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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sturl Hrafn 3II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Sturla Þórðarson, Hrafnsmál 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 729-30.

Sturla ÞórðarsonHrafnsmál
234

Glumði ‘resounded’

glymja (verb): resound

notes

[1] glumði ‘resounded’: Most likely to refer to weather-vanes and other ornaments moving in the wind. For weather-vanes, see Note to Ív Sig 16/1.

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gjálfr ‘the surge’

gjalfr (noun n.; °-s): surge, waves < gjalfrtamiðr (adj.)

kennings

gjálfrtömðum Gestils skeiðhestum
‘track-horses of Gestill’
   = SHIPS

Gestill’s track → SEA
the surge-tamed horses of the SEA → SHIPS

notes

[1] gjálfrtömðum ‘surge-tamed’: Hap. leg.

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tömðum ‘tamed’

tamiðr (adj./verb p.p.): accustomed, tamed < gjalfrtamiðr (adj.)

[1] ‑tömðum: ‘tonnum’ Flat

kennings

gjálfrtömðum Gestils skeiðhestum
‘track-horses of Gestill’
   = SHIPS

Gestill’s track → SEA
the surge-tamed horses of the SEA → SHIPS

notes

[1] gjálfrtömðum ‘surge-tamed’: Hap. leg.

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Gestils ‘of Gestill’s’

Gestill (noun m.): Gestill

kennings

gjálfrtömðum Gestils skeiðhestum
‘track-horses of Gestill’
   = SHIPS

Gestill’s track → SEA
the surge-tamed horses of the SEA → SHIPS
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Gestils ‘of Gestill’s’

Gestill (noun m.): Gestill

kennings

gjálfrtömðum Gestils skeiðhestum
‘track-horses of Gestill’
   = SHIPS

Gestill’s track → SEA
the surge-tamed horses of the SEA → SHIPS
Close

skeið ‘track’

2. skeið (noun n.; °; -): race, course < skeiðhestr (noun m.)

kennings

gjálfrtömðum Gestils skeiðhestum
‘track-horses of Gestill’
   = SHIPS

Gestill’s track → SEA
the surge-tamed horses of the SEA → SHIPS
Close

skeið ‘track’

2. skeið (noun n.; °; -): race, course < skeiðhestr (noun m.)

kennings

gjálfrtömðum Gestils skeiðhestum
‘track-horses of Gestill’
   = SHIPS

Gestill’s track → SEA
the surge-tamed horses of the SEA → SHIPS
Close

hestum ‘horses’

hestr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): horse, stallion < skeiðhestr (noun m.)

kennings

gjálfrtömðum Gestils skeiðhestum
‘track-horses of Gestill’
   = SHIPS

Gestill’s track → SEA
the surge-tamed horses of the SEA → SHIPS
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eldr ‘The fire’

eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire

kennings

Eldr ægis
‘The fire of the ocean ’
   = GOLD

The fire of the ocean → GOLD

notes

[3, 4] eldr ægis ‘the fire of the ocean [GOLD]’: Ægir ‘ocean’ could also be taken as the personified Ægir, god of the sea, whose fire was ‘gold’ (see Note to Gísl Magnkv 16/8).

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ægis ‘of the ocean’

2. ægir (noun m.): ocean, sea

kennings

Eldr ægis
‘The fire of the ocean ’
   = GOLD

The fire of the ocean → GOLD

notes

[3, 4] eldr ægis ‘the fire of the ocean [GOLD]’: Ægir ‘ocean’ could also be taken as the personified Ægir, god of the sea, whose fire was ‘gold’ (see Note to Gísl Magnkv 16/8).

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nafnfrægjum ‘the renowned’

nafnfrægr (adj.): [renowned]

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Skein ‘shone’

skína (verb): shine

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skautvænum ‘the sail-fair’

skautvænn (adj.): [sail-fair]

notes

[5] skautvænum ‘sail-fair’: Hap. leg. See also st. 15/6 below.

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brim ‘of the surf’

brim (noun n.): surf < brimreið (noun f.)

[6] brim‑: so Flat, bryn‑ F

kennings

Óþrotlig sól brimreiðar
‘The unceasing sun of the surf-chariot ’
   = SHIELD

the surf-chariot → SHIP
The unceasing sun of the SHIP → SHIELD

notes

[6-7] sól brimreiðar ‘the sun of the surf-chariot [SHIP > SHIELD]’: For comparable kennings for ‘ship’ and ‘shield’, see Meissner 168, 221. Skj B and Skald emend to sól brimleiðar ‘the sun of the surf-road’ where ‘surf-road’ is ‘sea’ and its sun is ‘gold’. Brynreiðar ‘of the byrnie-chariot’ (so F) makes no sense in the context.

