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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sturl Hrafn 12II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Sturla Þórðarson, Hrafnsmál 12’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 737.

Sturla ÞórðarsonHrafnsmál
111213

inn ‘The’

2. inn (art.): the

kennings

Inn böðfróði sigrmagnaðr bragna
‘The war-crafty victory-augmenter of men ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

The war-crafty victory-augmenter of men → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

böð ‘war’

bǫð (noun f.; °-s; -): battle < bǫðfróðr (adj.)

[1] böð‑: bók Flat

kennings

Inn böðfróði sigrmagnaðr bragna
‘The war-crafty victory-augmenter of men ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

The war-crafty victory-augmenter of men → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

fróði ‘crafty’

fróðr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): wise < bǫðfróðr (adj.)

kennings

Inn böðfróði sigrmagnaðr bragna
‘The war-crafty victory-augmenter of men ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

The war-crafty victory-augmenter of men → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

bragna ‘of men’

bragnar (noun m.): men, warriors

kennings

Inn böðfróði sigrmagnaðr bragna
‘The war-crafty victory-augmenter of men ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

The war-crafty victory-augmenter of men → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

sigr ‘victory’

sigr (noun m.; °sigrs/sigrar, dat. sigri; sigrar): victory < sigrmǫgnuðr (noun m.)

[2] sigr‑: sig‑ 304ˣ

kennings

Inn böðfróði sigrmagnaðr bragna
‘The war-crafty victory-augmenter of men ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

The war-crafty victory-augmenter of men → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

magnaðr ‘augmenter’

mǫgnuðr (noun m.): increaser < sigrmǫgnuðr (noun m.)

[2] ‑magnaðr: magna Flat

kennings

Inn böðfróði sigrmagnaðr bragna
‘The war-crafty victory-augmenter of men ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

The war-crafty victory-augmenter of men → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

austan ‘from the east’

austan (adv.): from the east

Close

optar ‘often’

opt (adv.): often

[4] optar: odda 304ˣ, optaz Flat

notes

[4] optar (comp.) ‘often’: Lit. ‘more often’.

Close

spjót ‘to the spear’

spjót (noun n.; °-s; -): spear < spjóthroptr (noun m.)

kennings

spjót-Hroptum
‘to the spear-Hroptar. ’
   = WARRIORS

to the spear-Hroptar. → WARRIORS

notes

[4] spjót-Hroptum ‘to the spear-Hroptar <= Óðinns> [WARRIORS]’: So NN §109. The emendation is conjectural. The reading of F, spjótskoptar ‘spear-forelocks’ makes no sense in the context. Flat has ‘sko᷎ptum’, i.e. sköptum ‘shafts’ which could be construed as a dat. instr. ‘with the spear-shafts’. However, the internal rhyme (aðalhending) requires the stressed syllable -opt- (not -öpt-). Hroptr is a heiti for ‘Óðinn’. Odda spjótbroddum ‘with the spear-points of the points’ (so 304ˣ) cannot be construed in any meaningful way.

Close

Hroptum ‘Hroptar’

Hroptr (noun m.): [Hroptr, Hroptar] < spjóthroptr (noun m.)

[4] Hroptum: skoptum F, broddum 304ˣ, ‘sko᷎ptum’ Flat

kennings

spjót-Hroptum
‘to the spear-Hroptar. ’
   = WARRIORS

to the spear-Hroptar. → WARRIORS

notes

[4] spjót-Hroptum ‘to the spear-Hroptar <= Óðinns> [WARRIORS]’: So NN §109. The emendation is conjectural. The reading of F, spjótskoptar ‘spear-forelocks’ makes no sense in the context. Flat has ‘sko᷎ptum’, i.e. sköptum ‘shafts’ which could be construed as a dat. instr. ‘with the spear-shafts’. However, the internal rhyme (aðalhending) requires the stressed syllable -opt- (not -öpt-). Hroptr is a heiti for ‘Óðinn’. Odda spjótbroddum ‘with the spear-points of the points’ (so 304ˣ) cannot be construed in any meaningful way.

Close

Þorðut ‘did not dare’

þora (verb): dare

Close

þrek ‘the powerful’

þrekr (noun m.): powerful < þrekstœrðr (adj.)

kennings

þrekstærðan útverja bjórs blikrýri.
‘flash-diminisher of the beer of fishing-stations’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the beer of fishing-stations. → SEA
the flash of the SEA → GOLD
the powerful diminisher of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[5] þrekstærðan ‘powerful’: Lit. ‘power-increased’. Þrekstirðan ‘power-firm’ (so Flat) is also possible.

