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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sturl Hryn 5II

Valgerður Erna Þorvaldsdóttir (ed.) 2009, ‘Sturla Þórðarson, Hrynhenda 5’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 681-2.

Sturla ÞórðarsonHrynhenda
456

Eigi ‘not’

3. eigi (adv.): not

notes

[1, 2, 4] eigi sátuð lengi í kyrðum at rofnar sættir ‘you did not sit long in quiet with the truces broken’: Sturla is referring to the settlement that Hákon made with the Dan. king in 1253 for the attack on the Norw. ships (see Note to st. 3/5-6), and the fact that the Danes had still not paid the compensation they had promised.

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sátuð ‘sit’

sitja (verb): sit

[1] sátuð: láttu 81a

notes

[1, 2, 4] eigi sátuð lengi í kyrðum at rofnar sættir ‘you did not sit long in quiet with the truces broken’: Sturla is referring to the settlement that Hákon made with the Dan. king in 1253 for the attack on the Norw. ships (see Note to st. 3/5-6), and the fact that the Danes had still not paid the compensation they had promised.

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jöfra ‘of princes’

jǫfurr (noun m.): ruler, prince

kennings

ættumgóðr hneitir jöfra,
‘high-born striker of princes, ’
   = RULER

high-born striker of princes, → RULER
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hneitir ‘striker’

hneitir (noun m.): sword

kennings

ættumgóðr hneitir jöfra,
‘high-born striker of princes, ’
   = RULER

high-born striker of princes, → RULER

notes

[1] hneitir ‘striker’: The verb hneita means ‘strike, defeat’. Hneitir was the name of S. Óláfr’s sword, lit. ‘striker’ or ‘cutter’. See also ESk Geisl 43/1VII.

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ættum ‘born’

1. ætt (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): family

kennings

ættumgóðr hneitir jöfra,
‘high-born striker of princes, ’
   = RULER

high-born striker of princes, → RULER
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góðr ‘high’

góðr (adj.): good

kennings

ættumgóðr hneitir jöfra,
‘high-born striker of princes, ’
   = RULER

high-born striker of princes, → RULER
Close

at ‘with’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[2] at rofnar: rofna 81a

notes

[1, 2, 4] eigi sátuð lengi í kyrðum at rofnar sættir ‘you did not sit long in quiet with the truces broken’: Sturla is referring to the settlement that Hákon made with the Dan. king in 1253 for the attack on the Norw. ships (see Note to st. 3/5-6), and the fact that the Danes had still not paid the compensation they had promised.

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rofnar ‘broken’

rofna (verb): broken

[2] at rofnar: rofna 81a

notes

[1, 2, 4] eigi sátuð lengi í kyrðum at rofnar sættir ‘you did not sit long in quiet with the truces broken’: Sturla is referring to the settlement that Hákon made with the Dan. king in 1253 for the attack on the Norw. ships (see Note to st. 3/5-6), and the fact that the Danes had still not paid the compensation they had promised.

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sættir ‘the truces’

sættir (noun m.): reconciler

notes

[1, 2, 4] eigi sátuð lengi í kyrðum at rofnar sættir ‘you did not sit long in quiet with the truces broken’: Sturla is referring to the settlement that Hákon made with the Dan. king in 1253 for the attack on the Norw. ships (see Note to st. 3/5-6), and the fact that the Danes had still not paid the compensation they had promised.

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stirðan ‘the hard’

stirðr (adj.): stiff

[3] stirðan: stirðir E, stríðar 81a, stirðar 304ˣ, Flat

notes

[3-4] harðir hirðmenn bjoggu stirðan streng herskips ‘the tough retainers readied the stiff anchor rope of the warship’: Ms. E has the variant readings stirðir (adj. m. nom. pl.) ‘stiff’ (which can qualify harðir hirðmenn m. nom. pl. ‘tough retainers’ (l. 3)) and stengr (f. acc. pl.; nom. stǫng) ‘poles’. Flat and 304ˣ have the readings stirðar (adj. f. acc. pl.) ‘stiff’ (81a has stríðar f. acc. pl. ‘tough’) and stengr (304ˣ has streng). Harðir hirðmenn bjoggu stirðar stengr ‘the tough retainers readied the stiff poles’ (so Skj B; Skald) also makes good sense, because poles bearing the banners of the king must have been on board the ships.

