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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sturl Hrafn 20II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Sturla Þórðarson, Hrafnsmál 20’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 744-5.

Sturla ÞórðarsonHrafnsmál
1920

bryn ‘the byrnie’

1. brynja (noun f.; °-u (dat. brynnoni Gibb 38⁹); -ur): mailcoat < brynmót (noun n.)

[1] bryn‑: om. 8

kennings

brynmóti,
‘the byrnie-meeting, ’
   = BATTLE

the byrnie-meeting, → BATTLE
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móti ‘meeting’

1. mót (noun n.; °; -): meeting < brynmót (noun n.)

kennings

brynmóti,
‘the byrnie-meeting, ’
   = BATTLE

the byrnie-meeting, → BATTLE
Close

brún ‘The shining’

2. brúnn (adj.): brown, dark

[2] brún í rauðtúnum: brunn í rauð tunnum Flat

Close

í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

[2] brún í rauðtúnum: brunn í rauð tunnum Flat

Close

rauð ‘the red’

rauðr (adj.; °compar. -ari): red < rauðtún (noun n.)

[2] brún í rauðtúnum: brunn í rauð tunnum Flat;    rauð‑: rand‑ 8

kennings

rauðtúnum gunntjalda
‘the red enclosures of battle-tents ’
   = SHIELD-WALLS

battle-tents → SHIELDS
the red enclosures of SHIELDS → SHIELD-WALLS

notes

[2] rauðtúnum ‘the red enclosures’: Hap. leg.

Close

túnum ‘enclosures’

tún (noun n.; °-s; -): homefield, enclosure < rauðtún (noun n.)

[2] brún í rauðtúnum: brunn í rauð tunnum Flat

kennings

rauðtúnum gunntjalda
‘the red enclosures of battle-tents ’
   = SHIELD-WALLS

battle-tents → SHIELDS
the red enclosures of SHIELDS → SHIELD-WALLS

notes

[2] rauðtúnum ‘the red enclosures’: Hap. leg.

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ó ‘un’

ó- ((prefix)): un- < ódyggr (adj.): unfaithful

notes

[3-4] ódyggvar aldar ‘unfaithful men’: This must refer to the Scots opposing Hákon in the battle, but it is not quite clear why they are called ‘unfaithful’. It could be that Sturla alludes to Alexander’s postponement of the proposed peace negotations until the Norw. fleet was at a disadvantage because of the autumn storms (see st. 12 above).

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dyggvar ‘faithful’

dyggr (adj.; °dyggvan/dyggan; compar. -vari/-ari/-ri, superl. -vastr/-astr/-str): trustworthy < ódyggr (adj.): unfaithful

[3] ‑dyggvar: ‑dyggar 8

notes

[3-4] ódyggvar aldar ‘unfaithful men’: This must refer to the Scots opposing Hákon in the battle, but it is not quite clear why they are called ‘unfaithful’. It could be that Sturla alludes to Alexander’s postponement of the proposed peace negotations until the Norw. fleet was at a disadvantage because of the autumn storms (see st. 12 above).

Close

aldar ‘men’

ǫld (noun f.; °; aldir): people, age

[4] aldar: aldir 8, Flat

notes

[3-4] ódyggvar aldar ‘unfaithful men’: This must refer to the Scots opposing Hákon in the battle, but it is not quite clear why they are called ‘unfaithful’. It could be that Sturla alludes to Alexander’s postponement of the proposed peace negotations until the Norw. fleet was at a disadvantage because of the autumn storms (see st. 12 above).

Close

gunn ‘of battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunntjald (noun n.): battle-tent

kennings

rauðtúnum gunntjalda
‘the red enclosures of battle-tents ’
   = SHIELD-WALLS

battle-tents → SHIELDS
the red enclosures of SHIELDS → SHIELD-WALLS
Close

gunn ‘of battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunntjald (noun n.): battle-tent

kennings

rauðtúnum gunntjalda
‘the red enclosures of battle-tents ’
   = SHIELD-WALLS

battle-tents → SHIELDS
the red enclosures of SHIELDS → SHIELD-WALLS
Close

tjalda ‘tents’

tjald (noun n.; °-s; *-): tent, awning < gunntjald (noun n.): battle-tent

kennings

rauðtúnum gunntjalda
‘the red enclosures of battle-tents ’
   = SHIELD-WALLS

battle-tents → SHIELDS
the red enclosures of SHIELDS → SHIELD-WALLS
Close

tjalda ‘tents’

tjald (noun n.; °-s; *-): tent, awning < gunntjald (noun n.): battle-tent

kennings

rauðtúnum gunntjalda
‘the red enclosures of battle-tents ’
   = SHIELD-WALLS

battle-tents → SHIELDS
the red enclosures of SHIELDS → SHIELD-WALLS
Close

egg ‘of the edge’

