‘from a girl’. (c) Kock assumes a mixed construction, in which dœma môlum ‘speak (in) words’ is conflated with ek heyrða mey, es dœmði ‘I heard a girl who spoke’, equivalent to ek heyrða, at mær dœmði ‘I heard that a girl spoke’. Note that es ‘when’ in l. 8 may instead mean ‘who’, while Kershaw (1922, 83) interprets it as ‘as, when’.

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es ‘’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

notes

[6] þeim es ek heyrða ... mey ‘that I heard a ... girl’: This is elliptical, lacking an inf. of a verb of saying. (a) In the translation given here, segja (frá) of l. 5 is assumed to be supplied again in the next line, hence ‘recount … [utter]’ (so Ulset 1975, 27). (b) Skj B interprets the construction as ‘the words that I heard from a girl’, to which Kock (NN §1815) objects on the ground that mey cannot mean ‘from a girl’. (c) Kock assumes a mixed construction, in which dœma môlum ‘speak (in) words’ is conflated with ek heyrða mey, es dœmði ‘I heard a girl who spoke’, equivalent to ek heyrða, at mær dœmði ‘I heard that a girl spoke’. Note that es ‘when’ in l. 8 may instead mean ‘who’, while Kershaw (1922, 83) interprets it as ‘as, when’.

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ek ‘I’

ek (pron.; °mín, dat. mér, acc. mik): I, me

notes

[6] þeim es ek heyrða ... mey ‘that I heard a ... girl’: This is elliptical, lacking an inf. of a verb of saying. (a) In the translation given here, segja (frá) of l. 5 is assumed to be supplied again in the next line, hence ‘recount … [utter]’ (so Ulset 1975, 27). (b) Skj B interprets the construction as ‘the words that I heard from a girl’, to which Kock (NN §1815) objects on the ground that mey cannot mean ‘from a girl’. (c) Kock assumes a mixed construction, in which dœma môlum ‘speak (in) words’ is conflated with ek heyrða mey, es dœmði ‘I heard a girl who spoke’, equivalent to ek heyrða, at mær dœmði ‘I heard that a girl spoke’. Note that es ‘when’ in l. 8 may instead mean ‘who’, while Kershaw (1922, 83) interprets it as ‘as, when’.

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mey ‘girl’

mær (noun f.; °meyjar, dat. meyju; meyjar): maiden

notes

[6] þeim es ek heyrða ... mey ‘that I heard a ... girl’: This is elliptical, lacking an inf. of a verb of saying. (a) In the translation given here, segja (frá) of l. 5 is assumed to be supplied again in the next line, hence ‘recount … [utter]’ (so Ulset 1975, 27). (b) Skj B interprets the construction as ‘the words that I heard from a girl’, to which Kock (NN §1815) objects on the ground that mey cannot mean ‘from a girl’. (c) Kock assumes a mixed construction, in which dœma môlum ‘speak (in) words’ is conflated with ek heyrða mey, es dœmði ‘I heard a girl who spoke’, equivalent to ek heyrða, at mær dœmði ‘I heard that a girl spoke’. Note that es ‘when’ in l. 8 may instead mean ‘who’, while Kershaw (1922, 83) interprets it as ‘as, when’.

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heyrða ‘heard’

2. heyra (verb): hear

notes

[6] þeim es ek heyrða ... mey ‘that I heard a ... girl’: This is elliptical, lacking an inf. of a verb of saying. (a) In the translation given here, segja (frá) of l. 5 is assumed to be supplied again in the next line, hence ‘recount … [utter]’ (so Ulset 1975, 27). (b) Skj B interprets the construction as ‘the words that I heard from a girl’, to which Kock (NN §1815) objects on the ground that mey cannot mean ‘from a girl’. (c) Kock assumes a mixed construction, in which dœma môlum ‘speak (in) words’ is conflated with ek heyrða mey, es dœmði ‘I heard a girl who spoke’, equivalent to ek heyrða, at mær dœmði ‘I heard that a girl spoke’. Note that es ‘when’ in l. 8 may instead mean ‘who’, while Kershaw (1922, 83) interprets it as ‘as, when’.

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haddbjarta ‘bright-haired’

haddbjartr (adj.): [bright-haired]

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rœddi ‘’

Close

dœmði ‘she spoke’

dœma (verb; °-mð-): judge

[8] dœmði: rœddi FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ

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In Fsk, this stanza and the next five are offered in evidence of the remark that champions flocked to Haraldr hárfagri because of his munificence and the splendour of his court.

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