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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þhorn Gldr 1I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorbjǫrn hornklofi, Glymdrápa 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 75.

Þorbjǫrn hornklofiGlymdrápa
12

á ‘on’

3. á (prep.): on, at

notes

[1] á heiði ‘on the heath’: Finnur Jónsson (1884, 68) and Eggert Ó. Brím (ÓT 1892, 345) equate this with the Uppdalsskógr named in Hkr (ÍF 26, 101), which lies in the higher part of the valley Orkadalr (Orkdalen), but there is no evidence for that (Holtsmark 1927, 20-1).

Close

heiði ‘the heath’

3. heiðr (noun f.; °heiðar, dat./acc heiði; heiðar): heath

notes

[1] á heiði ‘on the heath’: Finnur Jónsson (1884, 68) and Eggert Ó. Brím (ÓT 1892, 345) equate this with the Uppdalsskógr named in Hkr (ÍF 26, 101), which lies in the higher part of the valley Orkadalr (Orkdalen), but there is no evidence for that (Holtsmark 1927, 20-1).

Close

hjaldr ‘of the battle’

1. hjaldr (noun m.): battle < hjaldrskíð (noun n.)1. hjaldr (noun m.): battle < hjaldrseiðr (noun m.)

kennings

þrimu hjaldrskíðs
‘the noise of the battle-plank ’
   = BATTLE

the battle-plank → SWORD
the noise of the SWORD → BATTLE

notes

[2] hjaldrskíðs ‘of the battle-plank [SWORD]’: This is the variant in and most of the other mss. Only F has -seiðs, which if gen. sg. of seiðr ‘pollack, saithe, coalfish’ (gadus virens, or else pollachius pollachius), would also produce a standard sword-kenning, namely ‘battle-fish’. It is adopted by Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B), Kock (NN §228) and most other eds.

Close

hjaldr ‘of the battle’

1. hjaldr (noun m.): battle < hjaldrskíð (noun n.)1. hjaldr (noun m.): battle < hjaldrseiðr (noun m.)

kennings

þrimu hjaldrskíðs
‘the noise of the battle-plank ’
   = BATTLE

the battle-plank → SWORD
the noise of the SWORD → BATTLE

notes

[2] hjaldrskíðs ‘of the battle-plank [SWORD]’: This is the variant in and most of the other mss. Only F has -seiðs, which if gen. sg. of seiðr ‘pollack, saithe, coalfish’ (gadus virens, or else pollachius pollachius), would also produce a standard sword-kenning, namely ‘battle-fish’. It is adopted by Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B), Kock (NN §228) and most other eds.

Close

skíðs ‘plank’

skíð (noun n.; °; -): ski < hjaldrskíð (noun n.)

[2] ‑skíðs: ‑seiðs F

kennings

þrimu hjaldrskíðs
‘the noise of the battle-plank ’
   = BATTLE

the battle-plank → SWORD
the noise of the SWORD → BATTLE

notes

[2] hjaldrskíðs ‘of the battle-plank [SWORD]’: This is the variant in and most of the other mss. Only F has -seiðs, which if gen. sg. of seiðr ‘pollack, saithe, coalfish’ (gadus virens, or else pollachius pollachius), would also produce a standard sword-kenning, namely ‘battle-fish’. It is adopted by Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B), Kock (NN §228) and most other eds.

Close

skíðs ‘plank’

skíð (noun n.; °; -): ski < hjaldrskíð (noun n.)

[2] ‑skíðs: ‑seiðs F

kennings

þrimu hjaldrskíðs
‘the noise of the battle-plank ’
   = BATTLE

the battle-plank → SWORD
the noise of the SWORD → BATTLE

notes

[2] hjaldrskíðs ‘of the battle-plank [SWORD]’: This is the variant in and most of the other mss. Only F has -seiðs, which if gen. sg. of seiðr ‘pollack, saithe, coalfish’ (gadus virens, or else pollachius pollachius), would also produce a standard sword-kenning, namely ‘battle-fish’. It is adopted by Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B), Kock (NN §228) and most other eds.