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bjoggu ‘readied’

2. búa (verb; °býr (1. pers. býg NjM 330²⁴); bjó/bjuggi/bjǫggi/byggi, bjuggu/bjǫggu (præt. conj. byggi); búinn (n. sg. búit/bút)): prepare, ready, live

notes

[3-4] harðir hirðmenn bjoggu stirðan streng herskips ‘the tough retainers readied the stiff anchor rope of the warship’: Ms. E has the variant readings stirðir (adj. m. nom. pl.) ‘stiff’ (which can qualify harðir hirðmenn m. nom. pl. ‘tough retainers’ (l. 3)) and stengr (f. acc. pl.; nom. stǫng) ‘poles’. Flat and 304ˣ have the readings stirðar (adj. f. acc. pl.) ‘stiff’ (81a has stríðar f. acc. pl. ‘tough’) and stengr (304ˣ has streng). Harðir hirðmenn bjoggu stirðar stengr ‘the tough retainers readied the stiff poles’ (so Skj B; Skald) also makes good sense, because poles bearing the banners of the king must have been on board the ships.

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hirðmenn ‘retainers’

hirðmaðr (noun m.): retainer

notes

[3-4] harðir hirðmenn bjoggu stirðan streng herskips ‘the tough retainers readied the stiff anchor rope of the warship’: Ms. E has the variant readings stirðir (adj. m. nom. pl.) ‘stiff’ (which can qualify harðir hirðmenn m. nom. pl. ‘tough retainers’ (l. 3)) and stengr (f. acc. pl.; nom. stǫng) ‘poles’. Flat and 304ˣ have the readings stirðar (adj. f. acc. pl.) ‘stiff’ (81a has stríðar f. acc. pl. ‘tough’) and stengr (304ˣ has streng). Harðir hirðmenn bjoggu stirðar stengr ‘the tough retainers readied the stiff poles’ (so Skj B; Skald) also makes good sense, because poles bearing the banners of the king must have been on board the ships.

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harðir ‘the tough’

harðr (adj.; °comp. -ari; superl. -astr): hard, harsh

notes

[3-4] harðir hirðmenn bjoggu stirðan streng herskips ‘the tough retainers readied the stiff anchor rope of the warship’: Ms. E has the variant readings stirðir (adj. m. nom. pl.) ‘stiff’ (which can qualify harðir hirðmenn m. nom. pl. ‘tough retainers’ (l. 3)) and stengr (f. acc. pl.; nom. stǫng) ‘poles’. Flat and 304ˣ have the readings stirðar (adj. f. acc. pl.) ‘stiff’ (81a has stríðar f. acc. pl. ‘tough’) and stengr (304ˣ has streng). Harðir hirðmenn bjoggu stirðar stengr ‘the tough retainers readied the stiff poles’ (so Skj B; Skald) also makes good sense, because poles bearing the banners of the king must have been on board the ships.

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herskips ‘of the warship’

herskip (noun n.): warship

notes

[3-4] harðir hirðmenn bjoggu stirðan streng herskips ‘the tough retainers readied the stiff anchor rope of the warship’: Ms. E has the variant readings stirðir (adj. m. nom. pl.) ‘stiff’ (which can qualify harðir hirðmenn m. nom. pl. ‘tough retainers’ (l. 3)) and stengr (f. acc. pl.; nom. stǫng) ‘poles’. Flat and 304ˣ have the readings stirðar (adj. f. acc. pl.) ‘stiff’ (81a has stríðar f. acc. pl. ‘tough’) and stengr (304ˣ has streng). Harðir hirðmenn bjoggu stirðar stengr ‘the tough retainers readied the stiff poles’ (so Skj B; Skald) also makes good sense, because poles bearing the banners of the king must have been on board the ships.

Close

streng ‘anchor rope’

strengr (noun m.; °-jar; -ir): string, rope, bow-string

[4] streng: stengr E, 81a, Flat

notes

[3-4] harðir hirðmenn bjoggu stirðan streng herskips ‘the tough retainers readied the stiff anchor rope of the warship’: Ms. E has the variant readings stirðir (adj. m. nom. pl.) ‘stiff’ (which can qualify harðir hirðmenn m. nom. pl. ‘tough retainers’ (l. 3)) and stengr (f. acc. pl.; nom. stǫng) ‘poles’. Flat and 304ˣ have the readings stirðar (adj. f. acc. pl.) ‘stiff’ (81a has stríðar f. acc. pl. ‘tough’) and stengr (304ˣ has streng). Harðir hirðmenn bjoggu stirðar stengr ‘the tough retainers readied the stiff poles’ (so Skj B; Skald) also makes good sense, because poles bearing the banners of the king must have been on board the ships.

