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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þhorn Gldr 3I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorbjǫrn hornklofi, Glymdrápa 3’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 81.

Þorbjǫrn hornklofiGlymdrápa
234

hrjóð ‘’

Close

Hrjóðr ‘clearer’

1. hrjóðr (noun m.): destroyer, Hrjótr

[1] Hrjóðr: ‘Hriod’ Tˣ

kennings

Harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru
‘The hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave, ’
   = SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

the pale horse of the wave, → SHIP
The hard-ruling clearer of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

notes

[1-4] harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru ... barnungr ‘the hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave [SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr] ... [when] child-young’: The elements of the kenning and the two adjectives accompanying it are distributed across all four lines of the first helmingr, each at the beginning of a line. Mohr (1933, 13) calls this pattern Tiefstellung (lit. ‘deep-placement’); see also Reichardt (1928, 131) and NN §408.

Close

hæ(tz)rar ‘’

Close

hæstrar ‘at the best’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high

[1] hæstrar: ‘hæ(tz)rar’(?) R

notes

[1] hæstrar tíðar ‘at the best time’: Hæstr, sup. of hôr ‘high, excellent’ (LP: hôr 4).

Close

ti[...] ‘’

Close

tíðar ‘time’

1. tíð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time

[1] tíðar: ‘ti[...]’ U

notes

[1] hæstrar tíðar ‘at the best time’: Hæstr, sup. of hôr ‘high, excellent’ (LP: hôr 4).

Close

harð ‘The hard’

harðr (adj.; °comp. -ari; superl. -astr): hard, harsh < harðráðr (adj.): hard-ruling

[2] harðráðr: ‘ha(r)þ(ráþr)’(?) U

kennings

Harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru
‘The hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave, ’
   = SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

the pale horse of the wave, → SHIP
The hard-ruling clearer of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

notes

[1] hæstrar tíðar ‘at the best time’: Hæstr, sup. of hôr ‘high, excellent’ (LP: hôr 4). — [1-4] harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru ... barnungr ‘the hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave [SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr] ... [when] child-young’: The elements of the kenning and the two adjectives accompanying it are distributed across all four lines of the first helmingr, each at the beginning of a line. Mohr (1933, 13) calls this pattern Tiefstellung (lit. ‘deep-placement’); see also Reichardt (1928, 131) and NN §408.

Close

harð ‘The hard’

harðr (adj.; °comp. -ari; superl. -astr): hard, harsh < harðráðr (adj.): hard-ruling

[2] harðráðr: ‘ha(r)þ(ráþr)’(?) U

kennings

Harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru
‘The hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave, ’
   = SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

the pale horse of the wave, → SHIP
The hard-ruling clearer of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

notes

[1] hæstrar tíðar ‘at the best time’: Hæstr, sup. of hôr ‘high, excellent’ (LP: hôr 4). — [1-4] harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru ... barnungr ‘the hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave [SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr] ... [when] child-young’: The elements of the kenning and the two adjectives accompanying it are distributed across all four lines of the first helmingr, each at the beginning of a line. Mohr (1933, 13) calls this pattern Tiefstellung (lit. ‘deep-placement’); see also Reichardt (1928, 131) and NN §408.

Close

ráðr ‘ruling’

-ráðr (adj.): -ful < harðráðr (adj.): hard-ruling

[2] harðráðr: ‘ha(r)þ(ráþr)’(?) U

kennings

Harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru
‘The hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave, ’
   = SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

the pale horse of the wave, → SHIP
The hard-ruling clearer of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

notes

[1-4] harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru ... barnungr ‘the hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave [SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr] ... [when] child-young’: The elements of the kenning and the two adjectives accompanying it are distributed across all four lines of the first helmingr, each at the beginning of a line. Mohr (1933, 13) calls this pattern Tiefstellung (lit. ‘deep-placement’); see also Reichardt (1928, 131) and NN §408.

