skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Þhorn Gldr 6I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorbjǫrn hornklofi, Glymdrápa 6’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 85.

Þorbjǫrn hornklofiGlymdrápa
567

Grennir þrǫng at gunni
gunnmôs fyr haf sunnan
(sá vas gramr) ok gumnum
(goðvarðr) und sik jǫrðu.
Ok hjalmtamiðr hilmir
holmreyðar lét olman
lindihjǫrt fyr landi
lundprúðr við stik bundinn.

{Grennir {gunnmôs}} þrǫng jǫrðu ok gumnum und sik at gunni fyr sunnan haf; sá gramr vas goðvarðr. Ok lundprúðr {holmreyðar} hjalmtamiðr hilmir lét {olman lindihjǫrt} bundinn við stik fyr landi.

{The feeder {of the battle-gull}} [RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR] forced the land and people under himself in battle south across the sea; that ruler was god-protected. And the splendid-minded ruler, used to the helmet {of the island-salmon} [SNAKE], had {the fierce mast-hart} [SHIP] moored to a stake before the shore.

Mss: (60v), F(10va), J1ˣ(33v), J2ˣ(34v) (Hkr); 761aˣ(20r)

Readings: [2] ‑môs: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ, ‑mál Kˣ, ‑márs F    [4] goð‑: geð‑ F, ‘gǫd‑’ J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ;    ‑varðr: ‑vǫrðr F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ    [7] fyr: frá F    [8] ‑prúðr: ‘‑vruðr’ J1ˣ;    stik: stig J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ

Editions: Skj AI, 23, Skj BI, 21, Skald I, 13, NN §§233, 1370 Anm. 1, 3204; Hkr 1893-1901, I, 120-1, IV, 33, ÍF 26, 112-13 (HHárf ch. 16), Hkr 1991, I, 69 (HHárf ch. 17).

Context: The Gautar attempt to hinder Haraldr’s passage along the Gautelfr (Götaälv) by erecting stakes in the river. King Haraldr nonetheless enters the river, moors his ships to the stakes, and burns and pillages in the vicinity.

Notes: [1] at gunni ‘in battle’: Although most eds place at gunni in the intercalary clause, this makes the word order unnecessarily complicated, and there is no reason to remove it from the main clause (see NN §233 and Mohr 1933, 8). — [2] fyr sunnan haf ‘south across the sea’: According to the prose this phrase must refer to the conflict at the mouth of the Götaälv, and Haraldr is designated andskoti Gauta ‘opponent of the Gautar’ in st. 7/6. The reference is most likely to a military campaign conducted by Haraldr against local viking settlements, much as he did in the British Isles. HarHárf in Flat (1860-8, I, 576) mentions the Gautar among vikings against whom Haraldr hárfagri had to defend his realm, and Fsk (ÍF 29, 81) describes the Brenneyjar, near the mouth of the Götaälv, as a base for viking raids during the subsequent reign of Hákon góði ‘the Good’ (Krüger 2008, 105-6). Historians including Weibull (1921, 33-4) think it unlikely that Haraldr hárfagri would have subjugated Gautland (Götaland), as, e.g., Eggert Ó. Brím (ÓT 1892, 347) supposes. — [4] goðvarðr ‘god-protected’: (a) This edn follows the main ms. , as do Jón Þorkelsson (1884, 42-3), Kock (NN §3204 and Skald), ÍF 26, and Hkr 1991; see also Fidjestøl (1991, 117). Protection and determination of a ruler’s fate by the gods are common themes in connection with the house of the jarls of Hlaðir (Lade): see Eskál Vell 8/2, 14/7, 31/5-8, and Note to Edáð Banddr 9/1, and the same adj. occurs in Edáð Banddr 5/8, 8/8 goðvǫrðu hjarli ‘god-defended land’. The present passage is unique in ascribing a religious dimension to the rule of the Yngling dynasty to which Haraldr hárfagri belonged (Marold 1987, 70; Fidjestøl 1991, 117). (b) Finnur Jónsson (1884, 75-6; Hkr 1893-1901; Skj B) emends to geðharðr ‘harsh-minded’ here, followed by Eggert Ó. Brím (ÓT 1892, 347) and Holtsmark (1927, 37). Only the first element has any ms. support (in F’s geðvǫrðr), however, and emendation is unjustified. — [5, 6] holmreyðar hjalmtamiðr ‘used to the helmet of the island-salmon [SNAKE]’: The snake helmet here should probably be understood as an œgishjalmr ‘helmet of terror’ (on this see Eskál Vell 25/5, 6). The word hjalmtamiðr ‘used to the helmet ...’ suggests that the reference is not to a helmet being worn in the battle at hand, but is more in the nature of a symbol of dignity or rank, perhaps even a royal insignia (Marold 1998, 13), mentioned here to indicate the development of the ruler’s power. — [6, 8] lét ... bundinn við stik ‘had ... moored to a stake’: According to the prose of Hkr these stakes were erected for defence (cf. Falk 1912, 26). Modéer (1944, 203-9) and von See (1977b, 77-8) doubt this and think they were simple moorings. However, archaeologists have found evidence of offshore barricades in Denmark as early as the year 700 (Nørgård Jørgensen 2002b, 125). Tying up unopposed in an adversary’s harbour may have had symbolic importance as a demonstration of power, much like the designation of the ruler as the wearer of the œgishjalmr (see Note to st. 5/6). The impression would be even greater if the stakes were indeed defensive. — [7] lindihjǫrt ‘mast-hart [SHIP]’: Hjǫrtr ‘hart, stag’, though not a very common base-word for a ship-kenning, is attested a few times (Meissner 219). The determinant lindi may be a collective noun based on lind ‘lime-tree’, and might mean a mast, cf. kennings such as hestr lauks ‘the horse of the mast’ (ÞSjár Frag 1/7III) or drasill vandar ‘the horse of the mast’ (Þorm Þorgdr 2/8V; Meissner 216 has further examples). Because lind and lindi are not attested in the meaning ‘mast’, while lind has the meaning ‘shield’ (LP: 1. lind 2), the lime-wood shields that hung from ships might be an alternative possibility (Marold 1998, 26 n. 19). However, ‘shield’ is not attested as a determinant of ship-kennings (Meissner 214-16). — [8] lundprúðr ‘splendid-minded’: Prúðr is a loanword from OE prūd (< MLat. prōdus < Lat. prōvidus; see AEW: prúðr). It is surprising to find such a loanword in ON in this early period, and it is conceivable that an original fróðr ‘wise’ may have been replaced by prúðr at a later time (cf. Note to st. 8/5).