1. egg (noun f.; °-jar, dat. -ju/-(var. [$1655$]: AM 75 c fol “75 c”, etc.)/-i([$1656$], cf. [$1654$] 243-244); -jar/-jur([$1657$] 16¹³n.)): edge, blade < egghríð (noun f.): edge-storm

kennings

egghríðar ský-Þundar
‘cloud-Þundar of the edge-storm’
   = WARRIORS

the edge-storm → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
Þundar of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
Close

egg ‘of the edge’

1. egg (noun f.; °-jar, dat. -ju/-(var. [$1655$]: AM 75 c fol “75 c”, etc.)/-i([$1656$], cf. [$1654$] 243-244); -jar/-jur([$1657$] 16¹³n.)): edge, blade < egghríð (noun f.): edge-storm

kennings

egghríðar ský-Þundar
‘cloud-Þundar of the edge-storm’
   = WARRIORS

the edge-storm → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
Þundar of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
Close

egg ‘of the edge’

1. egg (noun f.; °-jar, dat. -ju/-(var. [$1655$]: AM 75 c fol “75 c”, etc.)/-i([$1656$], cf. [$1654$] 243-244); -jar/-jur([$1657$] 16¹³n.)): edge, blade < egghríð (noun f.): edge-storm

kennings

egghríðar ský-Þundar
‘cloud-Þundar of the edge-storm’
   = WARRIORS

the edge-storm → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
Þundar of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
Close

hríðar ‘storm’

hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm < egghríð (noun f.): edge-storm

kennings

egghríðar ský-Þundar
‘cloud-Þundar of the edge-storm’
   = WARRIORS

the edge-storm → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
Þundar of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
Close

hríðar ‘storm’

hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm < egghríð (noun f.): edge-storm

kennings

egghríðar ský-Þundar
‘cloud-Þundar of the edge-storm’
   = WARRIORS

the edge-storm → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
Þundar of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
Close

hríðar ‘storm’

hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm < egghríð (noun f.): edge-storm

kennings

egghríðar ský-Þundar
‘cloud-Þundar of the edge-storm’
   = WARRIORS

the edge-storm → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
Þundar of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
Close

undan ‘away’

undan (adv.): away, away from

[6] undan: so 8, Flat, unda F

Close

víg ‘from the slaughter’

víg (noun n.; °-s; -): battle < víglundr (noun m.): slaughter-tree

kennings

víglundum
‘from the slaughter-trees ’
   = WARRIORS

from the slaughter-trees → WARRIORS
Close

lundum ‘trees’

1. lundr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -i/-; -ar): grove, tree < víglundr (noun m.): slaughter-tree

kennings

víglundum
‘from the slaughter-trees ’
   = WARRIORS

from the slaughter-trees → WARRIORS
Close

skyndu ‘hastened’

skynja (verb): learn, understand

[7] skyndu: skundu Flat

Close

ský ‘of the cloud’

ský (noun n.; °-s; -): cloud < skýþundr (noun m.)

kennings

egghríðar ský-Þundar
‘cloud-Þundar of the edge-storm’
   = WARRIORS

the edge-storm → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
Þundar of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
Close

ský ‘of the cloud’

ský (noun n.; °-s; -): cloud < skýþundr (noun m.)

kennings

egghríðar ský-Þundar
‘cloud-Þundar of the edge-storm’
   = WARRIORS

the edge-storm → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
Þundar of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
Close

Þundar ‘Þundar’

Þundr (noun m.): Þundr < skýþundr (noun m.)

[7] Þundar: ‘‑dundar’ Flat

kennings

egghríðar ský-Þundar
‘cloud-Þundar of the edge-storm’
   = WARRIORS

the edge-storm → BATTLE
the cloud of the BATTLE → SHIELD
Þundar of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
Close

skoskir ‘the Scottish’

1. skozkr (adj.): Scottish

notes

[8] skoskir ‘Scottish’: For the medial consonant cluster [sk], see ANG §303.2.

Close

alþroskins ‘of the very manly one’

alþroskinn (adj./verb p.p.): [very manly one]

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

As st. 19 above.

[1-4]: The present edn follows NN §1363. Skj B construes the helmingr as follows: Brún egg of beit at brynmóti í rauðtúnum gunntjalda ódyggrar aldar translated as Den brune sværdsæg bed i kampen i de slette mænds røde skjoldgærder ‘The brown sword-edge bit in battle in the despicable men’s red shield-fences’. That interpretation is not possible, because the expletive of (l. 3) is never separated from the verb (here: beit ‘bit’ (l. 1)).

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