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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sturl Hákkv 24II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Sturla Þórðarson, Hákonarkviða 24’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 717.

Sturla ÞórðarsonHákonarkviða
232425

þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

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á ‘on’

3. á (prep.): on, at

[2] á: í 81a

notes

[2] á Gjallarbrú ‘on Gjallarbrú’: Bridge across Gjǫll, the river separating the world of the living from the world of the dead. See Note to st. 21/3 above and SnE 2005, 47. This reference to the pagan realm of Hel is rather curious here, especially since the poem must have been recited before Skúli’s grandson, Magnús Hákonarson. The st. does not seem to imply that Skúli was going to rest peacefully in heaven after his death since he was imagined to be on his way across Gjallarbrú.

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Gjallar ‘Gjallar’

gjǫll (noun f.): clamour < Gjallarbrú (noun f.)

notes

[2] á Gjallarbrú ‘on Gjallarbrú’: Bridge across Gjǫll, the river separating the world of the living from the world of the dead. See Note to st. 21/3 above and SnE 2005, 47. This reference to the pagan realm of Hel is rather curious here, especially since the poem must have been recited before Skúli’s grandson, Magnús Hákonarson. The st. does not seem to imply that Skúli was going to rest peacefully in heaven after his death since he was imagined to be on his way across Gjallarbrú.

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brú ‘brú’

brú (noun f.; °-ar; brúar/brýr/brúr(Hák81 557ˆ)): bridge, causeway < Gjallarbrú (noun f.)

[2] ‑brú: om. 8

notes

[2] á Gjallarbrú ‘on Gjallarbrú’: Bridge across Gjǫll, the river separating the world of the living from the world of the dead. See Note to st. 21/3 above and SnE 2005, 47. This reference to the pagan realm of Hel is rather curious here, especially since the poem must have been recited before Skúli’s grandson, Magnús Hákonarson. The st. does not seem to imply that Skúli was going to rest peacefully in heaven after his death since he was imagined to be on his way across Gjallarbrú.

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ræsis ‘of the ruler’

ræsir (noun m.): ruler

notes

[3] mágr ræsis ‘the in-law of the ruler’: Skúli Bárðarson. Hákon was married to Skúli’s daughter, Margrét.

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mágr ‘the in-law’

mágr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): brother-, father-, or son-in-law

notes

[3] mágr ræsis ‘the in-law of the ruler’: Skúli Bárðarson. Hákon was married to Skúli’s daughter, Margrét.

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fyr ‘because of’

fyr (prep.): for, over, because of, etc.

notes

[4-5] fyr riðusóttum bliks bauga ‘because of the fevers of the gleam of shield-bosses [SWORD]’: Refers to Skúli’s death by the sword. Riðusótt lit. ‘quivering illness’ denotes attacks of fever, shivering, malaria, and it is not a base-word proper in a kenning; rather, Skúli died from ‘an illness of the sword’.

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riðusóttum ‘the fevers’

riðusótt (noun f.): [fevers]

notes

[4-5] fyr riðusóttum bliks bauga ‘because of the fevers of the gleam of shield-bosses [SWORD]’: Refers to Skúli’s death by the sword. Riðusótt lit. ‘quivering illness’ denotes attacks of fever, shivering, malaria, and it is not a base-word proper in a kenning; rather, Skúli died from ‘an illness of the sword’.

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bauga ‘of shield-bosses’

baugr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): ring

kennings

bliks bauga,
‘of the gleam of shield-bosses ’
   = SWORD

the gleam of shield-bosses → SWORD

notes

[4-5] fyr riðusóttum bliks bauga ‘because of the fevers of the gleam of shield-bosses [SWORD]’: Refers to Skúli’s death by the sword. Riðusótt lit. ‘quivering illness’ denotes attacks of fever, shivering, malaria, and it is not a base-word proper in a kenning; rather, Skúli died from ‘an illness of the sword’.

Close

bliks ‘of the gleam’

blik (noun n.): gleam

[5] bliks: ‘bligs’ 81a

kennings

bliks bauga,
‘of the gleam of shield-bosses ’
   = SWORD

the gleam of shield-bosses → SWORD

notes

[4-5] fyr riðusóttum bliks bauga ‘because of the fevers of the gleam of shield-bosses [SWORD]’: Refers to Skúli’s death by the sword. Riðusótt lit. ‘quivering illness’ denotes attacks of fever, shivering, malaria, and it is not a base-word proper in a kenning; rather, Skúli died from ‘an illness of the sword’.

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boðar ‘the offerers’

boði (noun m.; °-a; -ar): messenger, breaker

kennings

boðar elda vers
‘the offerers of the fires of the ocean ’
   = GENEROUS MEN

the fires of the ocean → GOLD
the offerers of the GOLD → GENEROUS MEN
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fellu ‘fell’

falla (verb): fall

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elda ‘of the fires’

eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire

kennings

boðar elda vers
‘the offerers of the fires of the ocean ’
   = GENEROUS MEN

the fires of the ocean → GOLD
the offerers of the GOLD → GENEROUS MEN

notes

[7] elda vers ‘of the fires of the ocean [GOLD]’: As Kock (NN §2288) points out, this might be construed as vers elda ‘of the verse of swords’ i.e. ‘of battle’, although that interpretion (favoured by Kock) is somewhat strained. Eldr ‘fire’ usually occurs as a base-word in kennings for ‘sword’ rather than as a heiti for ‘sword’ (see LP: eldr and eldr 7).

Close

elda ‘of the fires’

eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire

kennings

boðar elda vers
‘the offerers of the fires of the ocean ’
   = GENEROUS MEN

the fires of the ocean → GOLD
the offerers of the GOLD → GENEROUS MEN

notes

[7] elda vers ‘of the fires of the ocean [GOLD]’: As Kock (NN §2288) points out, this might be construed as vers elda ‘of the verse of swords’ i.e. ‘of battle’, although that interpretion (favoured by Kock) is somewhat strained. Eldr ‘fire’ usually occurs as a base-word in kennings for ‘sword’ rather than as a heiti for ‘sword’ (see LP: eldr and eldr 7).

Close

vers ‘of the ocean’

1. ver (noun n.; °-s; dat. -jum/-um): sea

kennings

boðar elda vers
‘the offerers of the fires of the ocean ’
   = GENEROUS MEN

the fires of the ocean → GOLD
the offerers of the GOLD → GENEROUS MEN

notes

[7] elda vers ‘of the fires of the ocean [GOLD]’: As Kock (NN §2288) points out, this might be construed as vers elda ‘of the verse of swords’ i.e. ‘of battle’, although that interpretion (favoured by Kock) is somewhat strained. Eldr ‘fire’ usually occurs as a base-word in kennings for ‘sword’ rather than as a heiti for ‘sword’ (see LP: eldr and eldr 7).

Close

vers ‘of the ocean’

1. ver (noun n.; °-s; dat. -jum/-um): sea

kennings

boðar elda vers
‘the offerers of the fires of the ocean ’
   = GENEROUS MEN

the fires of the ocean → GOLD
the offerers of the GOLD → GENEROUS MEN

notes

[7] elda vers ‘of the fires of the ocean [GOLD]’: As Kock (NN §2288) points out, this might be construed as vers elda ‘of the verse of swords’ i.e. ‘of battle’, although that interpretion (favoured by Kock) is somewhat strained. Eldr ‘fire’ usually occurs as a base-word in kennings for ‘sword’ rather than as a heiti for ‘sword’ (see LP: eldr and eldr 7).

Close

afarmenni ‘the proud man’

afarmenni (noun n.): [proud man]

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