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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sturl Hrafn 7II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Sturla Þórðarson, Hrafnsmál 7’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 733-4.

Sturla ÞórðarsonHrafnsmál
678

inn ‘The’

2. inn (art.): the

kennings

Inn hraðmælti viðþingaðr hringa
‘The quick-spoken assembly-convener of swords ’
   = WARRIOR

The quick-spoken assembly-convener of swords → WARRIOR
Close

hraðmælti ‘quick-spoken’

hraðmæltr (adj.): [quick-spoken]

kennings

Inn hraðmælti viðþingaðr hringa
‘The quick-spoken assembly-convener of swords ’
   = WARRIOR

The quick-spoken assembly-convener of swords → WARRIOR
Close

hringa ‘of swords’

1. hringr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ar): ring; sword

kennings

Inn hraðmælti viðþingaðr hringa
‘The quick-spoken assembly-convener of swords ’
   = WARRIOR

The quick-spoken assembly-convener of swords → WARRIOR
Close

viðþingaðr ‘assembly-convener’

víðþinguðr (noun m.): [assembly-convener]

[2] viðþingaðr: vígþingaðr 8, virðingu Flat

kennings

Inn hraðmælti viðþingaðr hringa
‘The quick-spoken assembly-convener of swords ’
   = WARRIOR

The quick-spoken assembly-convener of swords → WARRIOR
Close

lög ‘the sea’

lǫgr (noun m.; °lagar, dat. legi): sea < lǫgskíð (noun n.)

[3] lög‑: so 8, lof F, lang Flat

kennings

lögskíðum
‘the sea-skis ’
   = SHIPS

the sea-skis → SHIPS

notes

[3] lögskíðum ‘the sea-skis [SHIPS]’: Lofskeiðum ‘commendable warships’ (so F) appears to be a lectio facilior.

Close

skíðum ‘skis’

skíð (noun n.; °; -): ski < lǫgskíð (noun n.)

[3] ‑skíðum: so Flat, skeiðum F, 8

kennings

lögskíðum
‘the sea-skis ’
   = SHIPS

the sea-skis → SHIPS

notes

[3] lögskíðum ‘the sea-skis [SHIPS]’: Lofskeiðum ‘commendable warships’ (so F) appears to be a lectio facilior.

Close

leygs ‘of the ocean’

1. leygr (noun m.): flame

Close

í ‘to’

í (prep.): in, into

notes

[4] í Suðreyjar (f. acc. pl.) ‘to the Hebrides’: So 8, Flat. Suðreyjum (f. dat. pl.; so F) is ungrammatical because the prep. requires acc. here.

Close

Suðr ‘the’

1. suðr (noun n.; °-s): [southern, the] < Suðreyjar (noun f.): [Hebrides]

notes

[4] í Suðreyjar (f. acc. pl.) ‘to the Hebrides’: So 8, Flat. Suðreyjum (f. dat. pl.; so F) is ungrammatical because the prep. requires acc. here.

Close

eyjar ‘Hebrides’

1. ey (noun f.; °-jar, dat. -ju/-; -jar): island < Suðreyjar (noun f.): [Hebrides]

[4] ‑eyjar: so 8, Flat, ‑eyjum F

notes

[4] í Suðreyjar (f. acc. pl.) ‘to the Hebrides’: So 8, Flat. Suðreyjum (f. dat. pl.; so F) is ungrammatical because the prep. requires acc. here.

Close

gaf ‘surrendered’

gefa (verb): give

Close

alkeppnum ‘the very vigorous’

alkeppinn (adj./verb p.p.): [very vigorous]

kennings

alkeppnum eyði ítrbóla dalreyðar.
‘the very vigorous spoiler of the splendid lair of the valley-char.’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the valley-char. → SNAKE
the splendid lair of the SNAKE → GOLD
the very vigorous spoiler of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

Íl ‘Islay’

Íl (noun f.): Islay

[7] Íl fyr ítrbóla: ‘[…]ola’ 325X

Close

fyr ‘on account of’

fyr (prep.): for, over, because of, etc.

