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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þhorn Gldr 6I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorbjǫrn hornklofi, Glymdrápa 6’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 85.

Þorbjǫrn hornklofiGlymdrápa
567

Grennir ‘The feeder’

1. grennir (noun m.): feeder

kennings

Grennir gunnmôs
‘The feeder of the battle-gull ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-gull → RAVEN/EAGLE
The feeder of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
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at ‘in’

3. at (prep.): at, to

notes

[1] at gunni ‘in battle’: Although most eds place at gunni in the intercalary clause, this makes the word order unnecessarily complicated, and there is no reason to remove it from the main clause (see NN §233 and Mohr 1933, 8).

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gunni ‘battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle

notes

[1] at gunni ‘in battle’: Although most eds place at gunni in the intercalary clause, this makes the word order unnecessarily complicated, and there is no reason to remove it from the main clause (see NN §233 and Mohr 1933, 8).

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gunn ‘of the battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunnmár (noun m.): [battle-gull]gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunnmál (noun n.)gunnr (noun f.): battle

kennings

Grennir gunnmôs
‘The feeder of the battle-gull ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-gull → RAVEN/EAGLE
The feeder of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
Close

gunn ‘of the battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunnmár (noun m.): [battle-gull]gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunnmál (noun n.)gunnr (noun f.): battle

kennings

Grennir gunnmôs
‘The feeder of the battle-gull ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-gull → RAVEN/EAGLE
The feeder of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
Close

márs ‘’

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môs ‘gull’

már (noun m.): gull < gunnmár (noun m.): [battle-gull]

[2] ‑môs: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ, ‑mál Kˣ, ‑márs F

kennings

Grennir gunnmôs
‘The feeder of the battle-gull ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-gull → RAVEN/EAGLE
The feeder of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
Close

môs ‘gull’

már (noun m.): gull < gunnmár (noun m.): [battle-gull]

[2] ‑môs: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ, ‑mál Kˣ, ‑márs F

kennings

Grennir gunnmôs
‘The feeder of the battle-gull ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-gull → RAVEN/EAGLE
The feeder of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
Close

fyr ‘across’

fyr (prep.): for, over, because of, etc.

notes

[2] fyr sunnan haf ‘south across the sea’: According to the prose this phrase must refer to the conflict at the mouth of the Götaälv, and Haraldr is designated andskoti Gauta ‘opponent of the Gautar’ in st. 7/6. The reference is most likely to a military campaign conducted by Haraldr against local viking settlements, much as he did in the British Isles. HarHárf in Flat (1860-8, I, 576) mentions the Gautar among vikings against whom Haraldr hárfagri had to defend his realm, and Fsk (ÍF 29, 81) describes the Brenneyjar, near the mouth of the Götaälv, as a base for viking raids during the subsequent reign of Hákon góði ‘the Good’ (Krüger 2008, 105-6). Historians including Weibull (1921, 33-4) think it unlikely that Haraldr hárfagri would have subjugated Gautland (Götaland), as, e.g., Eggert Ó. Brím (ÓT 1892, 347) supposes.

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haf ‘the sea’

haf (noun n.; °-s; *-): sea

notes

[2] fyr sunnan haf ‘south across the sea’: According to the prose this phrase must refer to the conflict at the mouth of the Götaälv, and Haraldr is designated andskoti Gauta ‘opponent of the Gautar’ in st. 7/6. The reference is most likely to a military campaign conducted by Haraldr against local viking settlements, much as he did in the British Isles. HarHárf in Flat (1860-8, I, 576) mentions the Gautar among vikings against whom Haraldr hárfagri had to defend his realm, and Fsk (ÍF 29, 81) describes the Brenneyjar, near the mouth of the Götaälv, as a base for viking raids during the subsequent reign of Hákon góði ‘the Good’ (Krüger 2008, 105-6). Historians including Weibull (1921, 33-4) think it unlikely that Haraldr hárfagri would have subjugated Gautland (Götaland), as, e.g., Eggert Ó. Brím (ÓT 1892, 347) supposes.

