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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Steinn Óldr 5II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Steinn Herdísarson, Óláfsdrápa 5’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 371-2.

Steinn HerdísarsonÓláfsdrápa
456

Austr helt Engla þrýstir
ótvínn liði sínu
— stóran braut of stýri
straum — sækonungr Rauma.
Glaðr tók herr, þás heðra
hringlestir kom vestan,
allr við ǫflgum stilli.
Óláfr borinn sólu.

{Ótvínn þrýstir Engla}, {sækonungr Rauma}, helt liði sínu austr; stóran straum braut of stýri. Allr herr tók glaðr við ǫflgum stilli, þás {hringlestir} kom vestan heðra. …Óláfr borinn sólu.

{The unwavering oppressor of the English} [= Óláfr], {the sea-king of the Raumar} [NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr], steered his force to the east; the heavy current broke around the helm. All inhabitants received the mighty ruler warmly when {the ring-damager} [GENEROUS RULER] arrived here from the west. …Óláfr born [beneath] the sun.

Mss: Mork(19v) (Mork); Flat(204rb) (Flat); H(77v), Hr(55ra) (H-Hr)

Readings: [1] þrýstir: þreystir Flat    [2] ótvínn: ‘otvín’ Mork, ‘ot vín’ Flat, ‘otvíns’ H, ‘ottvíns’ Hr;    liði sínu: skipum sínum Flat    [4] sæ‑: ‘sor’ Hr    [6] hring‑: hyr‑ Flat

Editions: Skj AI, 410, Skj BI, 380, Skald I, 189, NN §§806, 889-90, 1936, 1991; Mork 1867, 121, Mork 1928-32, 282, Andersson and Gade 2000, 275, 482 (MH); Flat 1860-8, III, 398 (MH); Fms 6, 428 (HSig ch. 123).

Context: As st. 4 above.

Notes: [All]: Óláfr returned to Norway from Orkney in 1067. — [2] ótvínn ‘undivided, unwavering’: For a discussion of this word, see Nj 1875-8, II, 290-1, 374-5. See also Note to ÞjóðA Magnfl 18/2 and Þfisk Lv 2/2. — [3] braut ‘broke’: The verb is used impersonally with stóran straum ‘the heavy current’ (ll. 3, 4) as the object. — [4] sækonungr ‘the sea-king’: ‘sea’ can technically either go with straum (straumsæ ‘sea-flow’; otherwise unattested) or be taken as the first element of the cpd sækonungr ‘sea-king’ (a king who rules at sea; also attested in Þul Sækonunga 5/8III and Hyndl 17/4). Because the word is presented as a cpd in H, the latter interpretation seems preferable (so Skald). Skj B takes ‘sea’ with the first cl. (austr sæ ‘east of the sea’) and emends konungr (m. nom. sg.) ‘king’ to konungs (m. gen. sg.): braut stóran straum of stýri konungs Rauma ‘the heavy current broke around the helm of the king of the Raumar’, which creates an unprecedented tripartite l. and goes against the ms. witnesses (see NN §806, 890). — [5] heðra ‘here’: Skj B again construes a tripartite l. with heðra as part of the first cl. (allt folk heðra ‘all people here’; see NN §890). — [8]: For this l. of the split refrain (klofastef), see Note to st. 1/8 above. — [8] Óláfr: The [o:] in the first syllable of this name is secured by internal rhyme (Ól- : -ól-; see also sts 12/8 and 14/8), and Óláfr rather than the more archaic láfr is used passim in this poem, unless otherwise noted (see Note to st. 7/6 below). It is clear that the quality of the nasalised was very unstable at this time (see ANG §116).

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. Fms = Sveinbjörn Egilsson et al., eds. 1825-37. Fornmanna sögur eptir gömlum handritum útgefnar að tilhlutun hins norræna fornfræða fèlags. 12 vols. Copenhagen: Popp.
  4. Nj 1875-89 = Konráð Gíslason and Eiríkur Jónsson. 1875-89. Njála: Udgivet efter gamle håndskrifter. Íslendingasögur udgivne efter gamle haandskrifter af Det Kongelige Nordiske Oldskrift-selskab 4. Copenhagen: Thiele.
  5. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  6. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  7. Andersson, Theodore M. and Kari Ellen Gade, trans. 2000. Morkinskinna: The Earliest Icelandic Chronicle of the Norwegian Kings (1030-1157). Islandica 51. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
  8. ANG = Noreen, Adolf. 1923. Altnordische Grammatik I: Altisländische und altnorwegische Grammatik (Laut- und Flexionslehre) unter Berücksichtigung des Urnordischen. 4th edn. Halle: Niemeyer. 1st edn. 1884. 5th unrev. edn. 1970. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
  9. Flat 1860-8 = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and C. R. Unger, eds. 1860-8. Flateyjarbók. En samling af norske konge-sagaer med indskudte mindre fortællinger om begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt annaler. 3 vols. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  10. Mork 1928-32 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1928-32. Morkinskinna. SUGNL 53. Copenhagen: Jørgensen.
  11. Mork 1867 = Unger, C. R., ed. 1867. Morkinskinna: Pergamentsbog fra første halvdel af det trettende aarhundrede. Indeholdende en af de ældste optegnelser af norske kongesagaer. Oslo: Bentzen.
  12. Internal references
  13. Not published: do not cite (HSigII)
  14. Not published: do not cite (MHII)
  15. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Sækonunga heiti 5’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 685.
  16. Not published: do not cite ()
  17. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Þorgils fiskimaðr, Lausavísur 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 334-5.
  18. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Magnússflokkr 18’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 85-6.
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