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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sturl Hákkv 20II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Sturla Þórðarson, Hákonarkviða 20’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 714.

Sturla ÞórðarsonHákonarkviða
192021

blóð ‘The blood’

blóð (noun n.; °-s): blood < blóðlaukr (noun m.): °red onion

kennings

Blóðlaukr,
‘The blood-mast, ’
   = SWORD

The blood-mast, → SWORD

notes

[1] blóðlaukr ‘the blood-mast [SWORD]’: So NN §1354 (= LP: laukr 2), which preserves the nautical imagery. LP: 1. laukr gives the base-word as ‘leek’ (‘blood-leek’, i.e. ‘sword’) here, which is also possible.

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laukr ‘mast’

laukr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): leek, mast < blóðlaukr (noun m.): °red onion

[1] ‑laukr: so F, 81a, ‘laúgr’ E, ‑ugr Flat

kennings

Blóðlaukr,
‘The blood-mast, ’
   = SWORD

The blood-mast, → SWORD

notes

[1] blóðlaukr ‘the blood-mast [SWORD]’: So NN §1354 (= LP: laukr 2), which preserves the nautical imagery. LP: 1. laukr gives the base-word as ‘leek’ (‘blood-leek’, i.e. ‘sword’) here, which is also possible.

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berum ‘the bare’

2. berr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): bare

kennings

berum knerri áss örvar,
‘the bare ship of the god of the arrow, ’
   = SHIELD

the god of the arrow, → Ullr
the bare ship of ULLR → SHIELD

notes

[2-3] berum knerri áss örvar ‘the bare ship of the god of the arrow [= Ullr > SHIELD]’: The god Ullr was known for his hunting attributes (see SnE 1998, I, 19). His ship was a shield (see SnE 1998, I, 67 and n.). The rationale for this kenning type is not clear. See Note to ÞjóðA Frag 3/2. See also Sturl Hryn 15/6.

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knerri ‘ship’

knerri (noun m.): [ship]

kennings

berum knerri áss örvar,
‘the bare ship of the god of the arrow, ’
   = SHIELD

the god of the arrow, → Ullr
the bare ship of ULLR → SHIELD

notes

[2-3] berum knerri áss örvar ‘the bare ship of the god of the arrow [= Ullr > SHIELD]’: The god Ullr was known for his hunting attributes (see SnE 1998, I, 19). His ship was a shield (see SnE 1998, I, 67 and n.). The rationale for this kenning type is not clear. See Note to ÞjóðA Frag 3/2. See also Sturl Hryn 15/6.

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örvar ‘of the arrow’

ǫr (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; ǫrvar/ǫrar): arrow

[3] örvar: örva F

kennings

berum knerri áss örvar,
‘the bare ship of the god of the arrow, ’
   = SHIELD

the god of the arrow, → Ullr
the bare ship of ULLR → SHIELD

notes

[2-3] berum knerri áss örvar ‘the bare ship of the god of the arrow [= Ullr > SHIELD]’: The god Ullr was known for his hunting attributes (see SnE 1998, I, 19). His ship was a shield (see SnE 1998, I, 67 and n.). The rationale for this kenning type is not clear. See Note to ÞjóðA Frag 3/2. See also Sturl Hryn 15/6.

Close

örvar ‘of the arrow’

ǫr (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; ǫrvar/ǫrar): arrow

[3] örvar: örva F

kennings

berum knerri áss örvar,
‘the bare ship of the god of the arrow, ’
   = SHIELD

the god of the arrow, → Ullr
the bare ship of ULLR → SHIELD

notes

[2-3] berum knerri áss örvar ‘the bare ship of the god of the arrow [= Ullr > SHIELD]’: The god Ullr was known for his hunting attributes (see SnE 1998, I, 19). His ship was a shield (see SnE 1998, I, 67 and n.). The rationale for this kenning type is not clear. See Note to ÞjóðA Frag 3/2. See also Sturl Hryn 15/6.