[7] Íl fyr ítrbóla: ‘[…]ola’ 325X

Close

ítrbóla ‘of the splendid lair’

ítrból (noun n.): [splendid lair]

[7] Íl fyr ítrbóla: ‘[…]ola’ 325X

kennings

alkeppnum eyði ítrbóla dalreyðar.
‘the very vigorous spoiler of the splendid lair of the valley-char.’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the valley-char. → SNAKE
the splendid lair of the SNAKE → GOLD
the very vigorous spoiler of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

ítrbóla ‘of the splendid lair’

ítrból (noun n.): [splendid lair]

[7] Íl fyr ítrbóla: ‘[…]ola’ 325X

kennings

alkeppnum eyði ítrbóla dalreyðar.
‘the very vigorous spoiler of the splendid lair of the valley-char.’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the valley-char. → SNAKE
the splendid lair of the SNAKE → GOLD
the very vigorous spoiler of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

eyði ‘spoiler’

eyðir (noun m.): destroyer

kennings

alkeppnum eyði ítrbóla dalreyðar.
‘the very vigorous spoiler of the splendid lair of the valley-char.’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the valley-char. → SNAKE
the splendid lair of the SNAKE → GOLD
the very vigorous spoiler of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

dal ‘of the valley’

dalr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ir, acc. -i/-a): valley < dalreyðr (noun f.): [valley-char]

kennings

alkeppnum eyði ítrbóla dalreyðar.
‘the very vigorous spoiler of the splendid lair of the valley-char.’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the valley-char. → SNAKE
the splendid lair of the SNAKE → GOLD
the very vigorous spoiler of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[8] dalreyðar ‘of the valley-char’: Reyðr ‘char’ (Salvelinus alpinus), a fish of the salmon species (ModIcel. reyður, ModNorw røye). This cpd occurs in Anon (Sǫrl) l. 5VIII, which is composed in Haðarlag metre as well. See also ESk Øxfl 1III and ÞBrún Lv 4V. Reyðr is also a whale (see Note to Steinn Óldr 11/7), but it appears that the word originally denoted ‘char’, because it was borrowed into Saami (rav’do ‘char’) from Proto Scandinavian (*rauðiō) in that sense (see Nielsen 1908, 228). In LP: reyðr 2, both ‘whale’ and ‘char’ are listed as possible meanings of the word in the present kenning, while Meissner (p. 109; so also Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 96) takes it in the sense ‘char’. That interpretation is more likely, because the kenning clearly imitates such circumlocutions for ‘snake’ as attested in dalmiskunn fiska, i.e. miskunn dalfiska ‘the mercy of the valley-fish’ [SNAKE > SUMMER], Egill Lv 8/4V. In general, if reyðr is excluded from the list, fish-names are far more common than whale-names in snake-kennings (see Meissner 112-13). See also Note to Sturl Hákfl 2/1.

Close

dal ‘of the valley’

dalr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ir, acc. -i/-a): valley < dalreyðr (noun f.): [valley-char]

kennings

alkeppnum eyði ítrbóla dalreyðar.
‘the very vigorous spoiler of the splendid lair of the valley-char.’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the valley-char. → SNAKE
the splendid lair of the SNAKE → GOLD
the very vigorous spoiler of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[8] dalreyðar ‘of the valley-char’: Reyðr ‘char’ (Salvelinus alpinus), a fish of the salmon species (ModIcel. reyður, ModNorw røye). This cpd occurs in Anon (Sǫrl) l. 5VIII, which is composed in Haðarlag metre as well. See also ESk Øxfl 1III and ÞBrún Lv 4V. Reyðr is also a whale (see Note to Steinn Óldr 11/7), but it appears that the word originally denoted ‘char’, because it was borrowed into Saami (rav’do ‘char’) from Proto Scandinavian (*rauðiō) in that sense (see Nielsen 1908, 228). In LP: reyðr 2, both ‘whale’ and ‘char’ are listed as possible meanings of the word in the present kenning, while Meissner (p. 109; so also Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 96) takes it in the sense ‘char’. That interpretation is more likely, because the kenning clearly imitates such circumlocutions for ‘snake’ as attested in dalmiskunn fiska, i.e. miskunn dalfiska ‘the mercy of the valley-fish’ [SNAKE > SUMMER], Egill Lv 8/4V. In general, if reyðr is excluded from the list, fish-names are far more common than whale-names in snake-kennings (see Meissner 112-13). See also Note to Sturl Hákfl 2/1.