Close

bǫrðum ‘prows’

barð (noun n.): prow, stern (of a ship)

[2] bǫrðum: báðum FskAˣ, 761aˣ(19v)

Close

bôru ‘of the wave’

1. bára (noun f.; °-u; -ur): wave

kennings

Harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru
‘The hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave, ’
   = SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

the pale horse of the wave, → SHIP
The hard-ruling clearer of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

notes

[1-4] harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru ... barnungr ‘the hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave [SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr] ... [when] child-young’: The elements of the kenning and the two adjectives accompanying it are distributed across all four lines of the first helmingr, each at the beginning of a line. Mohr (1933, 13) calls this pattern Tiefstellung (lit. ‘deep-placement’); see also Reichardt (1928, 131) and NN §408.

Close

bôru ‘of the wave’

1. bára (noun f.; °-u; -ur): wave

kennings

Harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru
‘The hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave, ’
   = SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

the pale horse of the wave, → SHIP
The hard-ruling clearer of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

notes

[1-4] harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru ... barnungr ‘the hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave [SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr] ... [when] child-young’: The elements of the kenning and the two adjectives accompanying it are distributed across all four lines of the first helmingr, each at the beginning of a line. Mohr (1933, 13) calls this pattern Tiefstellung (lit. ‘deep-placement’); see also Reichardt (1928, 131) and NN §408.

Close

flaks ‘’

Close

raks ‘’

Close

fáks ‘horse’

fákr (noun m.; °; -ar): horse

[3] fáks: raks FskBˣ, flaks Flat

kennings

Harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru
‘The hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave, ’
   = SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

the pale horse of the wave, → SHIP
The hard-ruling clearer of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

notes

[1-4] harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru ... barnungr ‘the hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave [SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr] ... [when] child-young’: The elements of the kenning and the two adjectives accompanying it are distributed across all four lines of the first helmingr, each at the beginning of a line. Mohr (1933, 13) calls this pattern Tiefstellung (lit. ‘deep-placement’); see also Reichardt (1928, 131) and NN §408.

Close

fáks ‘horse’

fákr (noun m.; °; -ar): horse

[3] fáks: raks FskBˣ, flaks Flat

kennings

Harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru
‘The hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave, ’
   = SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

the pale horse of the wave, → SHIP
The hard-ruling clearer of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

notes

[1-4] harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru ... barnungr ‘the hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave [SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr] ... [when] child-young’: The elements of the kenning and the two adjectives accompanying it are distributed across all four lines of the first helmingr, each at the beginning of a line. Mohr (1933, 13) calls this pattern Tiefstellung (lit. ‘deep-placement’); see also Reichardt (1928, 131) and NN §408.

Close

ins ‘of the’

2. inn (art.): the

kennings

Harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru
‘The hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave, ’
   = SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

the pale horse of the wave, → SHIP
The hard-ruling clearer of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

notes

[1-4] harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru ... barnungr ‘the hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave [SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr] ... [when] child-young’: The elements of the kenning and the two adjectives accompanying it are distributed across all four lines of the first helmingr, each at the beginning of a line. Mohr (1933, 13) calls this pattern Tiefstellung (lit. ‘deep-placement’); see also Reichardt (1928, 131) and NN §408.

Close

ins ‘of the’

2. inn (art.): the

kennings

Harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru
‘The hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave, ’
   = SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

the pale horse of the wave, → SHIP
The hard-ruling clearer of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

notes

[1-4] harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru ... barnungr ‘the hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave [SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr] ... [when] child-young’: The elements of the kenning and the two adjectives accompanying it are distributed across all four lines of the first helmingr, each at the beginning of a line. Mohr (1933, 13) calls this pattern Tiefstellung (lit. ‘deep-placement’); see also Reichardt (1928, 131) and NN §408.