Close

‘þrunu’ ‘’

Close

þrimu ‘the noise’

þrima (noun f.): battle, din

[2] þrimu: so F, J2ˣ, 761aˣ, þrumu Kˣ, ‘þrunu’ J1ˣ

kennings

þrimu hjaldrskíðs
‘the noise of the battle-plank ’
   = BATTLE

the battle-plank → SWORD
the noise of the SWORD → BATTLE
Close

galdra ‘of the incantations’

galdr (noun m.): chant, incantation

[2] galdra: at gjalda F

kennings

œskimeiða galdra vébrautar,
‘the wishing trees of the incantations of the standard-road, ’
   = WARRIORS

the standard-road, → BATTLEFIELD
the incantations of the BATTLEFIELD → BATTLE
the wishing trees of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

galdra ‘of the incantations’

galdr (noun m.): chant, incantation

[2] galdra: at gjalda F

kennings

œskimeiða galdra vébrautar,
‘the wishing trees of the incantations of the standard-road, ’
   = WARRIORS

the standard-road, → BATTLEFIELD
the incantations of the BATTLEFIELD → BATTLE
the wishing trees of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

óðr ‘furious’

2. óðr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): raging, furious

[3] óðr: so F, óð Kˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ

Close

œski ‘the wishing’

óska (verb): desire < œskimeiðr (noun m.)óska (verb): desire < œskimeiðr (noun m.)

kennings

œskimeiða galdra vébrautar,
‘the wishing trees of the incantations of the standard-road, ’
   = WARRIORS

the standard-road, → BATTLEFIELD
the incantations of the BATTLEFIELD → BATTLE
the wishing trees of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

meiða ‘trees’

meiðr (noun m.): beam, tree < œskimeiðr (noun m.)

[3] ‑meiða: so F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ, ‑meiði Kˣ

kennings

œskimeiða galdra vébrautar,
‘the wishing trees of the incantations of the standard-road, ’
   = WARRIORS

the standard-road, → BATTLEFIELD
the incantations of the BATTLEFIELD → BATTLE
the wishing trees of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

var ‘’

Close

‘of the standard’

2. vé (noun n.; °; -): banner, standard < vébraut (noun f.)2. vé (noun n.; °; -): banner, standard < vébroti (noun m.)

[4] vé‑: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ, var‑ Kˣ, veg‑ F

kennings

œskimeiða galdra vébrautar,
‘the wishing trees of the incantations of the standard-road, ’
   = WARRIORS

the standard-road, → BATTLEFIELD
the incantations of the BATTLEFIELD → BATTLE
the wishing trees of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[4] vébrautar ‘of the standard-road [BATTLEFIELD]’: This kenning has been interpreted in various ways. (a) In this edn (following Kock NN §228) it is understood as a kenning for ‘battlefield’, since, although unparalleled, this provides the least problematic solution. On the meaning of , here ‘standard’, cf. LP: 2 and st. 2/8 below. Other interpretations are as follows. (b) In LP: vébraut Finnur Jónsson translates the cpd as stærk værnende vej(?) ‘strong, protecting path (?)’, cf. also Finnur Jónsson (1884, 66-8; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B); Eggert Ó. Brím (ÓT 1892, 345). (c) Fidjestøl (1982, 74-6) understands it as a base-word of a shield-kenning ‘path of the sword’; cf. also (less convincingly) Holtsmark (1927, 13-20). (d) For further suggestions see Reichardt (1928, 25-6) and Mohr (1933, 11).

Close

‘of the standard’

2. vé (noun n.; °; -): banner, standard < vébraut (noun f.)2. vé (noun n.; °; -): banner, standard < vébroti (noun m.)

[4] vé‑: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ, var‑ Kˣ, veg‑ F

kennings

œskimeiða galdra vébrautar,
‘the wishing trees of the incantations of the standard-road, ’
   = WARRIORS

the standard-road, → BATTLEFIELD
the incantations of the BATTLEFIELD → BATTLE
the wishing trees of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[4] vébrautar ‘of the standard-road [BATTLEFIELD]’: This kenning has been interpreted in various ways. (a) In this edn (following Kock NN §228) it is understood as a kenning for ‘battlefield’, since, although unparalleled, this provides the least problematic solution. On the meaning of , here ‘standard’, cf. LP: 2 and st. 2/8 below. Other interpretations are as follows. (b) In LP: vébraut Finnur Jónsson translates the cpd as stærk værnende vej(?) ‘strong, protecting path (?)’, cf. also Finnur Jónsson (1884, 66-8; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B); Eggert Ó. Brím (ÓT 1892, 345). (c) Fidjestøl (1982, 74-6) understands it as a base-word of a shield-kenning ‘path of the sword’; cf. also (less convincingly) Holtsmark (1927, 13-20). (d) For further suggestions see Reichardt (1928, 25-6) and Mohr (1933, 11).