Close

stærðan ‘’

stœra (verb): increase, strengthen < þrekstœrðr (adj.)

[5] ‑stærðan: ‘stordann’ 304ˣ, stirðan Flat

kennings

þrekstærðan útverja bjórs blikrýri.
‘flash-diminisher of the beer of fishing-stations’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the beer of fishing-stations. → SEA
the flash of the SEA → GOLD
the powerful diminisher of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[5] þrekstærðan ‘powerful’: Lit. ‘power-increased’. Þrekstirðan ‘power-firm’ (so Flat) is also possible.

Close

bjórs ‘of the beer’

1. bjórr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -): beer

kennings

þrekstærðan útverja bjórs blikrýri.
‘flash-diminisher of the beer of fishing-stations’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the beer of fishing-stations. → SEA
the flash of the SEA → GOLD
the powerful diminisher of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

bjórs ‘of the beer’

1. bjórr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -): beer

kennings

þrekstærðan útverja bjórs blikrýri.
‘flash-diminisher of the beer of fishing-stations’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the beer of fishing-stations. → SEA
the flash of the SEA → GOLD
the powerful diminisher of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

bjórs ‘of the beer’

1. bjórr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -): beer

kennings

þrekstærðan útverja bjórs blikrýri.
‘flash-diminisher of the beer of fishing-stations’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the beer of fishing-stations. → SEA
the flash of the SEA → GOLD
the powerful diminisher of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

blik ‘of the flash’

blik (noun n.): gleam < blikrýrir (noun m.)

kennings

þrekstærðan útverja bjórs blikrýri.
‘flash-diminisher of the beer of fishing-stations’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the beer of fishing-stations. → SEA
the flash of the SEA → GOLD
the powerful diminisher of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[7] blikrýri ‘flash-diminisher’: Blikstýri ‘flash-controller’ (so Flat) is an equally good reading.

Close

blik ‘of the flash’

blik (noun n.): gleam < blikrýrir (noun m.)

kennings

þrekstærðan útverja bjórs blikrýri.
‘flash-diminisher of the beer of fishing-stations’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the beer of fishing-stations. → SEA
the flash of the SEA → GOLD
the powerful diminisher of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[7] blikrýri ‘flash-diminisher’: Blikstýri ‘flash-controller’ (so Flat) is an equally good reading.

Close

rýri ‘diminisher’

rýrir (noun m.): diminsher, destroyer < blikrýrir (noun m.)

[7] ‑rýri: stýri Flat

kennings

þrekstærðan útverja bjórs blikrýri.
‘flash-diminisher of the beer of fishing-stations’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the beer of fishing-stations. → SEA
the flash of the SEA → GOLD
the powerful diminisher of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[7] blikrýri ‘flash-diminisher’: Blikstýri ‘flash-controller’ (so Flat) is an equally good reading.

Close

útverja ‘of fishing-stations’

útver (noun n.): [fishing-stations]

kennings

þrekstærðan útverja bjórs blikrýri.
‘flash-diminisher of the beer of fishing-stations’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the beer of fishing-stations. → SEA
the flash of the SEA → GOLD
the powerful diminisher of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

útverja ‘of fishing-stations’

útver (noun n.): [fishing-stations]

kennings

þrekstærðan útverja bjórs blikrýri.
‘flash-diminisher of the beer of fishing-stations’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the beer of fishing-stations. → SEA
the flash of the SEA → GOLD
the powerful diminisher of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

útverja ‘of fishing-stations’

útver (noun n.): [fishing-stations]

kennings

þrekstærðan útverja bjórs blikrýri.
‘flash-diminisher of the beer of fishing-stations’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the beer of fishing-stations. → SEA
the flash of the SEA → GOLD
the powerful diminisher of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Hákon wanted to reach an agreement with the Scottish king Alexander (III), and sent Kolbeinn, one of his retainers, to the Scottish court as an envoy. Hákon suggested that the two kings should meet with their armies and settle their dispute either by peaceful means or by battle. Alexander was slow to respond.

Alexander III (r. 1241-86) stalled the negotiations with the Norwegians intentionally in anticipation of the autumn storms which would put the Norw. fleet at a disadvantage.

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