Close

dal ‘of the valley’

dalr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ir, acc. -i/-a): valley < dalreyðr (noun f.): [valley-char]

kennings

alkeppnum eyði ítrbóla dalreyðar.
‘the very vigorous spoiler of the splendid lair of the valley-char.’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the valley-char. → SNAKE
the splendid lair of the SNAKE → GOLD
the very vigorous spoiler of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[8] dalreyðar ‘of the valley-char’: Reyðr ‘char’ (Salvelinus alpinus), a fish of the salmon species (ModIcel. reyður, ModNorw røye). This cpd occurs in Anon (Sǫrl) l. 5VIII, which is composed in Haðarlag metre as well. See also ESk Øxfl 1III and ÞBrún Lv 4V. Reyðr is also a whale (see Note to Steinn Óldr 11/7), but it appears that the word originally denoted ‘char’, because it was borrowed into Saami (rav’do ‘char’) from Proto Scandinavian (*rauðiō) in that sense (see Nielsen 1908, 228). In LP: reyðr 2, both ‘whale’ and ‘char’ are listed as possible meanings of the word in the present kenning, while Meissner (p. 109; so also Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 96) takes it in the sense ‘char’. That interpretation is more likely, because the kenning clearly imitates such circumlocutions for ‘snake’ as attested in dalmiskunn fiska, i.e. miskunn dalfiska ‘the mercy of the valley-fish’ [SNAKE > SUMMER], Egill Lv 8/4V. In general, if reyðr is excluded from the list, fish-names are far more common than whale-names in snake-kennings (see Meissner 112-13). See also Note to Sturl Hákfl 2/1.

Close

reyðar ‘char’

reyðr (noun f.; °; -ar): whale, rorqual < dalreyðr (noun f.): [valley-char]

kennings

alkeppnum eyði ítrbóla dalreyðar.
‘the very vigorous spoiler of the splendid lair of the valley-char.’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the valley-char. → SNAKE
the splendid lair of the SNAKE → GOLD
the very vigorous spoiler of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[8] dalreyðar ‘of the valley-char’: Reyðr ‘char’ (Salvelinus alpinus), a fish of the salmon species (ModIcel. reyður, ModNorw røye). This cpd occurs in Anon (Sǫrl) l. 5VIII, which is composed in Haðarlag metre as well. See also ESk Øxfl 1III and ÞBrún Lv 4V. Reyðr is also a whale (see Note to Steinn Óldr 11/7), but it appears that the word originally denoted ‘char’, because it was borrowed into Saami (rav’do ‘char’) from Proto Scandinavian (*rauðiō) in that sense (see Nielsen 1908, 228). In LP: reyðr 2, both ‘whale’ and ‘char’ are listed as possible meanings of the word in the present kenning, while Meissner (p. 109; so also Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 96) takes it in the sense ‘char’. That interpretation is more likely, because the kenning clearly imitates such circumlocutions for ‘snake’ as attested in dalmiskunn fiska, i.e. miskunn dalfiska ‘the mercy of the valley-fish’ [SNAKE > SUMMER], Egill Lv 8/4V. In general, if reyðr is excluded from the list, fish-names are far more common than whale-names in snake-kennings (see Meissner 112-13). See also Note to Sturl Hákfl 2/1.

