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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ÞGísl Búdr 8I

Emily Lethbridge (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorkell Gíslason, Búadrápa 8’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 949.

Þorkell GíslasonBúadrápa
789

frák ‘I have heard’

1. fregna (verb): hear of

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greitt ‘straight’

greitt (adv.): smoothly

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gladdi ‘was gladdened’

gleðja (verb): gladden, rejoice

notes

[2] svanr … gladdi ‘the swan … was gladdened’: All mss have this reading, in which gladdi is 3rd pers. sg. pret. indic. of gleðja, and it is retained here, but the construction is unusual. The verb is normally transitive, and previous eds have supplied a direct object by emending to svan, hence ‘he gladdened the swan…’ (so Skj B, followed in Skald). Alternatively, one could expect the sense ‘was gladdened’ to be expressed by m. v. gladdisk, and Fms (tentatively; also Wisén 1870, 65 and Ólafur Halldórsson 2000) emends accordingly.

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svanr ‘the swan’

svanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swan

kennings

svanr Hanga
‘the swan of Hangi ’
   = RAVEN

the swan of Hangi → RAVEN

notes

[2] svanr … gladdi ‘the swan … was gladdened’: All mss have this reading, in which gladdi is 3rd pers. sg. pret. indic. of gleðja, and it is retained here, but the construction is unusual. The verb is normally transitive, and previous eds have supplied a direct object by emending to svan, hence ‘he gladdened the swan…’ (so Skj B, followed in Skald). Alternatively, one could expect the sense ‘was gladdened’ to be expressed by m. v. gladdisk, and Fms (tentatively; also Wisén 1870, 65 and Ólafur Halldórsson 2000) emends accordingly.

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Hanga ‘of Hangi’

Hangi (noun m.; °-a): Hangi

kennings

svanr Hanga
‘the swan of Hangi ’
   = RAVEN

the swan of Hangi → RAVEN

notes

[2] Hanga ‘of Hangi <= Óðinn>’: (a) Hangi is one of the many names of Óðinn, among whose attributes are two ravens (Grí 20; SnE 2005, 32-3). Meissner 121 takes Hanga thus here and in three other raven-kennings, and his list includes three further kennings with svanr ‘swan’ qualified by other Óðinn-heiti. (b) The noun hangi m. also means ‘hanged man, gallows-corpse’ and the kenning ‘swan of the gallows-corpse’ could alternatively be taken as a variant on the pattern ‘bird of the slain/corpse’, cf. haukar hræs ‘hawks of the corpse’ in st. 7/1 and further examples in Meissner 122. Hangi is taken as ‘hanged man’ in this and three similar raven-kennings in LP: hangi .

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vǫkt ‘roused’

4. vaka (verb): awaken

[3] vǫkt: vǫkr 54, Bb

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gǫll ‘the shriek’

gǫll (noun f.): shriek

kennings

gǫll geira
‘the shriek of spears ’
   = BATTLE

the shriek of spears → BATTLE
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geira ‘of spears’

geirr (noun m.): spear

kennings

gǫll geira
‘the shriek of spears ’
   = BATTLE

the shriek of spears → BATTLE
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gegnum ‘through’

gegnum (prep.): through

[4] gegnum: í gegnum Bb

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lið ‘troop’

lið (noun n.; °-s; -): retinue, troop

notes

[4] lið þeira ‘their troop’: The pl. poss. pron. refers to the two jarls, Hákon and Eiríkr.

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þeira ‘their’

hann (pron.; °gen. hans, dat. honum; f. hon, gen. hennar, acc. hana): he, she, it, they, them...

notes

[4] lið þeira ‘their troop’: The pl. poss. pron. refers to the two jarls, Hákon and Eiríkr.

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Hákon jarl thinks it is unlikely he will prevail in the battle and his men begin to retreat. It is said by some that he goes ashore and sacrifices his seven-year-old son Erlingr; meanwhile, Búi Vésetason and Eiríkr jarl engage in a bitter fight.

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