Close

áss ‘of the god’

2. Áss (noun m.; °áss, dat. ási/ás; ásar): god

[3] áss: ás all

kennings

berum knerri áss örvar,
‘the bare ship of the god of the arrow, ’
   = SHIELD

the god of the arrow, → Ullr
the bare ship of ULLR → SHIELD

notes

[2-3] berum knerri áss örvar ‘the bare ship of the god of the arrow [= Ullr > SHIELD]’: The god Ullr was known for his hunting attributes (see SnE 1998, I, 19). His ship was a shield (see SnE 1998, I, 67 and n.). The rationale for this kenning type is not clear. See Note to ÞjóðA Frag 3/2. See also Sturl Hryn 15/6.

Close

áss ‘of the god’

2. Áss (noun m.; °áss, dat. ási/ás; ásar): god

[3] áss: ás all

kennings

berum knerri áss örvar,
‘the bare ship of the god of the arrow, ’
   = SHIELD

the god of the arrow, → Ullr
the bare ship of ULLR → SHIELD

notes

[2-3] berum knerri áss örvar ‘the bare ship of the god of the arrow [= Ullr > SHIELD]’: The god Ullr was known for his hunting attributes (see SnE 1998, I, 19). His ship was a shield (see SnE 1998, I, 67 and n.). The rationale for this kenning type is not clear. See Note to ÞjóðA Frag 3/2. See also Sturl Hryn 15/6.

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gandreið ‘the riding troll-women’

gandreið (noun f.): riding-troll-woman

kennings

gandreið grænna skjalda
‘the riding troll-women of green shields ’
   = AXES

the riding troll-women of green shields → AXES

notes

[5] gandreið ‘the riding troll-women’: This base-word is difficult. Gandr was a staff used by troll-women and witches in ceremonies involving witchcraft, and gandreið usually refers to troll-women riding through the air on such staffs. The kenning ‘riding troll-women of green shields’ is a regular kenning for ‘axes’ (see Meissner 148). However, gandr can also mean ‘wolf’, and LP: gandreið glosses the kenning gandreið grænna skjalda as sværdenes bevegelse ‘the motion of the swords’, in which the second element of the cpd gandreið is derived from reiða ‘swing’ and gandr grænna skjalda ‘the wolf of green shields’ is taken to mean ‘sword’ (so also NN §1355). Skj B gives the translation sværdenes regn ‘the swords’ rain’, which is not transparent.

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grænna ‘of green’

2. grœnn (adj.; °superl. grǿnastr/grǿnstr): green

kennings

gandreið grænna skjalda
‘the riding troll-women of green shields ’
   = AXES

the riding troll-women of green shields → AXES

notes

[6] grænna skjalda ‘of green shields’: For shields painted green, see Falk 1914, 147.

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skjalda ‘shields’

skjǫldr (noun m.; °skjaldar/skildar, dat. skildi; skildir, acc. skjǫldu): shield

kennings

gandreið grænna skjalda
‘the riding troll-women of green shields ’
   = AXES

the riding troll-women of green shields → AXES

notes

[6] grænna skjalda ‘of green shields’: For shields painted green, see Falk 1914, 147.

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Svölnis ‘of Svǫlnir’

Svǫlnir (noun m.): Svǫlnir

kennings

vegg Svölnis
‘the wall of Svǫlnir ’
   = SHIELD

the wall of Svǫlnir → SHIELD
Close

vegg ‘the wall’

1. veggr (noun m.; °-jar/-s(Páll²A 257³³), dat. -/-i(kun defin.); -ir): wall

[7] vegg: egg F

kennings

vegg Svölnis
‘the wall of Svǫlnir ’
   = SHIELD

the wall of Svǫlnir → SHIELD
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The Birkibeinar sundered byrnies and shields, and most of Skúli’s men fell (see st. 19 above).

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