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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sturl Hrafn 5II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Sturla Þórðarson, Hrafnsmál 5’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 731-2.

Sturla ÞórðarsonHrafnsmál
456

Leysti ‘launched’

leysa (verb): release, loosen, redeem

notes

[1, 4] leysti bládúfur lögrastar ‘launched the dark doves of the water-way [SEA > SHIPS]’: Skj B (and Skald?) takes bládúfur ‘dark doves’ in the meaning ‘dark waves’ (dúfa can mean both ‘dove’ and ‘wave’) and translates leysti bládúfur lögrastar as furede havets blå bølger ‘furrowed the blue waves of the ocean’. This requires an unattested meaning of the verb leysa lit. ‘loosen’ (see Fritzner: leysa, especially leysa 9-10; LP: leysa, especially leysa 3). See also st. 15/5 below. Dúfa ‘dove’ (‘bird’) can be the base-word in a kenning for ‘ship’ (see Meissner 216). Both lögröst (gen. sg. lögrastar) ‘water-way’ (l. 1) and bládúfa ‘dark dove’ (l. 4) are hap. leg.

Close

lög ‘of the water’

lǫgr (noun m.; °lagar, dat. legi): sea < lǫgrǫst (noun f.)

[1] lög‑: so Flat, lang‑ F

kennings

bládúfur lögrastar;
‘the dark doves of the water-way; ’
   = SHIPS

the water-way; → SEA
the dark doves of the SEA → SHIPS

notes

[1, 4] leysti bládúfur lögrastar ‘launched the dark doves of the water-way [SEA > SHIPS]’: Skj B (and Skald?) takes bládúfur ‘dark doves’ in the meaning ‘dark waves’ (dúfa can mean both ‘dove’ and ‘wave’) and translates leysti bládúfur lögrastar as furede havets blå bølger ‘furrowed the blue waves of the ocean’. This requires an unattested meaning of the verb leysa lit. ‘loosen’ (see Fritzner: leysa, especially leysa 9-10; LP: leysa, especially leysa 3). See also st. 15/5 below. Dúfa ‘dove’ (‘bird’) can be the base-word in a kenning for ‘ship’ (see Meissner 216). Both lögröst (gen. sg. lögrastar) ‘water-way’ (l. 1) and bládúfa ‘dark dove’ (l. 4) are hap. leg.

Close

lög ‘of the water’

lǫgr (noun m.; °lagar, dat. legi): sea < lǫgrǫst (noun f.)

[1] lög‑: so Flat, lang‑ F

kennings

bládúfur lögrastar;
‘the dark doves of the water-way; ’
   = SHIPS

the water-way; → SEA
the dark doves of the SEA → SHIPS

notes

[1, 4] leysti bládúfur lögrastar ‘launched the dark doves of the water-way [SEA > SHIPS]’: Skj B (and Skald?) takes bládúfur ‘dark doves’ in the meaning ‘dark waves’ (dúfa can mean both ‘dove’ and ‘wave’) and translates leysti bládúfur lögrastar as furede havets blå bølger ‘furrowed the blue waves of the ocean’. This requires an unattested meaning of the verb leysa lit. ‘loosen’ (see Fritzner: leysa, especially leysa 9-10; LP: leysa, especially leysa 3). See also st. 15/5 below. Dúfa ‘dove’ (‘bird’) can be the base-word in a kenning for ‘ship’ (see Meissner 216). Both lögröst (gen. sg. lögrastar) ‘water-way’ (l. 1) and bládúfa ‘dark dove’ (l. 4) are hap. leg.

Close

rastar ‘way’

1. rǫst (noun f.; °rastar; rastir): (a measure of distance) < lǫgrǫst (noun f.)

kennings

bládúfur lögrastar;
‘the dark doves of the water-way; ’
   = SHIPS

the water-way; → SEA
the dark doves of the SEA → SHIPS

notes

[1, 4] leysti bládúfur lögrastar ‘launched the dark doves of the water-way [SEA > SHIPS]’: Skj B (and Skald?) takes bládúfur ‘dark doves’ in the meaning ‘dark waves’ (dúfa can mean both ‘dove’ and ‘wave’) and translates leysti bládúfur lögrastar as furede havets blå bølger ‘furrowed the blue waves of the ocean’. This requires an unattested meaning of the verb leysa lit. ‘loosen’ (see Fritzner: leysa, especially leysa 9-10; LP: leysa, especially leysa 3). See also st. 15/5 below. Dúfa ‘dove’ (‘bird’) can be the base-word in a kenning for ‘ship’ (see Meissner 216). Both lögröst (gen. sg. lögrastar) ‘water-way’ (l. 1) and bládúfa ‘dark dove’ (l. 4) are hap. leg.