Close

bleika ‘pale’

2. bleikr (adj.): pale

kennings

Harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru
‘The hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave, ’
   = SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

the pale horse of the wave, → SHIP
The hard-ruling clearer of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

notes

[1-4] harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru ... barnungr ‘the hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave [SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr] ... [when] child-young’: The elements of the kenning and the two adjectives accompanying it are distributed across all four lines of the first helmingr, each at the beginning of a line. Mohr (1933, 13) calls this pattern Tiefstellung (lit. ‘deep-placement’); see also Reichardt (1928, 131) and NN §408. — [3] bleika ‘pale’: This adj. might be a reference to the ships being painted white (LP: bleikr); see Falk (1912, 51).

Close

bleika ‘pale’

2. bleikr (adj.): pale

kennings

Harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru
‘The hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave, ’
   = SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

the pale horse of the wave, → SHIP
The hard-ruling clearer of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

notes

[1-4] harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru ... barnungr ‘the hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave [SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr] ... [when] child-young’: The elements of the kenning and the two adjectives accompanying it are distributed across all four lines of the first helmingr, each at the beginning of a line. Mohr (1933, 13) calls this pattern Tiefstellung (lit. ‘deep-placement’); see also Reichardt (1928, 131) and NN §408. — [3] bleika ‘pale’: This adj. might be a reference to the ships being painted white (LP: bleikr); see Falk (1912, 51).

Close

bleika ‘pale’

2. bleikr (adj.): pale

kennings

Harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru
‘The hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave, ’
   = SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

the pale horse of the wave, → SHIP
The hard-ruling clearer of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

notes

[1-4] harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru ... barnungr ‘the hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave [SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr] ... [when] child-young’: The elements of the kenning and the two adjectives accompanying it are distributed across all four lines of the first helmingr, each at the beginning of a line. Mohr (1933, 13) calls this pattern Tiefstellung (lit. ‘deep-placement’); see also Reichardt (1928, 131) and NN §408. — [3] bleika ‘pale’: This adj. might be a reference to the ships being painted white (LP: bleikr); see Falk (1912, 51).

Close

bleika ‘pale’

2. bleikr (adj.): pale

kennings

Harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru
‘The hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave, ’
   = SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

the pale horse of the wave, → SHIP
The hard-ruling clearer of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr

notes

[1-4] harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru ... barnungr ‘the hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave [SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr] ... [when] child-young’: The elements of the kenning and the two adjectives accompanying it are distributed across all four lines of the first helmingr, each at the beginning of a line. Mohr (1933, 13) calls this pattern Tiefstellung (lit. ‘deep-placement’); see also Reichardt (1928, 131) and NN §408. — [3] bleika ‘pale’: This adj. might be a reference to the ships being painted white (LP: bleikr); see Falk (1912, 51).

Close

barn ‘child’

barn (noun n.; °-s; bǫrn/barn(JKr 345³), dat. bǫrnum/barnum): child < barnungr (adj.): child-young

notes

[1-4] harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru ... barnungr ‘the hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave [SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr] ... [when] child-young’: The elements of the kenning and the two adjectives accompanying it are distributed across all four lines of the first helmingr, each at the beginning of a line. Mohr (1933, 13) calls this pattern Tiefstellung (lit. ‘deep-placement’); see also Reichardt (1928, 131) and NN §408. — [4] barnungr ‘[when] child-young’: It is a topos of praise-poems and heroic poetry for kings and heroes to perform their great deeds at a young age, cf. Þhorn Harkv 4/7, 6/5 and LP: barnungr for further examples of the cpd; see also Marold (1993c, 105-6) and Marold (2003, 403).

Close

barn ‘child’

barn (noun n.; °-s; bǫrn/barn(JKr 345³), dat. bǫrnum/barnum): child < barnungr (adj.): child-young

notes

[1-4] harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru ... barnungr ‘the hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave [SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr] ... [when] child-young’: The elements of the kenning and the two adjectives accompanying it are distributed across all four lines of the first helmingr, each at the beginning of a line. Mohr (1933, 13) calls this pattern Tiefstellung (lit. ‘deep-placement’); see also Reichardt (1928, 131) and NN §408. — [4] barnungr ‘[when] child-young’: It is a topos of praise-poems and heroic poetry for kings and heroes to perform their great deeds at a young age, cf. Þhorn Harkv 4/7, 6/5 and LP: barnungr for further examples of the cpd; see also Marold (1993c, 105-6) and Marold (2003, 403).