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brim ‘of the surf’

brim (noun n.): surf < brimreið (noun f.)

[6] brim‑: so Flat, bryn‑ F

kennings

Óþrotlig sól brimreiðar
‘The unceasing sun of the surf-chariot ’
   = SHIELD

the surf-chariot → SHIP
The unceasing sun of the SHIP → SHIELD

notes

[6-7] sól brimreiðar ‘the sun of the surf-chariot [SHIP > SHIELD]’: For comparable kennings for ‘ship’ and ‘shield’, see Meissner 168, 221. Skj B and Skald emend to sól brimleiðar ‘the sun of the surf-road’ where ‘surf-road’ is ‘sea’ and its sun is ‘gold’. Brynreiðar ‘of the byrnie-chariot’ (so F) makes no sense in the context.

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reiðar ‘chariot’

1. reið (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-ar): riding; chariot < brimreið (noun f.)

kennings

Óþrotlig sól brimreiðar
‘The unceasing sun of the surf-chariot ’
   = SHIELD

the surf-chariot → SHIP
The unceasing sun of the SHIP → SHIELD

notes

[6-7] sól brimreiðar ‘the sun of the surf-chariot [SHIP > SHIELD]’: For comparable kennings for ‘ship’ and ‘shield’, see Meissner 168, 221. Skj B and Skald emend to sól brimleiðar ‘the sun of the surf-road’ where ‘surf-road’ is ‘sea’ and its sun is ‘gold’. Brynreiðar ‘of the byrnie-chariot’ (so F) makes no sense in the context.

Close

reiðar ‘chariot’

1. reið (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-ar): riding; chariot < brimreið (noun f.)

kennings

Óþrotlig sól brimreiðar
‘The unceasing sun of the surf-chariot ’
   = SHIELD

the surf-chariot → SHIP
The unceasing sun of the SHIP → SHIELD

notes

[6-7] sól brimreiðar ‘the sun of the surf-chariot [SHIP > SHIELD]’: For comparable kennings for ‘ship’ and ‘shield’, see Meissner 168, 221. Skj B and Skald emend to sól brimleiðar ‘the sun of the surf-road’ where ‘surf-road’ is ‘sea’ and its sun is ‘gold’. Brynreiðar ‘of the byrnie-chariot’ (so F) makes no sense in the context.

Close

sól ‘sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun

kennings

Óþrotlig sól brimreiðar
‘The unceasing sun of the surf-chariot ’
   = SHIELD

the surf-chariot → SHIP
The unceasing sun of the SHIP → SHIELD

notes

[6-7] sól brimreiðar ‘the sun of the surf-chariot [SHIP > SHIELD]’: For comparable kennings for ‘ship’ and ‘shield’, see Meissner 168, 221. Skj B and Skald emend to sól brimleiðar ‘the sun of the surf-road’ where ‘surf-road’ is ‘sea’ and its sun is ‘gold’. Brynreiðar ‘of the byrnie-chariot’ (so F) makes no sense in the context.

Close

of ‘around’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

[7] of (‘um’): so Flat, af F

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sig ‘battle’

1. sig (noun n.): [battle] < sigdeilir (noun m.): battle-distributor

kennings

snotrum sigdeili.
‘the wise battle-distributor.’
   = WARRIOR

the wise battle-distributor. → WARRIOR
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deili ‘distributor’

deilir (noun m.): ruler, ordainer < sigdeilir (noun m.): battle-distributor

kennings

snotrum sigdeili.
‘the wise battle-distributor.’
   = WARRIOR

the wise battle-distributor. → WARRIOR
Close

snotrum ‘the wise’

snotr (adj.): wise

[8] snotrum: snotran Flat

kennings

snotrum sigdeili.
‘the wise battle-distributor.’
   = WARRIOR

the wise battle-distributor. → WARRIOR

notes

[8] snotrum (m. dat. sg.) ‘wise’: So F. Skj B and Skald adopt the Flat variant snotran (m. acc. sg.), which is unnecessary (of in the meaning ‘around’ can take both dat. and acc.).

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óþrotlig ‘The unceasing’

óþrotligr (adj.): unceasing, indefatigable

kennings

Óþrotlig sól brimreiðar
‘The unceasing sun of the surf-chariot ’
   = SHIELD

the surf-chariot → SHIP
The unceasing sun of the SHIP → SHIELD
Close

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