Close

rastar ‘way’

1. rǫst (noun f.; °rastar; rastir): (a measure of distance) < lǫgrǫst (noun f.)

kennings

bládúfur lögrastar;
‘the dark doves of the water-way; ’
   = SHIPS

the water-way; → SEA
the dark doves of the SEA → SHIPS

notes

[1, 4] leysti bládúfur lögrastar ‘launched the dark doves of the water-way [SEA > SHIPS]’: Skj B (and Skald?) takes bládúfur ‘dark doves’ in the meaning ‘dark waves’ (dúfa can mean both ‘dove’ and ‘wave’) and translates leysti bládúfur lögrastar as furede havets blå bølger ‘furrowed the blue waves of the ocean’. This requires an unattested meaning of the verb leysa lit. ‘loosen’ (see Fritzner: leysa, especially leysa 9-10; LP: leysa, especially leysa 3). See also st. 15/5 below. Dúfa ‘dove’ (‘bird’) can be the base-word in a kenning for ‘ship’ (see Meissner 216). Both lögröst (gen. sg. lögrastar) ‘water-way’ (l. 1) and bládúfa ‘dark dove’ (l. 4) are hap. leg.

Close

landa ‘of lands’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land

kennings

Stýrandi landa
‘The controller of lands ’
   = RULER

The controller of lands → RULER
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stýrandi ‘The controller’

stýrandi (noun m.; °-a; -endr): ruler, steerer

kennings

Stýrandi landa
‘The controller of lands ’
   = RULER

The controller of lands → RULER
Close

heldu ‘steered’

halda (verb): hold, keep

[3] heldu of (‘heldo vm’): heldum Flat

Close

of ‘across’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

[3] heldu of (‘heldo vm’): heldum Flat

Close

aldir ‘men’

ǫld (noun f.; °; aldir): people, age

[3] aldir: aldar Flat

Close

húfum ‘the hulls’

húfr (noun m.; °dat. -i): hull

notes

[4] húfum ‘the hulls’: See Note to Mberf Lv 1/3. In LP: dúfa Finnur takes this word with the first cl. of the helmingr (‘furrowed the dark waves of the ocean with the hulls’; not so in Skj B).

Close

blá ‘the dark’

blár (adj.): black < bládúfa (noun f.): [dark doves]

kennings

bládúfur lögrastar;
‘the dark doves of the water-way; ’
   = SHIPS

the water-way; → SEA
the dark doves of the SEA → SHIPS

notes

[1, 4] leysti bládúfur lögrastar ‘launched the dark doves of the water-way [SEA > SHIPS]’: Skj B (and Skald?) takes bládúfur ‘dark doves’ in the meaning ‘dark waves’ (dúfa can mean both ‘dove’ and ‘wave’) and translates leysti bládúfur lögrastar as furede havets blå bølger ‘furrowed the blue waves of the ocean’. This requires an unattested meaning of the verb leysa lit. ‘loosen’ (see Fritzner: leysa, especially leysa 9-10; LP: leysa, especially leysa 3). See also st. 15/5 below. Dúfa ‘dove’ (‘bird’) can be the base-word in a kenning for ‘ship’ (see Meissner 216). Both lögröst (gen. sg. lögrastar) ‘water-way’ (l. 1) and bládúfa ‘dark dove’ (l. 4) are hap. leg.