Close

‘of the standard’

2. vé (noun n.; °; -): banner, standard < vébraut (noun f.)2. vé (noun n.; °; -): banner, standard < vébroti (noun m.)

[4] vé‑: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ, var‑ Kˣ, veg‑ F

kennings

œskimeiða galdra vébrautar,
‘the wishing trees of the incantations of the standard-road, ’
   = WARRIORS

the standard-road, → BATTLEFIELD
the incantations of the BATTLEFIELD → BATTLE
the wishing trees of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[4] vébrautar ‘of the standard-road [BATTLEFIELD]’: This kenning has been interpreted in various ways. (a) In this edn (following Kock NN §228) it is understood as a kenning for ‘battlefield’, since, although unparalleled, this provides the least problematic solution. On the meaning of , here ‘standard’, cf. LP: 2 and st. 2/8 below. Other interpretations are as follows. (b) In LP: vébraut Finnur Jónsson translates the cpd as stærk værnende vej(?) ‘strong, protecting path (?)’, cf. also Finnur Jónsson (1884, 66-8; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B); Eggert Ó. Brím (ÓT 1892, 345). (c) Fidjestøl (1982, 74-6) understands it as a base-word of a shield-kenning ‘path of the sword’; cf. also (less convincingly) Holtsmark (1927, 13-20). (d) For further suggestions see Reichardt (1928, 25-6) and Mohr (1933, 11).

Close

brautar ‘road’

1. braut (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; -ir): path, way; away < vébraut (noun f.)1. braut (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; -ir): path, way; away1. braut (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; -ir): path, way; away < vegbraut (noun f.)

[4] ‑brautar: ‑brotar F

kennings

œskimeiða galdra vébrautar,
‘the wishing trees of the incantations of the standard-road, ’
   = WARRIORS

the standard-road, → BATTLEFIELD
the incantations of the BATTLEFIELD → BATTLE
the wishing trees of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[4] vébrautar ‘of the standard-road [BATTLEFIELD]’: This kenning has been interpreted in various ways. (a) In this edn (following Kock NN §228) it is understood as a kenning for ‘battlefield’, since, although unparalleled, this provides the least problematic solution. On the meaning of , here ‘standard’, cf. LP: 2 and st. 2/8 below. Other interpretations are as follows. (b) In LP: vébraut Finnur Jónsson translates the cpd as stærk værnende vej(?) ‘strong, protecting path (?)’, cf. also Finnur Jónsson (1884, 66-8; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B); Eggert Ó. Brím (ÓT 1892, 345). (c) Fidjestøl (1982, 74-6) understands it as a base-word of a shield-kenning ‘path of the sword’; cf. also (less convincingly) Holtsmark (1927, 13-20). (d) For further suggestions see Reichardt (1928, 25-6) and Mohr (1933, 11).

Close

brautar ‘road’

1. braut (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; -ir): path, way; away < vébraut (noun f.)1. braut (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; -ir): path, way; away1. braut (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; -ir): path, way; away < vegbraut (noun f.)

[4] ‑brautar: ‑brotar F

kennings

œskimeiða galdra vébrautar,
‘the wishing trees of the incantations of the standard-road, ’
   = WARRIORS

the standard-road, → BATTLEFIELD
the incantations of the BATTLEFIELD → BATTLE
the wishing trees of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[4] vébrautar ‘of the standard-road [BATTLEFIELD]’: This kenning has been interpreted in various ways. (a) In this edn (following Kock NN §228) it is understood as a kenning for ‘battlefield’, since, although unparalleled, this provides the least problematic solution. On the meaning of , here ‘standard’, cf. LP: 2 and st. 2/8 below. Other interpretations are as follows. (b) In LP: vébraut Finnur Jónsson translates the cpd as stærk værnende vej(?) ‘strong, protecting path (?)’, cf. also Finnur Jónsson (1884, 66-8; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B); Eggert Ó. Brím (ÓT 1892, 345). (c) Fidjestøl (1982, 74-6) understands it as a base-word of a shield-kenning ‘path of the sword’; cf. also (less convincingly) Holtsmark (1927, 13-20). (d) For further suggestions see Reichardt (1928, 25-6) and Mohr (1933, 11).

