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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ÞGísl Búdr 11I

Emily Lethbridge (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorkell Gíslason, Búadrápa 11’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 951.

Þorkell GíslasonBúadrápa
101112

Sté ‘leapt’

stíga (verb): step

[1] Sté: so 53, 54, Bb, steig 61

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húf ‘the hull’

húfr (noun m.; °dat. -i): hull

[1] húf: hof 53

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hesti ‘of the horse’

hestr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): horse, stallion

kennings

hesti hrófs;
‘of the horse of the boat-shed; ’
   = SHIP

the horse of the boat-shed; → SHIP
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hrófs ‘of the boat-shed’

hróf (noun n.; °-s;): boat-shed

kennings

hesti hrófs;
‘of the horse of the boat-shed; ’
   = SHIP

the horse of the boat-shed; → SHIP
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inn ‘The’

2. inn (art.): the

kennings

Inn þrekmesti gœðir gunnskára
‘The most powerful endower of battle-gulls ’
   = WARRIOR

battle-gulls → RAVENS/EAGLES
The most powerful endower of RAVENS/EAGLES → WARRIOR
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þrekmesti ‘most powerful’

þrekmikill (adj.): [most powerful]

kennings

Inn þrekmesti gœðir gunnskára
‘The most powerful endower of battle-gulls ’
   = WARRIOR

battle-gulls → RAVENS/EAGLES
The most powerful endower of RAVENS/EAGLES → WARRIOR
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gœðir ‘endower’

gœðir (noun m.): strengthener, increaser

[3] gœðir: ‘giedir’ 54

kennings

Inn þrekmesti gœðir gunnskára
‘The most powerful endower of battle-gulls ’
   = WARRIOR

battle-gulls → RAVENS/EAGLES
The most powerful endower of RAVENS/EAGLES → WARRIOR
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gunn ‘of battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle, Gunnr < gunnskári (noun m.): [battle-gulls]

kennings

Inn þrekmesti gœðir gunnskára
‘The most powerful endower of battle-gulls ’
   = WARRIOR

battle-gulls → RAVENS/EAGLES
The most powerful endower of RAVENS/EAGLES → WARRIOR
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gunn ‘of battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle, Gunnr < gunnskári (noun m.): [battle-gulls]

kennings

Inn þrekmesti gœðir gunnskára
‘The most powerful endower of battle-gulls ’
   = WARRIOR

battle-gulls → RAVENS/EAGLES
The most powerful endower of RAVENS/EAGLES → WARRIOR
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skára ‘gulls’

skári (noun m.): [sea-gull, gull] < gunnskári (noun m.): [battle-gulls]

kennings

Inn þrekmesti gœðir gunnskára
‘The most powerful endower of battle-gulls ’
   = WARRIOR

battle-gulls → RAVENS/EAGLES
The most powerful endower of RAVENS/EAGLES → WARRIOR
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skára ‘gulls’

skári (noun m.): [sea-gull, gull] < gunnskári (noun m.): [battle-gulls]

kennings

Inn þrekmesti gœðir gunnskára
‘The most powerful endower of battle-gulls ’
   = WARRIOR

battle-gulls → RAVENS/EAGLES
The most powerful endower of RAVENS/EAGLES → WARRIOR
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gladdisk ‘was gladdened’

gleðja (verb): gladden, rejoice

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naðr ‘the snake’

naðr (noun m.): snake

kennings

naðr sára
‘the snake of wounds ’
   = SWORD

the snake of wounds → SWORD

notes

[4] naðr sára ‘the snake of wounds [SWORD]’: (a) This is attested in each of the extant mss and is retained here. As subject of gladdisk ‘was gladdened’, the sword is slightly personified, which is unusual, but is matched in st. 6/3 (see Note). (b) Fms retained naðr sára, glossing it as hræfuglinn ‘the carrion bird’. (c) In SHI 1, 206, Skj B and Skald, naðr is emended to nagr ‘bird’, resulting in a kenning for a bird of battle, which would be more natural in the context (and see TorfE Lv 3/7 and Note for a parallel involving nagr). CVC: nagr also regards naðr as a misspelling for nagr and suggests that the bird is a magpie.