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  4. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  5. Meissner = Meissner, Rudolf. 1921. Die Kenningar der Skalden: Ein Beitrag zur skaldischen Poetik. Rheinische Beiträge und Hülfsbücher zur germanischen Philologie und Volkskunde 1. Bonn and Leipzig: Schroeder. Rpt. 1984. Hildesheim etc.: Olms.
  6. AEW = Vries, Jan de. 1962. Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. 2nd rev. edn. Rpt. 1977. Leiden: Brill.
  7. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  8. Falk, Hjalmar. 1912. Altnordisches Seewesen. Wörter und Sachen 4. Heidelberg: Winter.
  9. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  10. Hkr 1893-1901 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1893-1901. Heimskringla: Nóregs konunga sǫgur af Snorri Sturluson. 4 vols. SUGNL 23. Copenhagen: Møller.
  11. Hkr 1991 = Bergljót S. Kristjánsdóttir et al., eds. 1991. Heimskringla. 3 vols. Reykjavík: Mál og menning.
  12. Jón Þorkelsson [J. Thorkelsson]. 1884. ‘Bemærkninger til nogle steder i versene i Heimskringla’. Aftryk af oversigt over det kgl. danske videnskabs selskabs forhandlinger 1884. Copenhagen: Luno.
  13. ÍF 29 = Ágrip af Nóregskonunga sǫgum; Fagrskinna—Nóregs konungatal. Ed. Bjarni Einarsson. 1985.
  14. Finnur Jónsson. 1884. Kritiske studier over en del af de ældste norske og islandske skjaldekvad. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.
  15. Mohr, Wolfgang. 1933. Kenningstudien. Beiträge zur Stilgeschichte der altgermanischen Dichtung. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer.
  16. See, Klaus von. 1977b. ‘Skaldenstrophe und Sagaprosa: Ein Beitrag zum Problem der mündlichen Überlieferung in der altnordischen Literatur’. MS 10, 58-82. Rpt. in von See 1981a, 461-85.
  17. Weibull, Curt. 1921. Sverige och dess nordiska grannmakter under den tidigare medeltiden. Lund: Gleerup.
  18. Marold, Edith. 1987. ‘Die norwegische Reichseinigung und die Preislieddichtung’. In Groenke 1987, 59-105.
  19. ÓT 1892 = Eggert Ó. Brím, ed. 1892. Saga Óláfs Tryggvasonar. Reykjavík: Ísafoldarprentsmiðja.
  20. Marold, Edith. 1998a. ‘Die Augen des Herrschers’. In Meier 1998, 7-29.
  21. Fidjestøl, Bjarne. 1991. ‘Skaldediktinga og trusskiftet: Med tanker om litterær form som historisk kjelde’. In Steinsland et al. 1991, 113-31.
  22. Holtsmark, Anne. 1927. Þórbjørn Hornklofes Glymdrápa. Oslo: Aschehoug & Co.
  23. Krüger, Jana. 2008. ‘Wikinger’ im Mittelalter: Die Rezeption von víkingr m. und víking f. in der altnordischen Literatur. Ergänzungsbände zum RGA 56. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter.
  24. Modéer, Ivar. 1944. ‘Tre textställen i Heimskringla’. ANF 59, 203-9.
  25. Nørgård Jørgensen, Anne. 2002b. ‘Naval Bases in Southern Scandinavia from the 7th to the 12th Century’. In Nørgård Jørgensen 2002a, 125-52.
  26. Internal references
  27. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Heimskringla (Hkr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  28. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Flateyjarbók (Flat)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clxi-clxii.
  29. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Fagrskinna (Fsk)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clix-clxi.
  30. Not published: do not cite (HarHárfII)
  31. Not published: do not cite (HHárfII)
  32. Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyjólfr dáðaskáld, Bandadrápa 5’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 463.
  33. Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyjólfr dáðaskáld, Bandadrápa 9’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 468.
  34. Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Vellekla 25’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 314.
  35. Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Vellekla 8’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 292.
  36. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2017, ‘Þórðr Særeksson (Sjáreksson), Fragments 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 476.
  37. Not published: do not cite (Þorm Þorgdr 2V (Fbr 3))
Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.