Close

í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

notes

[1, 2, 4] eigi sátuð lengi í kyrðum at rofnar sættir ‘you did not sit long in quiet with the truces broken’: Sturla is referring to the settlement that Hákon made with the Dan. king in 1253 for the attack on the Norw. ships (see Note to st. 3/5-6), and the fact that the Danes had still not paid the compensation they had promised.

Close

kyrðum ‘quiet’

kyrrð (noun f.): [quiet]

notes

[1, 2, 4] eigi sátuð lengi í kyrðum at rofnar sættir ‘you did not sit long in quiet with the truces broken’: Sturla is referring to the settlement that Hákon made with the Dan. king in 1253 for the attack on the Norw. ships (see Note to st. 3/5-6), and the fact that the Danes had still not paid the compensation they had promised.

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lengi ‘long’

lengi (adv.): for a long time

notes

[1, 2, 4] eigi sátuð lengi í kyrðum at rofnar sættir ‘you did not sit long in quiet with the truces broken’: Sturla is referring to the settlement that Hákon made with the Dan. king in 1253 for the attack on the Norw. ships (see Note to st. 3/5-6), and the fact that the Danes had still not paid the compensation they had promised.

Close

helt ‘directed’

halda (verb): hold, keep

[5] helt: helzt 304ˣ

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fyrir ‘’

fyrir (prep.): for, before, because of

[5] fyrir: frá Flat

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Elfi ‘the Götaälv’

elfr (noun f.): river

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flotnum ‘for the men’

flotnar (noun m.): mariners

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nauða ‘hardship’

neyð (noun f.; °dat. -): need, distress

[7] nauða: nauðir Flat

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vissu ‘experienced’

1. vita (verb): know

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súðir ‘plankings’

súð (noun f.; °-ar; gen. -a): planking, ship

notes

[7] súðir ‘plankings’: This could be pars pro toto for ‘ships’ (see also Note to Hharð Gamv 2/2).

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Norðmanna ‘of the Norwegians’

norðmaðr (noun m.): Norwegian

kennings

Gramr Norðmanna
‘The ruler of the Norwegians ’
   = Hákon

The ruler of the Norwegians → Hákon

notes

[8] gramr Norðmanna ‘the ruler of the Norwegians [= Hákon]’: Kock regarded this as an apostrophe (NN §3148).

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gramr ‘The ruler’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

kennings

Gramr Norðmanna
‘The ruler of the Norwegians ’
   = Hákon

The ruler of the Norwegians → Hákon

notes

[8] gramr Norðmanna ‘the ruler of the Norwegians [= Hákon]’: Kock regarded this as an apostrophe (NN §3148).

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fýriborðum ‘fir-planks’

fyriborð (noun n.): [fir-planks]

[8] fýriborðum: so E, 304ˣ, borðum þannig F, fyri skeiðar borðum 81a, þar fyri borðum Flat

notes

[8] fýriborðum ‘fir-planks’: The reading fyri in E, 81a, 304ˣ and Flat is abbreviated so it could be expanded as fyrir ‘before, off’, which would be hard to fit into the prose w. o., but fýriborð ‘fir-planks’ is certainly a likely reading, as Konráð Gíslason (1895-7, I, 71-2) pointed out, and it has been adopted by both Finnur Jónsson and Kock (Skj B; Skald). The variant in F, þannig borðum ‘thus the planks’, gives the following reading of ll. 5, 8: Gramr Norðmanna helt þannig mætum borðum fyrir útan Elfi ‘The ruler of the Norwegians directed thus the splendid planks off the Götaälv’. That reading produces an extra internal rhyme on two stressed syllables: Norð- : borð- and manna : þannig, and the other ms. witnesses show that it is secondary (lectio facilior). The scribe of 81a adds skeiðar ‘warship’s’ but this makes the l. hypermetrical.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

By 1256 the Danes had not yet paid the compensation they had promised for the attack on the Norw. ships in 1247. King Hákon summoned his troops again and led his fleet, 300 ships, to Halland. The st. describes the launching of the fleet and the voyage to Halland.

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