Close

brautar ‘road’

1. braut (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; -ir): path, way; away < vébraut (noun f.)1. braut (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; -ir): path, way; away1. braut (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; -ir): path, way; away < vegbraut (noun f.)

[4] ‑brautar: ‑brotar F

kennings

œskimeiða galdra vébrautar,
‘the wishing trees of the incantations of the standard-road, ’
   = WARRIORS

the standard-road, → BATTLEFIELD
the incantations of the BATTLEFIELD → BATTLE
the wishing trees of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[4] vébrautar ‘of the standard-road [BATTLEFIELD]’: This kenning has been interpreted in various ways. (a) In this edn (following Kock NN §228) it is understood as a kenning for ‘battlefield’, since, although unparalleled, this provides the least problematic solution. On the meaning of , here ‘standard’, cf. LP: 2 and st. 2/8 below. Other interpretations are as follows. (b) In LP: vébraut Finnur Jónsson translates the cpd as stærk værnende vej(?) ‘strong, protecting path (?)’, cf. also Finnur Jónsson (1884, 66-8; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B); Eggert Ó. Brím (ÓT 1892, 345). (c) Fidjestøl (1982, 74-6) understands it as a base-word of a shield-kenning ‘path of the sword’; cf. also (less convincingly) Holtsmark (1927, 13-20). (d) For further suggestions see Reichardt (1928, 25-6) and Mohr (1933, 11).

Close

heygjat ‘’

Close

heygja ‘’

heygja (verb)

Close

heyja ‘be launched’

2. heyja (verb): fight, wage (battle)

[4] heyja: heygja J1ˣ, J2ˣ, heygjat 761aˣ

Close

gnap ‘of the jutting’

gnap (noun n.): towering < gnapsól (noun f.)gnap (noun n.): towering < gnapsalr (noun m.)

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[5] gnapsólar ‘of the jutting sun’: Holtsmark (1927, 21-2) interprets the base-word of the shield-kenning by reference to a passage in HHund I 33/2-4, in which a red shield with a golden rim is raised up on the mast as a sign of attack.

Close

gnap ‘of the jutting’

gnap (noun n.): towering < gnapsól (noun f.)gnap (noun n.): towering < gnapsalr (noun m.)

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[5] gnapsólar ‘of the jutting sun’: Holtsmark (1927, 21-2) interprets the base-word of the shield-kenning by reference to a passage in HHund I 33/2-4, in which a red shield with a golden rim is raised up on the mast as a sign of attack.

Close

gnap ‘of the jutting’

gnap (noun n.): towering < gnapsól (noun f.)gnap (noun n.): towering < gnapsalr (noun m.)

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[5] gnapsólar ‘of the jutting sun’: Holtsmark (1927, 21-2) interprets the base-word of the shield-kenning by reference to a passage in HHund I 33/2-4, in which a red shield with a golden rim is raised up on the mast as a sign of attack.

Close

sólar ‘sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun < gnapsól (noun f.)

[5] ‑sólar: ‑salar all

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[5] gnapsólar ‘of the jutting sun’: Holtsmark (1927, 21-2) interprets the base-word of the shield-kenning by reference to a passage in HHund I 33/2-4, in which a red shield with a golden rim is raised up on the mast as a sign of attack.

Close

sólar ‘sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun < gnapsól (noun f.)

[5] ‑sólar: ‑salar all

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[5] gnapsólar ‘of the jutting sun’: Holtsmark (1927, 21-2) interprets the base-word of the shield-kenning by reference to a passage in HHund I 33/2-4, in which a red shield with a golden rim is raised up on the mast as a sign of attack.

Close

sólar ‘sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun < gnapsól (noun f.)

[5] ‑sólar: ‑salar all

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[5] gnapsólar ‘of the jutting sun’: Holtsmark (1927, 21-2) interprets the base-word of the shield-kenning by reference to a passage in HHund I 33/2-4, in which a red shield with a golden rim is raised up on the mast as a sign of attack.

Close

Gripnis ‘of Gripnir’

Gripnir (noun m.): Gripnir

[5] Gripnis: grimnis F

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[5] Gripnis ‘of Gripnir <sea-king>’: Other than this instance, the name is attested only as a giant-heiti (Þul Jǫtna II 2/5III). Here it is likely to refer to a sea-king (LP: Gripnir 2).