Close

ungr ‘young’

ungr (adj.): young < barnungr (adj.): child-young

notes

[1-4] harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru ... barnungr ‘the hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave [SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr] ... [when] child-young’: The elements of the kenning and the two adjectives accompanying it are distributed across all four lines of the first helmingr, each at the beginning of a line. Mohr (1933, 13) calls this pattern Tiefstellung (lit. ‘deep-placement’); see also Reichardt (1928, 131) and NN §408. — [4] barnungr ‘[when] child-young’: It is a topos of praise-poems and heroic poetry for kings and heroes to perform their great deeds at a young age, cf. Þhorn Harkv 4/7, 6/5 and LP: barnungr for further examples of the cpd; see also Marold (1993c, 105-6) and Marold (2003, 403).

Close

ungr ‘young’

ungr (adj.): young < barnungr (adj.): child-young

notes

[1-4] harðráðr hrjóðr ins bleika fáks bôru ... barnungr ‘the hard-ruling clearer of the pale horse of the wave [SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR = Haraldr] ... [when] child-young’: The elements of the kenning and the two adjectives accompanying it are distributed across all four lines of the first helmingr, each at the beginning of a line. Mohr (1933, 13) calls this pattern Tiefstellung (lit. ‘deep-placement’); see also Reichardt (1928, 131) and NN §408. — [4] barnungr ‘[when] child-young’: It is a topos of praise-poems and heroic poetry for kings and heroes to perform their great deeds at a young age, cf. Þhorn Harkv 4/7, 6/5 and LP: barnungr for further examples of the cpd; see also Marold (1993c, 105-6) and Marold (2003, 403).

Close

lǫg ‘sea’

lǫgr (noun m.; °lagar, dat. legi): sea

[4] lǫg: ‘l[...]’ U

Close

þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

[5] þar: þars FskAˣ, 761aˣ(20v)

Close

banz ‘’

Close

barsk ‘travelled’

3. bera (verb; °berr; bar, báru; borinn): bear, carry

[5] barsk: ‘banz’ FskBˣ

notes

[5] barsk ‘travelled’: For this m. v. usage, see Fritzner: bera 1a.

Close

borði ‘board’

borð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; table

[5] borði: ‘borde’ corrected from ‘borðz’ Flat

Close

borð ‘the plank’

borð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; table < borðhǫlkvir (noun m.)borð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; table < borð (noun n.): side, plank, board; tableborð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; tableborð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; tableborð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; table

kennings

borðhǫlkvi
‘the plank-horse ’
   = SHIP

the plank-horse → SHIP

notes

[6] borðhǫlkvi ‘the plank-horse [SHIP]’: Hǫlkvir is the name of the horse of the legendary hero Hǫgni; see Anon Kálfv 4/5III and Þul Hesta 3/1III.

Close

hrokkvir ‘’

Close

hꝍkvi ‘’

Close

hrekvi ‘’

Close

hǫlkvi ‘horse’

hǫlkvir (noun m.): [horse, steed] < borðhǫlkvir (noun m.)

[6] ‑hǫlkvi: so FskBˣ, ‑hǫlkvis Kˣ, F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, ‘‑hꝍkvi’ corrected from ‘‑hꝍvkvi’ FskAˣ, ‘hrockvir’ Flat, ‘‑hrekvi’ 761aˣ(20v)

kennings

borðhǫlkvi
‘the plank-horse ’
   = SHIP

the plank-horse → SHIP

notes

[6] borðhǫlkvi ‘the plank-horse [SHIP]’: Hǫlkvir is the name of the horse of the legendary hero Hǫgni; see Anon Kálfv 4/5III and Þul Hesta 3/1III.