Close

reyðar ‘char’

reyðr (noun f.; °; -ar): whale, rorqual < dalreyðr (noun f.): [valley-char]

kennings

alkeppnum eyði ítrbóla dalreyðar.
‘the very vigorous spoiler of the splendid lair of the valley-char.’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the valley-char. → SNAKE
the splendid lair of the SNAKE → GOLD
the very vigorous spoiler of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[8] dalreyðar ‘of the valley-char’: Reyðr ‘char’ (Salvelinus alpinus), a fish of the salmon species (ModIcel. reyður, ModNorw røye). This cpd occurs in Anon (Sǫrl) l. 5VIII, which is composed in Haðarlag metre as well. See also ESk Øxfl 1III and ÞBrún Lv 4V. Reyðr is also a whale (see Note to Steinn Óldr 11/7), but it appears that the word originally denoted ‘char’, because it was borrowed into Saami (rav’do ‘char’) from Proto Scandinavian (*rauðiō) in that sense (see Nielsen 1908, 228). In LP: reyðr 2, both ‘whale’ and ‘char’ are listed as possible meanings of the word in the present kenning, while Meissner (p. 109; so also Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 96) takes it in the sense ‘char’. That interpretation is more likely, because the kenning clearly imitates such circumlocutions for ‘snake’ as attested in dalmiskunn fiska, i.e. miskunn dalfiska ‘the mercy of the valley-fish’ [SNAKE > SUMMER], Egill Lv 8/4V. In general, if reyðr is excluded from the list, fish-names are far more common than whale-names in snake-kennings (see Meissner 112-13). See also Note to Sturl Hákfl 2/1.

Close

reyðar ‘char’

reyðr (noun f.; °; -ar): whale, rorqual < dalreyðr (noun f.): [valley-char]

kennings

alkeppnum eyði ítrbóla dalreyðar.
‘the very vigorous spoiler of the splendid lair of the valley-char.’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the valley-char. → SNAKE
the splendid lair of the SNAKE → GOLD
the very vigorous spoiler of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[8] dalreyðar ‘of the valley-char’: Reyðr ‘char’ (Salvelinus alpinus), a fish of the salmon species (ModIcel. reyður, ModNorw røye). This cpd occurs in Anon (Sǫrl) l. 5VIII, which is composed in Haðarlag metre as well. See also ESk Øxfl 1III and ÞBrún Lv 4V. Reyðr is also a whale (see Note to Steinn Óldr 11/7), but it appears that the word originally denoted ‘char’, because it was borrowed into Saami (rav’do ‘char’) from Proto Scandinavian (*rauðiō) in that sense (see Nielsen 1908, 228). In LP: reyðr 2, both ‘whale’ and ‘char’ are listed as possible meanings of the word in the present kenning, while Meissner (p. 109; so also Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 96) takes it in the sense ‘char’. That interpretation is more likely, because the kenning clearly imitates such circumlocutions for ‘snake’ as attested in dalmiskunn fiska, i.e. miskunn dalfiska ‘the mercy of the valley-fish’ [SNAKE > SUMMER], Egill Lv 8/4V. In general, if reyðr is excluded from the list, fish-names are far more common than whale-names in snake-kennings (see Meissner 112-13). See also Note to Sturl Hákfl 2/1.

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In August, Hákon sailed with most of his fleet to Gigha (island off the west coast of Kintyre). Men came to him and said that Murchaid and Angus, lords of Kintyre, wished to surrender to him. They gave hostages and pledged their allegiance, and Hákon placed Angus in charge of Islay.

[2] viðþingaðr ‘assembly-convener’: Hap. leg. Nomen agentis formed from þinga við ‘convene an assembly or a meeting, talk to sby’. See NN §1357. See also Sturl Hákfl 1/6. — [4]: Note the rhyme -eyg- : -eyj- (see ANG §251).

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