Close

Gripnis ‘of Gripnir’

Gripnir (noun m.): Gripnir

[5] Gripnis: grimnis F

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[5] Gripnis ‘of Gripnir <sea-king>’: Other than this instance, the name is attested only as a giant-heiti (Þul Jǫtna II 2/5III). Here it is likely to refer to a sea-king (LP: Gripnir 2).

Close

Gripnis ‘of Gripnir’

Gripnir (noun m.): Gripnir

[5] Gripnis: grimnis F

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[5] Gripnis ‘of Gripnir <sea-king>’: Other than this instance, the name is attested only as a giant-heiti (Þul Jǫtna II 2/5III). Here it is likely to refer to a sea-king (LP: Gripnir 2).

Close

Gripnis ‘of Gripnir’

Gripnir (noun m.): Gripnir

[5] Gripnis: grimnis F

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[5] Gripnis ‘of Gripnir <sea-king>’: Other than this instance, the name is attested only as a giant-heiti (Þul Jǫtna II 2/5III). Here it is likely to refer to a sea-king (LP: Gripnir 2).

Close

gný ‘of the noise’

gnýr (noun m.): din, tumult < gnýstœrandi (noun m.)gnýr (noun m.): din, tumult

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

gný ‘of the noise’

gnýr (noun m.): din, tumult < gnýstœrandi (noun m.)gnýr (noun m.): din, tumult

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

storandi ‘’

Close

stœrandi ‘increaser’

stœrandi (noun m.): [increaser, sweller] < gnýstœrandi (noun m.)

[6] ‑stœrandi fœri: corrected from ‘‑storandi fori’ Kˣ, ‘‑storandi fori’ J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
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fori ‘’

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fœri ‘sailed’

fara (verb; ferr, fór, fóru, farinn): go, travel

[6] ‑stœrandi fœri: corrected from ‘‑storandi fori’ Kˣ, ‘‑storandi fori’ J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ

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rausnar ‘the magnificent’

1. rausn (noun f.): magnificence < rausnarsamr (adj.)

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
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samr ‘’

samr (adj.; °compar. -ari): same < rausnarsamr (adj.)

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

til ‘into’

til (prep.): to

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ríð ‘of the riding’

1. ríða (verb): ride < ríðvigg (noun n.)1. ríða (verb): ride < ríðvíg (noun n.)

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

ríð ‘of the riding’

1. ríða (verb): ride < ríðvigg (noun n.)1. ríða (verb): ride < ríðvíg (noun n.)

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

ríð ‘of the riding’

1. ríða (verb): ride < ríðvigg (noun n.)1. ríða (verb): ride < ríðvíg (noun n.)

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

ríð ‘of the riding’

1. ríða (verb): ride < ríðvigg (noun n.)1. ríða (verb): ride < ríðvíg (noun n.)

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

viggs ‘horse’

viggr (noun m.): horse < ríðvigg (noun n.)

[8] ‑viggs: so F, ‑vígs Kˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

viggs ‘horse’

viggr (noun m.): horse < ríðvigg (noun n.)

[8] ‑viggs: so F, ‑vígs Kˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

viggs ‘horse’

viggr (noun m.): horse < ríðvigg (noun n.)

[8] ‑viggs: so F, ‑vígs Kˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

viggs ‘horse’

viggr (noun m.): horse < ríðvigg (noun n.)

[8] ‑viggs: so F, ‑vígs Kˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ

kennings

rausnarsamr Gripnis ríðviggs gnapsólar gnýstœrandi
‘noise-increaser of the jutting sun of the riding horse of Gripnir’
   = WARRIOR

the riding horse of Gripnir → SHIP
the jutting sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
the noise of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the magnificent increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

lagar ‘of the sea’

lǫgr (noun m.; °lagar, dat. legi): sea

kennings

skíðum lagar
‘with the skis of the sea. ’
   = SHIPS

with the skis of the sea. → SHIPS
Close

skíðum ‘with the skis’

skíð (noun n.; °; -): ski

kennings

skíðum lagar
‘with the skis of the sea. ’
   = SHIPS

with the skis of the sea. → SHIPS
Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Hkr describes how Haraldr had a large ship built and manned with his retinue and his berserks. He is reported to have had a large army, and among his followers were many powerful men. Stanzas 1 and 2 are cited without interruption after being introduced as Hornklofi’s report of the battle against the Orkndœlir (people of Orkdalen, a district in Sør-Trøndelag, Norway) at Uppdalsskógr.