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sunnan ‘south’

sunnan (adv.): (from the) south

notes

[2] fyr sunnan haf ‘south across the sea’: According to the prose this phrase must refer to the conflict at the mouth of the Götaälv, and Haraldr is designated andskoti Gauta ‘opponent of the Gautar’ in st. 7/6. The reference is most likely to a military campaign conducted by Haraldr against local viking settlements, much as he did in the British Isles. HarHárf in Flat (1860-8, I, 576) mentions the Gautar among vikings against whom Haraldr hárfagri had to defend his realm, and Fsk (ÍF 29, 81) describes the Brenneyjar, near the mouth of the Götaälv, as a base for viking raids during the subsequent reign of Hákon góði ‘the Good’ (Krüger 2008, 105-6). Historians including Weibull (1921, 33-4) think it unlikely that Haraldr hárfagri would have subjugated Gautland (Götaland), as, e.g., Eggert Ó. Brím (ÓT 1892, 347) supposes.

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gǫð ‘’

Close

goð ‘god’

goð (noun n.): (pagan) god < goðvarðr (adj.): god-defendedgoð (noun n.): (pagan) god < goðvǫrðr (noun m.)

[4] goð‑: geð‑ F, ‘gǫd‑’ J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ

notes

[4] goðvarðr ‘god-protected’: (a) This edn follows the main ms. , as do Jón Þorkelsson (1884, 42-3), Kock (NN §3204 and Skald), ÍF 26, and Hkr 1991; see also Fidjestøl (1991, 117). Protection and determination of a ruler’s fate by the gods are common themes in connection with the house of the jarls of Hlaðir (Lade): see Eskál Vell 8/2, 14/7, 31/5-8, and Note to Edáð Banddr 9/1, and the same adj. occurs in Edáð Banddr 5/8, 8/8 goðvǫrðu hjarli ‘god-defended land’. The present passage is unique in ascribing a religious dimension to the rule of the Yngling dynasty to which Haraldr hárfagri belonged (Marold 1987, 70; Fidjestøl 1991, 117). (b) Finnur Jónsson (1884, 75-6; Hkr 1893-1901; Skj B) emends to geðharðr ‘harsh-minded’ here, followed by Eggert Ó. Brím (ÓT 1892, 347) and Holtsmark (1927, 37). Only the first element has any ms. support (in F’s geðvǫrðr), however, and emendation is unjustified.

Close

varðr ‘protected’

2. -varðr (adj.): [protected] < goðvarðr (adj.): god-defended2. -varðr (adj.): [protected] < geð-varðr (adj.)2. -varðr (adj.): [protected]

[4] ‑varðr: ‑vǫrðr F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ

notes

[4] goðvarðr ‘god-protected’: (a) This edn follows the main ms. , as do Jón Þorkelsson (1884, 42-3), Kock (NN §3204 and Skald), ÍF 26, and Hkr 1991; see also Fidjestøl (1991, 117). Protection and determination of a ruler’s fate by the gods are common themes in connection with the house of the jarls of Hlaðir (Lade): see Eskál Vell 8/2, 14/7, 31/5-8, and Note to Edáð Banddr 9/1, and the same adj. occurs in Edáð Banddr 5/8, 8/8 goðvǫrðu hjarli ‘god-defended land’. The present passage is unique in ascribing a religious dimension to the rule of the Yngling dynasty to which Haraldr hárfagri belonged (Marold 1987, 70; Fidjestøl 1991, 117). (b) Finnur Jónsson (1884, 75-6; Hkr 1893-1901; Skj B) emends to geðharðr ‘harsh-minded’ here, followed by Eggert Ó. Brím (ÓT 1892, 347) and Holtsmark (1927, 37). Only the first element has any ms. support (in F’s geðvǫrðr), however, and emendation is unjustified.

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hjalm ‘the helmet’

1. hjalmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): helmet < hjalmtamiðr (adj./verb p.p.)

notes

[5, 6] holmreyðar hjalmtamiðr ‘used to the helmet of the island-salmon [SNAKE]’: The snake helmet here should probably be understood as an œgishjalmr ‘helmet of terror’ (on this see Eskál Vell 25/5, 6). The word hjalmtamiðr ‘used to the helmet ...’ suggests that the reference is not to a helmet being worn in the battle at hand, but is more in the nature of a symbol of dignity or rank, perhaps even a royal insignia (Marold 1998, 13), mentioned here to indicate the development of the ruler’s power.

