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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sturl Hrafn 18II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Sturla Þórðarson, Hrafnsmál 18’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 743.

Sturla ÞórðarsonHrafnsmál
171819

hugprúðir ‘gallant’

hugprúðr (adj.): proud

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at ‘at’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[2] at: í Flat

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bryn ‘the byrnie’

1. brynja (noun f.; °-u (dat. brynnoni Gibb 38⁹); -ur): mailcoat < brynþing (noun n.): byrnie-assembly

kennings

brynþingi.
‘the byrnie-assembly. ’
   = BATTLE

the byrnie-assembly. → BATTLE
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þingi ‘assembly’

þing (noun n.; °-s; -): meeting, assembly < brynþing (noun n.): byrnie-assembly

kennings

brynþingi.
‘the byrnie-assembly. ’
   = BATTLE

the byrnie-assembly. → BATTLE
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veg ‘the honourable’

2. vegr (noun m.; °-s/-ar, dat. -): honour < vegstórr (adj.)

kennings

vegstórum baug-Nirði
‘the honourable ring-Njǫrðr ’
   = MAN = Perus

the honourable ring-Njǫrðr → MAN = Perus

notes

[3, 4] vegstórum baug-Nirði (m. dat. sg.) ‘the honourable ring-Njǫrðr <god> [MAN = Perus]’: So 8, Flat. Vegstórir baug-Nirðir (m. nom. pl.; so F), is ungrammatical because this kenning is not the subject of the cl. For this kenning, see also ÞTref Hrafn 1/7V (variant reading).

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stórum ‘’

stórr (adj.): large, great < vegstórr (adj.)

[3] ‑stórum: so 8, Flat, ‑stórir F

kennings

vegstórum baug-Nirði
‘the honourable ring-Njǫrðr ’
   = MAN = Perus

the honourable ring-Njǫrðr → MAN = Perus

notes

[3, 4] vegstórum baug-Nirði (m. dat. sg.) ‘the honourable ring-Njǫrðr <god> [MAN = Perus]’: So 8, Flat. Vegstórir baug-Nirðir (m. nom. pl.; so F), is ungrammatical because this kenning is not the subject of the cl. For this kenning, see also ÞTref Hrafn 1/7V (variant reading).

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baug ‘ring’

baugr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): ring < baugnjǫrðr (noun m.)

kennings

vegstórum baug-Nirði
‘the honourable ring-Njǫrðr ’
   = MAN = Perus

the honourable ring-Njǫrðr → MAN = Perus

notes

[3, 4] vegstórum baug-Nirði (m. dat. sg.) ‘the honourable ring-Njǫrðr <god> [MAN = Perus]’: So 8, Flat. Vegstórir baug-Nirðir (m. nom. pl.; so F), is ungrammatical because this kenning is not the subject of the cl. For this kenning, see also ÞTref Hrafn 1/7V (variant reading).

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Nirði ‘Njǫrðr’

Njǫrðr (noun m.): Njǫrðr < baugnjǫrðr (noun m.)

[4] Nirði: so 8, Flat, nirðir F

kennings

vegstórum baug-Nirði
‘the honourable ring-Njǫrðr ’
   = MAN = Perus

the honourable ring-Njǫrðr → MAN = Perus

notes

[3, 4] vegstórum baug-Nirði (m. dat. sg.) ‘the honourable ring-Njǫrðr <god> [MAN = Perus]’: So 8, Flat. Vegstórir baug-Nirðir (m. nom. pl.; so F), is ungrammatical because this kenning is not the subject of the cl. For this kenning, see also ÞTref Hrafn 1/7V (variant reading).

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Fylduz ‘stuffed themselves’

fylla (verb): fill

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fjör ‘with the lifeless’

fjǫr (noun n.): life < fjǫrseldr (adj.)

[5] fjör‑: so Flat, so Flat, fjöl‑ F, 8

kennings

fjörseldum auðstefni;
‘with the lifeless wealth-dispenser; ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

with the lifeless wealth-dispenser; → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[5] fjörseldum ‘lifeless’: Lit. ‘life-sold’. Hap. leg.

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seldum ‘’

4. selja (verb): hand over, sell, give < fjǫrseldr (adj.)

kennings

fjörseldum auðstefni;
‘with the lifeless wealth-dispenser; ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

with the lifeless wealth-dispenser; → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[5] fjörseldum ‘lifeless’: Lit. ‘life-sold’. Hap. leg.

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frammi ‘in the vanguard’

frammi (adv.): forth

notes

[6] frammi ‘in the vanguard’: I.e. ‘ahead [of the Norw. ranks]’ (so Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 103; NN §1362). Perus was killed among his own men by Andrés, who had penetrated the ranks of the Scots. Skj B takes the adv. with the second cl. and translates it as ‘in the future’ (i fremtiden). However, frammi is otherwise not attested with a temporal meaning (see Fritzner: frammi). The adv. is awkward and appears to be a metrical filler.

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val ‘The corpse’

1. valr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ir): corpse, the slain < valgammr (noun m.): corpse-buzzard

kennings

Valgammar
‘The corpse-buzzards ’
   = RAVENS/EAGLES

The corpse-buzzards → RAVENS/EAGLES
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gammar ‘buzzards’

gammr (noun m.): vulture < valgammr (noun m.): corpse-buzzard

kennings

Valgammar
‘The corpse-buzzards ’
   = RAVENS/EAGLES

The corpse-buzzards → RAVENS/EAGLES
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hring ‘the ring’

1. hringr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ar): ring; sword < hringþverrir (noun m.): [ring-diminisher]

kennings

hringþverris?
‘the ring-diminisher?’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the ring-diminisher? → GENEROUS MAN
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þverris ‘diminisher’

þverrir (noun m.): dminisher < hringþverrir (noun m.): [ring-diminisher]

kennings

hringþverris?
‘the ring-diminisher?’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the ring-diminisher? → GENEROUS MAN
Close

hefna ‘avenge’

hefna (verb): avenge

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auð ‘wealth’

1. auðr (noun m.; °-s/-ar, dat. -i/-): wealth < auðstefnir (noun m.): [wealth-dispenser]

kennings

fjörseldum auðstefni;
‘with the lifeless wealth-dispenser; ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

with the lifeless wealth-dispenser; → GENEROUS MAN
Close

stefni ‘dispenser’

stefnir (noun m.): commander < auðstefnir (noun m.): [wealth-dispenser]

kennings

fjörseldum auðstefni;
‘with the lifeless wealth-dispenser; ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

with the lifeless wealth-dispenser; → GENEROUS MAN
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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The next morning, Hákon and a contingent of Norwegians went ashore and were surprised by a large Scottish army. Hákon was sent back to the ships, and the remaining Norwegians engaged in battle. Many fell, but a Scottish knight, Perus (so Flat, 8; ‘Ferus’ F), was killed by Andrés Nikulásson.

This was the battle of Largs, fought on 2 October 1263. That battle ended in Norw. defeat and marked the end of Hákon’s activities in Scotland.

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