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sára ‘of wounds’

2. sár (noun n.; °-s; -): wound

kennings

naðr sára
‘the snake of wounds ’
   = SWORD

the snake of wounds → SWORD

notes

[4] naðr sára ‘the snake of wounds [SWORD]’: (a) This is attested in each of the extant mss and is retained here. As subject of gladdisk ‘was gladdened’, the sword is slightly personified, which is unusual, but is matched in st. 6/3 (see Note). (b) Fms retained naðr sára, glossing it as hræfuglinn ‘the carrion bird’. (c) In SHI 1, 206, Skj B and Skald, naðr is emended to nagr ‘bird’, resulting in a kenning for a bird of battle, which would be more natural in the context (and see TorfE Lv 3/7 and Note for a parallel involving nagr). CVC: nagr also regards naðr as a misspelling for nagr and suggests that the bird is a magpie.

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Niðr ‘down’

3. niðr (adv.): down

[5] Niðr: viðr 54

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bens ‘of the wound’

2. ben (noun n.; °-s; -): wound

[5] bens bára: byrs bára 61, bensára 53, 54, Bb

kennings

Bára bens
‘The wave of the wound ’
   = BLOOD

The wave of the wound → BLOOD

notes

[5] bára bens ‘the wave of the wound [BLOOD]’: Though not strictly an emendation, the reading bens bára is a conjectural combination of elements from byrs bára (61) and bensára or ben sára (53, 54, Bb). Neither ms. reading makes sense, and ‑sára appears to be a case of dittography (cf. l. 4 sára ‘of wounds’), while bens bára, adopted in previous eds (Fms 12, Skj B, Skald, Ólafur Halldórsson 2000) gives good sense. Ben ‘wound’ is more commonly a f. noun whose gen. form is benjar, but here it is n. with gen. sg. form in -s (cf. ANG §382); this may also have contributed to the presumed corruption. Bens is a suitable determinant for the blood-kenning required by the context (cf. Meissner 206-7), while the 61 reading byrs ‘of the favouring wind’ is not, unless byrr is assumed, exceptionally, to be a heiti for ‘battle’.

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bára ‘The wave’

1. bára (noun f.; °-u; -ur): wave

[5] bens bára: byrs bára 61, bensára 53, 54, Bb

kennings

Bára bens
‘The wave of the wound ’
   = BLOOD

The wave of the wound → BLOOD

notes

[5] bára bens ‘the wave of the wound [BLOOD]’: Though not strictly an emendation, the reading bens bára is a conjectural combination of elements from byrs bára (61) and bensára or ben sára (53, 54, Bb). Neither ms. reading makes sense, and ‑sára appears to be a case of dittography (cf. l. 4 sára ‘of wounds’), while bens bára, adopted in previous eds (Fms 12, Skj B, Skald, Ólafur Halldórsson 2000) gives good sense. Ben ‘wound’ is more commonly a f. noun whose gen. form is benjar, but here it is n. with gen. sg. form in -s (cf. ANG §382); this may also have contributed to the presumed corruption. Bens is a suitable determinant for the blood-kenning required by the context (cf. Meissner 206-7), while the 61 reading byrs ‘of the favouring wind’ is not, unless byrr is assumed, exceptionally, to be a heiti for ‘battle’.

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sér ‘his’

sik (pron.; °gen. sín, dat. sér): (refl. pron.)

notes

[6] sér ‘his’: Dat. sg. of the refl. 3rd pers. pron. This is taken here as a poss. with l. 8 hǫnd ‘hand’. Skj B instead reads (in prose order) nam sér kistu í hvára hǫnd ‘he seized for himself a chest in each hand’. An additional sér follows hǫnd in 53, 54, Bb, but it adds a syllable that is surplus to the metre’s requirements and is omitted in 61.

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hykk ‘I think’

2. hyggja (verb): think, consider

[7] hykk: ‘hysk’ 54, Bb

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friðar ‘peace’

friðr (noun m.): peace

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misstu ‘missed out’

2. missa (verb): lose, lack

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frœkn ‘the valiant’

frœkn (adj.): brave, bold

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Eiríkr jarl’s men board Búi Vésetason’s ship; Þorsteinn miðlangr gives Búi a serious head-wound and is then cut in two by Búi. Búi takes up two chests full of gold and calls to his men to abandon ship; he leaps overboard with the treasure chests.

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