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tamiðr ‘used to’

tamiðr (adj./verb p.p.): accustomed, tamed < hjalmtamiðr (adj./verb p.p.)

notes

[5, 6] holmreyðar hjalmtamiðr ‘used to the helmet of the island-salmon [SNAKE]’: The snake helmet here should probably be understood as an œgishjalmr ‘helmet of terror’ (on this see Eskál Vell 25/5, 6). The word hjalmtamiðr ‘used to the helmet ...’ suggests that the reference is not to a helmet being worn in the battle at hand, but is more in the nature of a symbol of dignity or rank, perhaps even a royal insignia (Marold 1998, 13), mentioned here to indicate the development of the ruler’s power.

Close

holm ‘of the island’

holmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): island, islet < holmreyðr (noun f.)

kennings

holmreyðar
‘of the island-salmon, ’
   = SNAKE

the island-salmon, → SNAKE

notes

[5, 6] holmreyðar hjalmtamiðr ‘used to the helmet of the island-salmon [SNAKE]’: The snake helmet here should probably be understood as an œgishjalmr ‘helmet of terror’ (on this see Eskál Vell 25/5, 6). The word hjalmtamiðr ‘used to the helmet ...’ suggests that the reference is not to a helmet being worn in the battle at hand, but is more in the nature of a symbol of dignity or rank, perhaps even a royal insignia (Marold 1998, 13), mentioned here to indicate the development of the ruler’s power.

Close

reyðar ‘salmon’

reyðr (noun f.; °; -ar): whale, rorqual < holmreyðr (noun f.)

kennings

holmreyðar
‘of the island-salmon, ’
   = SNAKE

the island-salmon, → SNAKE

notes

[5, 6] holmreyðar hjalmtamiðr ‘used to the helmet of the island-salmon [SNAKE]’: The snake helmet here should probably be understood as an œgishjalmr ‘helmet of terror’ (on this see Eskál Vell 25/5, 6). The word hjalmtamiðr ‘used to the helmet ...’ suggests that the reference is not to a helmet being worn in the battle at hand, but is more in the nature of a symbol of dignity or rank, perhaps even a royal insignia (Marold 1998, 13), mentioned here to indicate the development of the ruler’s power.

Close

lét ‘had’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

notes

[6, 8] lét ... bundinn við stik ‘had ... moored to a stake’: According to the prose of Hkr these stakes were erected for defence (cf. Falk 1912, 26). Modéer (1944, 203-9) and von See (1977b, 77-8) doubt this and think they were simple moorings. However, archaeologists have found evidence of offshore barricades in Denmark as early as the year 700 (Nørgård Jørgensen 2002b, 125). Tying up unopposed in an adversary’s harbour may have had symbolic importance as a demonstration of power, much like the designation of the ruler as the wearer of the œgishjalmr (see Note to st. 5/6). The impression would be even greater if the stakes were indeed defensive.

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olman ‘the fierce’

olmr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): fierce, furious

kennings

olman lindihjǫrt
‘the fierce mast-hart ’
   = SHIP

the fierce mast-hart → SHIP
Close

lindi ‘mast’

2. lindi (noun n.): mast, spear, lime-tree < lindihjǫrtr (noun m.)

kennings

olman lindihjǫrt
‘the fierce mast-hart ’
   = SHIP

the fierce mast-hart → SHIP

notes

[7] lindihjǫrt ‘mast-hart [SHIP]’: Hjǫrtr ‘hart, stag’, though not a very common base-word for a ship-kenning, is attested a few times (Meissner 219). The determinant lindi may be a collective noun based on lind ‘lime-tree’, and might mean a mast, cf. kennings such as hestr lauks ‘the horse of the mast’ (ÞSjár Frag 1/7III) or drasill vandar ‘the horse of the mast’ (Þorm Þorgdr 2/8V; Meissner 216 has further examples). Because lind and lindi are not attested in the meaning ‘mast’, while lind has the meaning ‘shield’ (LP: 1. lind 2), the lime-wood shields that hung from ships might be an alternative possibility (Marold 1998, 26 n. 19). However, ‘shield’ is not attested as a determinant of ship-kennings (Meissner 214-16).

