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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sturl Hákkv 22II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Sturla Þórðarson, Hákonarkviða 22’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 715-16.

Sturla ÞórðarsonHákonarkviða
212223

Þar sighljóð
syngja knáttu
harða hvell
hvössum munni
í herför
of höfuð manna
Högna mans
hlýrna dísir

Þar knáttu {dísir {hlýrna {mans Högna}}} syngja harða hvell sighljóð hvössum munni of höfuð manna í herför.

There {the dísir <minor female deities> {of the sun and moon {of Hǫgni’s <legendary hero’s> girl}}} [= Hildr (hildr ‘battle’) > SHIELDS > VALKYRIES] sang very shrill battle-songs with a sharp mouth around the heads of men in the army-campaign.

Mss: E(178r), F(111va), 42ˣ(165v), 81a(110ra), 8(57v), Flat(179ra) (Hák)

Readings: [1] Þar: om. Flat;    sig‑: sigr‑ F, 81a, 8, Flat, liggr 42ˣ    [2] syngja: syngva F, Flat;    knáttu: náðu 81a, knátti 8    [3] harða: harðla 42ˣ, Flat    [4] hvössum: ‘ho᷎rsum’ 8    [6] of: um 81a, om. Flat;    höfuð: höfuðs F, 42ˣ, 8, Flat

Editions: Skj AII, 114-15, Skj BII, 123, Skald II, 66; E 1916, 607, F 1871, 518, Hák 1910-86, 658, Hák 1977-82, 130, Flat 1860-8, III, 156.

Context: As the battle drew to a close, Skúli’s men tried to seek refuge in the church, but so many attempted to enter at the same time that they could not get through the door. They fell so densely that three or four lay dead on top of one another.

Notes: [1] sighljóð ‘battle-songs’: So E. Sigrhljóð ‘victory-songs’ (so F, 81a, 8, Flat) is also possible. — [6] of höfuð manna ‘around the heads of men’: The cpd höfuðsmanna (gen. pl.) ‘of leaders’ (so F, 42ˣ, 8, Flat) is ungrammatical because the prep. of ‘around’ does not take the gen. — [7] mans Högna ‘of Hǫgni’s <legendary hero’s> girl [= Hildr (hildr ‘battle’)]’: Hildr was the daughter of Hǫgni, and she figured prominently in the so-called Hjaðningavíg ‘battle of the Hjaðningar’ (see SnE 1998, I, 72-3). Hildr was also the name of a valkyrie, and ON hildr means ‘battle’. — [8] hlýrna ‘of the sun and moon’: The pl. of hlýrn ‘sun, moon’ refers to both celestial bodies.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  3. Flat 1860-8 = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and C. R. Unger, eds. 1860-8. Flateyjarbók. En samling af norske konge-sagaer med indskudte mindre fortællinger om begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt annaler. 3 vols. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  4. F 1871 = Unger, C. R., ed. 1871. Fríssbók: Codex Frisianus. En samling af norske konge-sagaer. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  5. E 1916 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1916. Eirspennill: AM 47 fol. Nóregs konunga sǫgur: Magnús góði – Hákon gamli. Kristiania (Oslo): Den norske historiske kildeskriftskommission.
  6. SnE 1998 = Snorri Sturluson. 1998. Edda: Skáldskaparmál. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2 vols. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  7. Hák 1977-82 = Mundt, Marina, ed. 1977. Hákonar saga Hákonarsonar etter Sth. 8 fol., AM 325VIII, 4° og AM 304, 4°. Oslo: Forlagsentralen. Suppl. by James E. Knirk, Rettelser til Hákonar saga Hákonarsonar etter Sth. 8 fol., AM 325VIII, 4° og AM 304, 4°. Norrøne tekster 2. Oslo: Norsk historisk kjeldeskrift-institutt, 1982.
  8. Hák 1910-86 = Kjær, Albert and Ludvig Holm-Olsen, eds. 1910-86. Det Arnamagnæanske haandskrift 81a fol. (Skálholtsbók yngsta) indeholdende Sverris saga, Bǫglungasǫgur, Hákonar saga Hákonarsonar. Oslo: Den norske historiske kildeskriftkommission and Kjeldeskriftfondet.
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