[1-4]: This helmingr has been subject to numerous interpretations. All agree on Hilmir réð heyja ... ey óðr við œskimeiða ... ‘The ruler commanded that ... be launched, ever furious at the wishing trees ...’ (or ‘The ruler launched ...’, taking réð in réð heyja as a pleonastic auxiliary). Terms for ‘battle’ are to be expected both as the object of heyja ‘launch’ and as the determinant of œskimeiða ‘wishing trees’, and the interpretations differ over the detail of these. (a) The solution adopted in this edn (as in ÍF 26 and Hkr 1991) is essentially that of Kock (NN §228). He takes þrimu hjaldrseiðs ‘noise of the battle-fish [SWORD > BATTLE]’ as the object of heyja ‘launch’, and the remaining words as a warrior-kenning: œskimeiða galdra vébrautar ‘of the wishing trees of the incantations of the standard-road [BATTLEFIELD > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’. The interpretation given here differs from Kock in choosing the variant hjaldrskíðs ‘of the battle-plank [SWORD]’; see Note to l. 2. (b) Þrimu, translated as ‘battle’, is taken as the object of heyja by Finnur Jónsson (1884, 66-8; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B) and Eggert Ó. Brím (ÓT 1892, 345). They then assume that œskimeiða forms a kenning with galdra vébrautar hjaldrseiðs, hence ‘wishing trees of the incantations of the holy (powerful) way (?) of the battle-fish [SWORD > SHIELD > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’ (on the variant hjaldrseiðs see Note to l. 2). The adjectival phrase beginning ey óðr ‘ever furious’ which qualifies hilmir ‘ruler’ is assumed to refer to Haraldr effecting peace. Problems with this interpretation are the use of þrima alone for ‘battle’, of which only one example is known (Arn Þorfdr 8/1II; see Reichardt 1928, 25), and the unclear meaning of vébraut (on which, see Note to l. 4). (c) Fidjestøl (1982, 74-6) combines œskimeiða wishing trees’ with galdra ‘of incantations’ to form a sorcerer-kenning ‘wishing trees of incantations’. He adduces the fact that Haraldr hárfagri took action against sorcerers, as well as against thieves (st. 2). However, Fidjestøl’s interpretation produces an overdetermined battle-kenning as the object of heyja ‘launch’: þrimu vébrautar hjaldrseiðs ‘noise of the holy path of the battle-fish [SWORD > SHIELD > BATTLE]’. Þrimu hjaldrseiðs ‘noise of the battle-fish’ in l. 2 is already a battle-kenning, leaving vébrautar in l. 4 redundant. Moreover, l. 4 is split three ways: ey, vébrautar, heyja. (d) For further, less convincing interpretations see Reichardt (1928, 25-6) and Mohr (1933, 11). — [5-8]: This helmingr has likewise been subject to numerous interpretations. All agree on the sentence structure produced by the base-words of the kennings: áðr rausnarsamr ... gnýstœrandi fœri skíðum ... til rimmu ‘before the magnificent increaser of the noise ... sailed into battle with the skis ...’, but four different ways of associating the numerous genitives with the respective kennings have been considered. (a) The arrangement presented above follows Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV). It involves a minimal emendation of -salar ‘of the hall’ to sólar ‘of the sun’ in l. 5. (b) Very similar is Fidjestøl’s suggestion (1982, 76), which reverses the determinants of the two ship-kennings to produce ríðviggs lagar ‘of the riding horse of the sea’ for the first kenning, and skíðum Gripnis ‘with the skis of Gripnir’ for the second. This edn nonetheless prefers interpretation (a) because one would expect the contiguous gnapsólar (ms. gnapsalar) Gripnis (l. 5) to belong to the same kenning. (c) Kock (NN §229, followed in ÍF 26 and Hkr 1991) seeks to avoid emendation in the first kenning by reading gnýstœrandi gnapsalar Gripnis ‘the increaser of the noise of the jutting hall of Gripnir <sea-king> [SHIELD > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’. This is convincing in itself, but entails also reading skíðum ríðviggs lagar ‘on the skis of the riding horse of the sea [SHIP]’. This would be a kind of interpreted metaphor, in that the ship-kenning explains the metaphor ‘skis’, but such constructions are unusual in skaldic poetry.

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