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hjǫrt ‘hart’

hjǫrtr (noun m.; °hjartar, dat. hirti (hjǫrt Æv¹ˆ 58²²n.); hirtir, acc. hjǫrtu, (gen. hirta GlossPsalt 9¹²)): hart < lindihjǫrtr (noun m.)

kennings

olman lindihjǫrt
‘the fierce mast-hart ’
   = SHIP

the fierce mast-hart → SHIP

notes

[7] lindihjǫrt ‘mast-hart [SHIP]’: Hjǫrtr ‘hart, stag’, though not a very common base-word for a ship-kenning, is attested a few times (Meissner 219). The determinant lindi may be a collective noun based on lind ‘lime-tree’, and might mean a mast, cf. kennings such as hestr lauks ‘the horse of the mast’ (ÞSjár Frag 1/7III) or drasill vandar ‘the horse of the mast’ (Þorm Þorgdr 2/8V; Meissner 216 has further examples). Because lind and lindi are not attested in the meaning ‘mast’, while lind has the meaning ‘shield’ (LP: 1. lind 2), the lime-wood shields that hung from ships might be an alternative possibility (Marold 1998, 26 n. 19). However, ‘shield’ is not attested as a determinant of ship-kennings (Meissner 214-16).

Close

fyr ‘before’

fyr (prep.): for, over, because of, etc.

[7] fyr: frá F

Close

lund ‘minded’

lund (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-ar(Rém 301³¹)): mind, way < lundprúðr (adj.)lund (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-ar(Rém 301³¹)): mind, way

notes

[8] lundprúðr ‘splendid-minded’: Prúðr is a loanword from OE prūd (< MLat. prōdus < Lat. prōvidus; see AEW: prúðr). It is surprising to find such a loanword in ON in this early period, and it is conceivable that an original fróðr ‘wise’ may have been replaced by prúðr at a later time (cf. Note to st. 8/5).

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vruðr ‘’

Close

prúðr ‘the splendid’

prúðr (adj.; °superl. -astr): magnificent, proud < lundprúðr (adj.)

[8] ‑prúðr: ‘‑vruðr’ J1ˣ

notes

[8] lundprúðr ‘splendid-minded’: Prúðr is a loanword from OE prūd (< MLat. prōdus < Lat. prōvidus; see AEW: prúðr). It is surprising to find such a loanword in ON in this early period, and it is conceivable that an original fróðr ‘wise’ may have been replaced by prúðr at a later time (cf. Note to st. 8/5).

Close

við ‘to’

2. við (prep.): with, against

notes

[6, 8] lét ... bundinn við stik ‘had ... moored to a stake’: According to the prose of Hkr these stakes were erected for defence (cf. Falk 1912, 26). Modéer (1944, 203-9) and von See (1977b, 77-8) doubt this and think they were simple moorings. However, archaeologists have found evidence of offshore barricades in Denmark as early as the year 700 (Nørgård Jørgensen 2002b, 125). Tying up unopposed in an adversary’s harbour may have had symbolic importance as a demonstration of power, much like the designation of the ruler as the wearer of the œgishjalmr (see Note to st. 5/6). The impression would be even greater if the stakes were indeed defensive.

Close

stik ‘a stake’

stik (noun n.; °; -): [a stake, stake]

[8] stik: stig J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ

notes

[6, 8] lét ... bundinn við stik ‘had ... moored to a stake’: According to the prose of Hkr these stakes were erected for defence (cf. Falk 1912, 26). Modéer (1944, 203-9) and von See (1977b, 77-8) doubt this and think they were simple moorings. However, archaeologists have found evidence of offshore barricades in Denmark as early as the year 700 (Nørgård Jørgensen 2002b, 125). Tying up unopposed in an adversary’s harbour may have had symbolic importance as a demonstration of power, much like the designation of the ruler as the wearer of the œgishjalmr (see Note to st. 5/6). The impression would be even greater if the stakes were indeed defensive.

Close

bundinn ‘moored’

binda (verb; °bindr; batt/bant(cf. [$332$]), bundu; bundinn): bind, tie

notes

[6, 8] lét ... bundinn við stik ‘had ... moored to a stake’: According to the prose of Hkr these stakes were erected for defence (cf. Falk 1912, 26). Modéer (1944, 203-9) and von See (1977b, 77-8) doubt this and think they were simple moorings. However, archaeologists have found evidence of offshore barricades in Denmark as early as the year 700 (Nørgård Jørgensen 2002b, 125). Tying up unopposed in an adversary’s harbour may have had symbolic importance as a demonstration of power, much like the designation of the ruler as the wearer of the œgishjalmr (see Note to st. 5/6). The impression would be even greater if the stakes were indeed defensive.

Close

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The Gautar attempt to hinder Haraldr’s passage along the Gautelfr (Götaälv) by erecting stakes in the river. King Haraldr nonetheless enters the river, moors his ships to the stakes, and burns and pillages in the vicinity.

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