Close

norðan ‘from the north’

norðan (adv.): from the north

Close

hlífar ‘of the shield’

hlíf (noun f.; °-ar; -ar): shield, defence

[7] hlífar: hlífðar FskAˣ, 761aˣ(20v)

kennings

valdr hlífar
‘the owner of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR = Haraldr

the owner of the shield → WARRIOR = Haraldr

notes

[7] valdr hlífar ‘the owner of the shield’: Valdr literally means ‘ruler’, but here it must mean ‘owner’.

Close

valdr ‘the owner’

valdr (noun m.): ruler

kennings

valdr hlífar
‘the owner of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR = Haraldr

the owner of the shield → WARRIOR = Haraldr

notes

[7] valdr hlífar ‘the owner of the shield’: Valdr literally means ‘ruler’, but here it must mean ‘owner’.

Close

til ‘into’

til (prep.): to

[7] til: fyrir FskBˣ, FskAˣ, Flat, 761aˣ(20v)

Close

hregg ‘the storm’

hregg (noun n.): storm

[8] hregg: hreggs F

Close

dǫglinga ‘rulers’

dǫglingr (noun m.; °; -ar): king, ruler

notes

[8] tveggja dǫglinga ‘against two rulers’: According to Hkr, the two rulers are Húnþjófr and Nǫkkvi, defeated at the battle of Sólskel (Solskjel). But Fsk associates the stanzas with the battle at Hafrsfjorðr (Hafrsfjorden) and names the two opponents as Kjǫtvi inn auðgi ‘the Wealthy’ and Haklangr.

Close

tveggja ‘against two’

tveir (num. cardinal): two

notes

[8] tveggja dǫglinga ‘against two rulers’: According to Hkr, the two rulers are Húnþjófr and Nǫkkvi, defeated at the battle of Sólskel (Solskjel). But Fsk associates the stanzas with the battle at Hafrsfjorðr (Hafrsfjorden) and names the two opponents as Kjǫtvi inn auðgi ‘the Wealthy’ and Haklangr.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The sources place this stanza in different contexts. Fsk associates sts 3-5 with the battle of Hafrsfjǫrðr (Hafrsfjorden), citing them in unbroken sequence after Þhorn Harkv 7-11. Hkr reports that Haraldr goes south to Mœrr (Møre) and defeats Húnþjófr, king of Norðmœrr (Nordmøre), and King Nǫkkvi, the ruler of Raumsdalr (Romsdalen), in a major battle near Sólskel (Solskjel). It then cites sts 3/5-8 and 4 as a single stanza. Flat (HarHárf) cites st. 3, followed by two stanzas comprising sts 9 and 5/1-4, and 5/5-8 and 4, in the context of a battle against three kings of Norðmœrr, which precedes the battle of Sólskel. SnE (Skm) provides the stanza’s first helmingr as an example of a ship-kenning.

The prose texts preserve the helmingar of sts 3-5 and 9 in various combinations (see Context above), and eds vary. The text given here, like that of Skald, follows the arrangement of the text as preserved in Fsk, since the stanza here begins with a main clause as all other stanzas in Gldr do, followed by a subordinate clause (cf. Fidjestøl 1982, 87), and since Hkr lacks st. 3/1-4. — [5-8]: The syntactic structure of this helmingr is problematic. (a) The construal here corresponds to that of most other eds. (b) Kock (NN §§232, 2212) simplifies the syntax by reading borðhǫlkvi rak norðan as ‘it drove the plank-horse [SHIP] from the north’, i.e. as a parenthesis containing an impersonal use of rak ‘drove’. But his reading also entails reading hildar hreggs ‘of the storm of Hildr <valkyrie> [BATTLE]’, in which hreggs is the reading of F only, and clearly a scribal ‘improvement’. (c) Sveinbjörn Egilsson (Fms 12) and Reichardt (1928, 27-9) combine valdr hlífar ‘the owner of the shield [WARRIOR]’ as the subject of rak borðhǫlkvi ‘drove the plank-horse [SHIP]’. But barsk at borði cannot then be adequately accounted for (as Finnur Jónsson 1929b, 137 notes).

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