Close

dúfur ‘doves’

2. dúfa (noun f.): dove < bládúfa (noun f.): [dark doves]

kennings

bládúfur lögrastar;
‘the dark doves of the water-way; ’
   = SHIPS

the water-way; → SEA
the dark doves of the SEA → SHIPS

notes

[1, 4] leysti bládúfur lögrastar ‘launched the dark doves of the water-way [SEA > SHIPS]’: Skj B (and Skald?) takes bládúfur ‘dark doves’ in the meaning ‘dark waves’ (dúfa can mean both ‘dove’ and ‘wave’) and translates leysti bládúfur lögrastar as furede havets blå bølger ‘furrowed the blue waves of the ocean’. This requires an unattested meaning of the verb leysa lit. ‘loosen’ (see Fritzner: leysa, especially leysa 9-10; LP: leysa, especially leysa 3). See also st. 15/5 below. Dúfa ‘dove’ (‘bird’) can be the base-word in a kenning for ‘ship’ (see Meissner 216). Both lögröst (gen. sg. lögrastar) ‘water-way’ (l. 1) and bládúfa ‘dark dove’ (l. 4) are hap. leg.

Close

Lýstiz ‘was illuminated’

2. lýsa (verb): illuminate, show

Close

hrein ‘The safe’

2. hreinn (adj.; °compar. hreinari/hreinni, superl. hreinastr/hreinstr): pure

notes

[5, 6] hrein höfn ‘the safe harbour’: Lit. ‘clean harbour’. Bressay (island off Lerwick) was known for its good harbour.

Close

höfn ‘harbour’

1. hǫfn (noun f.; °hafnar; hafnir(/hafnar(Streng 234³²)): haven, harbour

notes

[5, 6] hrein höfn ‘the safe harbour’: Lit. ‘clean harbour’. Bressay (island off Lerwick) was known for its good harbour.

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skipstöfnum ‘ship-prows’

skipstafn (noun m.): [ship-prows]

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eldi ‘by the fire’

eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire

[7] eldi: aldi Flat

kennings

eldi álfoldar
‘by the fire of the eel-ground ’
   = GOLD

the eel-ground → SEA
by the fire of the SEA → GOLD
Close

ál ‘of the eel’

1. áll (noun m.; °dat. ál; álar): eel < álfold (noun f.): [eel-ground]

kennings

eldi álfoldar
‘by the fire of the eel-ground ’
   = GOLD

the eel-ground → SEA
by the fire of the SEA → GOLD
Close

ál ‘of the eel’

1. áll (noun m.; °dat. ál; álar): eel < álfold (noun f.): [eel-ground]

kennings

eldi álfoldar
‘by the fire of the eel-ground ’
   = GOLD

the eel-ground → SEA
by the fire of the SEA → GOLD
Close

foldar ‘ground’

fold (noun f.): land < álfold (noun f.): [eel-ground]

kennings

eldi álfoldar
‘by the fire of the eel-ground ’
   = GOLD

the eel-ground → SEA
by the fire of the SEA → GOLD
Close

foldar ‘ground’

fold (noun f.): land < álfold (noun f.): [eel-ground]

kennings

eldi álfoldar
‘by the fire of the eel-ground ’
   = GOLD

the eel-ground → SEA
by the fire of the SEA → GOLD
Close

auðar ‘with wealth’

1. auðr (noun m.; °-s/-ar, dat. -i/-): wealth

notes

[8] auðar (f. gen. sg.) ‘with wealth’: Lit. ‘of wealth’. Following NN §2580, the noun is taken here with the adj. glóðrauðum ‘red-glowing’ (l. 8) qualifying skipstöfnum ‘ship-prows’ (l. 6). Skj B construes it with af hæstum skipstöfnum ‘from the loftiest ship-prows’ (ll. 5, 6; af auðar-hæstum skipstöfnum), translated as på de rigt smykkede skibstavne ‘on the richly adorned ship-prows’, which is less likely from the point of view of w. o. According to that interpretation, glóðrauðum ‘red-glowing’ qualifies eldi ‘fire’ (l. 7). The ‘wealth’ likely refers either to the adorned strips of wood curving down from the prow or to gilded weather-vanes. See Notes to Sturl Hákkv 12/5, Arn Hryn 10/7-8, Bǫlv Hardr 2/2, Halli XI Fl 1/5, 8, Valg Har 10-11 and Ív Sig 16/1.

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glóð ‘red’

glóð (noun f.): ember < glóðrauðr (adj.)

[8] glóð‑: blóð‑ Flat

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After two days at sea, Hákon arrived with part of his fleet in Shetland and put in to harbour in Bressay.

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